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and Lexicology
Word Formation Ⅱ

영어영문학과 임대동
4.1 Affixation
4.1.1 Prefixation
4.1.2 Suffixation
4.2 Compounding
4.2.1 Characteristics of Compounds
4.2.2 Formation of Compounds
4.3 Conversion
4.4 Blending
4.1 Affixation
4.1 Affixation

Defined as the formation of words by adding word-forming or

derivational affixes to stems.
According to the positions which affixes occupy in words, affixation falls
into two subclasses: Prefixation and suffixation

Prefixation is the formation of new words by adding prefixes to stems.
Prefixes modify word’s meaning. Prefixes can be classify into nine

① Negative prefixes: a-, dis-, in-(il-, ir-, im-), non-, un-

EX)amoral(nonmoral), disroyal(not royal), injustice(without justice), illegal(not
legal), irresistible(not to be resisted), immature(not mature), non-smoker(not
a smoker), unwilling(not willing).

② Reversative prefixes: de-, dis-, un-

EX)decentralize(give greater powers for self-government), disallow(refuse to
allow), unwrap(open)

③ Pejorative(경멸적인) prefixes: mal-, mis-, pseudo-

EX) maltreat(treat badly), mistrust(not to trust), pseudo-friend(false friend)

④ prefixes of degree or size: arch-, extra-, hyper-, macro-, micro-, mini-,

out-, over-, sub-, super-, sur-, ultra-, under-
EX)extra-strong(very strong), microcomputer(very small computer),
overweight(weighing more than normal), underdeveloped(less developed)

⑤ Prefixes of orientation(지향) and attitude: anti-, contra-, counter-, pro-

EX) anti-government, contraflow(the arrangement for the traffic to go on
both directions on one side of the road), pro-student(on the side of the

⑥ Locative prefixes: extra-, fore-, inter-, intra-, tele-, trans-

EX) extraordinary, forehead, inter-city(between cities), intra-party(within the
party), telecommunication(communication by telephone, radio, etc)

⑦ Prefixes of time and order: ex-, fore-, post-, pre-, re-

EX) ex-professor(former professor), foretell(tell before happening), post-
election(after election), pre-prepared(prepared beforehand), reconsider(consider

⑧ Number prefixes: bi-, multi-,(poly-), semi-(hemi-) tri-, uni-(mono-)

EX) bilingual(concerning two languages), multi-purpose(more than on purpose),
semi-naked(half naked)

⑨ Miscellaneous (여러 가지의) prefixes: auto-, neo-, pan, vice-

EX) autobiography, neo-Nazi(new Nazi), pan-European(the whole of Europe), vice-
The formation of new words by adding suffixes to stems.
Suffixes have only a small semantic role, their primary function being to
change the grammatical function of stems.
We can group suffixes on a grammatical basis into noun suffixes, verb
suffixes, adjective suffixes, etc.

1.Noun suffixes
1)Denominal nouns
a. Concrete(사실적인)
The suffixes of this group are added to noun bases to produce concrete
nouns(구상명사): -eer, -er, -ess, -let
EX) engineer, hostess, booklet, ganster

b. Abstract(추상적인)
The following suffixes come at the end of noun stems to form abstract
nouns(추상명사): -age, -dom, -ery, -hood, -ing, -ism, -ship
EX) wastage, officialdom(officials as a group), slavery, adulthood,
terrorism, friendship

2)Deverbal nouns(동사에서 유래된 명사)

a. The following suffixes combine with verb stems to create largely
nouns denoting people: -ant, -ee, -ent, -er(-or)
EX) assistant, employee, respondent(person who responds)
b. Suffixes of this group added to verb stems to produce largely abstract
nouns. Denoting action, result, process, state, etc. : -age, -al, -ance, -ation,
-ence, -ing, -ment
EX) carriage, survival, attendance, protection, statement

3)De-adjective nouns
-ity, -ness
EX) popularity, happiness

4)Noun and adjective suffixes

A small number of suffixes, when added to stems related to human beings
or nationality names, form words that can be used both as nouns and
adjectives: -ese, -an, -ist
EX) Chinese, Australian, socialist
2. Adjective suffixes
1)Denominal suffixes: -ed, -ful, -ish, less, -like, -ly, -y
EX) simple-minded, successful, childish, dreamlike, priceless

