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Solid State Magnetocaloric Air

Conditioning System
Problems with current refrigeration issues

Refrigerant Poisoning:
• Refrigerant poisoning happens when someone is exposed to the
chemicals used to cool appliances.
• Refrigerant contains chemicals called fluorinated hydrocarbons
(often referred to by a common brand name, “Freon”). Freon is a
tasteless ,When it is inhaled, it can cut off vital oxygen to your
cells and lungs.

• Limited exposure — for example, a spill on your skin or breathing

near an open container — is only mildly harmful. However, you
should try to avoid all contact with these types of chemicals. Even
small amounts can cause symptoms.
It can be fatal. Regularly inhaling high concentrations of Freon
can cause issues such as:

breathing problems
fluid buildup in the lungs
organ damage
sudden death
• Ammonia
Ammonia, in liquid or gas form, can present hazards to workers’
skin, eyes, nose, and lungs.
•Global warming:
Conventional refrigeration systems use ozone depleting and
global warming gases leading to undesirable environmental

• Magnetic refrigeration is a cooling technology

based on the magnetocaloric effect.

• This technique can be used to attain

extremely low temperatures, as well as the
ranges used in common refrigerators
• The effect was first observed by a German
physicist Warburg (1881).

• Subsequently by French physicist P. Weiss and

Swiss physicist A. Piccard in 1917.

• As early as 1881 Warburg discovered the magnetocaloric effect in


• The magnetocaloric effect is a magneto-

thermodynamic phenomenon in which a temperature
change of a suitable material is caused by exposing
the material to a changing magnetic field

• Materials which exhibit magnetocaloric effect

• First order magnetic transition (FOMT) materials

Spin Motion
• The derivative of the magnetization is proportional to the
magnetic entropy change and the very abrupt phase

• FOMT material systems contain either very expensive

elements (e.g. Gd), toxic elements (e.g. As) or have very Transition State
complicated and costly synthesis routes (e.g. La-Fe-Si-H)
• Second order magnetic transition (SOMT) materials.

• SOMT materials in general have broader transitions

with lower values of the MCE.

• Most prototype magnetic refrigerators use pure

gadolinium (Gd) as refrigerant, which is a SOMT
Magnetic Refrigeration Process

• Four stages.

A. Magnetization of caloric material

B. Fluid flow to Sink
C. Demagnetization
D. Fluid flow to Source
System Design
Another Prototype

Solid rod regenerators

• High-conductivity rods composed of
copper, brass, or aluminum are
Thermodynamic Analysis Of Process

• The cycle is performed as a refrigeration cycle that is analogous to the

Carnot refrigeration cycle.
• It can be described at a starting point whereby the chosen working
substance is introduced into a magnetic field.
1. Adiabatic magnetization
2. Isomagnetic enthalpic transfer
3. Adiabatic demagnetization
4. Isomagnetic entropic transfer
Adiabatic magnetization

• The increasing external magnetic field (+H)

causes the magnetic dipoles of the atoms to
align decreasing its entropy.

• The decrease in entropy is offset by increase in

temperature of surrounding ,thereby no net
change in entropy.
Isomagnetic enthalpic transfer

• This added heat can then be removed (-Q) by a fluid or gas—

gaseous or liquid helium, for example.

• The magnetic field is held constant to prevent the dipoles from

reabsorbing the heat.

• Once sufficiently cooled, the magnetocaloric substance and the

coolant are separated.
Adiabatic demagnetization

• The substance is returned to another adiabatic

(insulated) condition so the total entropy
remains constant.

• Energy (and entropy) transfers from thermal

entropy to magnetic entropy, measuring the
disorder of the magnetic dipoles.
Isomagnetic entropic transfer

• The magnetic field is held constant to prevent the material from


• The material is placed in thermal contact with the environment to

be refrigerated.

• The working material is cooler than the refrigerated environment

(by design), heat energy migrates into the working material (+Q).
Similarity between Vapor Compression and
Magnetic compression cycle
Benefits Of Magnetic Cooling

• More efficient than conventional technologies, achieving

maximum productivity with minimum wasted effort.

• Non-hazardous , There are no big risks by using the magnetic


• Low vibration and noise which it Help reduce noise pollution

• Re-usable and recyclable parts and component which it also helps

also to reduce environment pollution
• Magnetic refrigeration uses no ozone-
depleting gases and is safer to use than
conventional air conditioners, which are
prone to leaks.

• Refrigerants with polluting emissions

could account for up to 10%-20% of
global warming by year 2050.

• Widespread adoption of this technology

could reduce energy consumption for
building air conditioning--providing
consumers with cost savings on energy