2)Deverbal suffixes: -able(-ible), -ive(-ative)

EX) arguable, active

3. Adverb suffixes: -ly, -ward, -wise

EX) naturally, clockwise(in the direction in which the hands of the clock

4. Verb suffixes: -ate, -en, -( i )fy, -ize(-ise)

EX) darken, beautify, modernize
4.2 Compounding
4.2 Compounding
The formation of new words by joining two or more stems.
‘Lexical unit consisting of more than one stem and functioning both
grammatically and semantically as a single word’

4.2.1Characteristics of Compounds
Compounds differ from free phrases in the following three as-peets.

1. Phonetic features(음성학적 특징)

In compounds the word stress usually occurs on the first element
whereas in noun phrases the second element is generally stressed if there
is only one stress.
4.2.1Characteristics of Compounds
Compounds Free phrases
a `fat head a fat `head
a `hot house a hot `house
a `black horse a black `horse
a `green room a green `room
4.2.1Characteristics of Compounds

2. Semantic features(의미적인 특징)

Compounds are different from free phrases in semantic unity. Every
compound should express a single idea just as one word.

EX) a green hand: ‘inexperienced person’ , not a hand that is green in color
Red meat: ‘beef’ or ‘lamb’, rather than any meat that is red in color

3. Grammatical features
A compound tends to play a single grammatical role in a sentence.
EX) Bad-mouth(verb) – ‘he bad-mouthed me”
4.2.2Formation of Compounds

Compounding can take place within any of the word classes.

EX) Prepositions-Without, throughout

Conjunctions-however, moreover
Pronouns-oneself, somebody

But the most productive ones are nouns and adjectives followed by
verbs to a much lesser extent. Most compounds consist of only two
stems but are formed on a rich variety of patterns and the internal
grammatical relationships within the words are considerably complex.
4.2.2Formation of Compounds
1. Noun compounds
(1) n + n: Moon walk, end product
(2) n + v: Toothache, frostbite
(3) v + n: Crybaby, tell-tale
(4) a + n: Deadline, blueprint
(5) n + v-ing: Brainwashing, air-conditioning
(6) v-ing + n: Cleaning lady, wading bird
(7) n + v-er: Stockholder, crime reporter
(8) adv + v: Outbreak, downfall
(9) V + adv: Sit-in, have-not
(10) v-ing + adv: Going-over, carryings-on
(11) adv + v-ing: Up-bringing
4.2.2Formation of Compounds
2. Adjective compounds
(1) n + v-ing: Law-abiding, record-breaking
(2) a + v-ing: easy-going, high-sounding
(3) n + a: War-weary, thread-bare
(4) a + a: Deaf-mute, bitter-sweet
(5) n + v-ed: Custom-built, town-bred
(6) a (adv) + v-ed: Far-fetched, hard-won
(7) n (a) + n-ed: Short-sighted, lion-hearted
(8) num + n: Ten-story, four-leg
(9) num + n-ed: One-eyed, two-legged
(10) adv + v-ing: Forth-coming, out-going
(11) v-ed + adv: Worn-out, washed-up
4.2.2Formation of Compounds
3. Verb compounds
Verb compounds are not as common as the other two classes.
The limited number of verbs are created either through conversion or
Through conversion As shown by these
Nickname (n) to nick name examples, back-
Honeymoon (n) to honeymoon formed verb
Moonlight (n) to moonlight
compounds are
First-name (n) to first-name
formed mainly by
Through backformation
dropping the suffixes:
Lip-reading to lip-read
-er, -ing, -ion, etc.
Bottle-feeding to bottle-feed
Chain-smoker to chain-smoke
Mass production to mass-produce
4.3 Conversion
4.3 Conversion
The formation of new words by converting words of one class to another
class. This is a method of turning words of one part of speech to those of
a different part of speech.

EX) for word ‘round ’

[A] He was knocked out in the first round.
[B] Round the number off to the nearest tenth.
[C] The neighbours gathered round our barbecue.
[D] The moon was bright and round.
[F] People came from all the country round.

In each sentence round is used as a different part of speech: noun, verb,

preposition, adjective, and adverb.
4.3 Conversion
1. Conversion to noun

1)Verb to noun
Almost all monomorphemic(단일형태소로 이루어진) verbs can be used as

EX) Desire, love, swim, buy, paper, divide, drive, and so much more

And also many simple nouns converted from verbs can be used with
have, take, make, give, etc.

EX) have a look(smoke, swim, try, wash), take a walk(ride, glance, rest,
shower), give a cry(grant, start, laugh), make a move(guess, offer)
4.3 Conversion

2)Adjective to noun
It is not unusual to have nouns converted from adjectives. Some are
completely converted(Full conversion), others are only partially
converted.(partial conversion)

(1)Words fully converted (Full conversion)

A noun fully converted from an adjective has all the characteristics of
EX) white, native, finals, liberal
4.3 Conversion

(2)Word partially converted(Partial conversion)

Nouns partially converted from adjectives do no possess all the
qualities a noun does. They must be used together with definite articles.

EX) the poor, the rich, the young, the wounded, the poorer

Words of this class generally refer to a group of the kind

EX) the young=young people, the wounded=wounded soldiers.

But such nouns can refer to a single person as well.

4.3 Conversion

3) Miscellaneous conversion
This covers nouns converted from conjunctions, modals, finite verbs,
prepositions, etc.

EX) with, without, also-ran, never-was, downs, must, isms

4.3 Conversion

2.Conversion to verbs
As it often the case, a noun can be converted to a verb without any

1)Noun to verb
Verbs converted from nouns are semantically related to the original
nouns in a variety of ways.

EX)bottle, butter, feather, finger, window and many more.

4.3 Conversion

2)Adjective to verb
Conversion of adjectives into verbs is not as productive as that of nouns.
The verbs thus converted are semantically simple.

EX) [1] He walked carefully so as not to wet his shoes.

wet=used as a transitive verb as ‘He walked carefully so as not to
make his shoes wet.’
[2] The photograph yellowed with age
yellow=an intransitive use meaning ‘become yellow ’
‘the photograph became yellow with age’
4.3 Conversion

3)Miscellaneous conversion
In some cases, conversion is accompanied by certain changes which
affect pronunciation or spelling or stress distribution. The most
common changes are:

(1)Voiceless to voiced consonant

Noun Verb
House /-s/ House /-z/
Use /-s/ Use /-z/
Mouth /-θ/ Mouth /-ð/
Shelf /-f/ Shelve /-v/
Sheath /-θ/ Sheathe /-ð/
4.3 Conversion

(2) Initial to end stress

This stress shift occurs usually in two syllable words.

Used as a noun=the stress fall on the first syllable

EX) ‘Conduct(n) , ‘permit(n)

② Used as a verb=the stress moves onto the second syllable

EX) Con’duct(v), per’mit(v)
4.4 Blending
4.4 Blending

The formation of new words by combining parts of two words or a word

plus a part of another word.

EX) Flush= fl(flash)+ush(blush)

Smog= sm(smoke)+og(fog)

We can blends fall into four major groups.

4.4 Blending
1. Head + tail
Autocide from(automobile + suicide)
Motel from (motor + hotel)
Slurb from (slum + suburb)
Cremains from (cremate + remains)
Chunnel from (channel + tunnel)

2. Head + head
Comsat from ( communications + satellite)
Telex from (teleprinter +exchange)
Amerind from (American + Indian)
Sitcom from (situation + comedy)
Fortran from (formula + transator)
4.4 Blending
3. Head + word
Medicare from (medical + care)
Eurasia from (Europe + Asia)
Telequiz from (telephone + quiz)
Autocamp from (automobile + camp)

4. Word + tail
lunarnaut from (lunar + astronaut)
Bookmobile from (book + automobile)
Workfare from (work + welfare)
Tourmobile from (tour + automobile)
4.4 Blending

Blends are mostly used in writing related to science and technology, and
to newspapers and magazines. Though many of them have already
achieved currency in English, blends are still considered by serious-minded
people as a slang. Therefore it will be better for you to not use these
words too often, especially in formal writing.
Thank you