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HOST FACTORS

INTRINSIK FAKTOR
EKSTRINSIK FAKTOR
Factors influencing disease
transmission
Agent
Environment
• Infectivity
• Pathogenicity • Weather
• Virulence • Housing
• Immunogenicity • Geography
• Antigenic stability • Occupational setting
• Survival • Air quality
Host • Food

• Age
• Sex
• Genotype
• Behaviour
• Nutritional status
• Health status
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RESERVOIRS
SPILLOVER
DEAD-END
hosts

?
GENE POOL

Ecological process : interplay


among reservoir, spillover,
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Intrinsic Factor
(non-changeable in the individual)
The main intrinsic in the host which can influence the frequency of
occurrence of infection and disease :
1. Species
Bali cattle → Jembrana disease
Poultry → NCD. Marek, Gumboro
Distumper → Dog, Cat
FMD → equine, cattle, sheep, goat. Pig
 The range of susceptible host species varies substantially between
infectious agents.
 Mycobacterium bovis can infect many different animal species

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5. Physiologic states
- Lactation non lactation
- growth rate

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6. Host disease genetics
Bovine tuberculosis:
 Host disease genetics and phenotypes
 Describing genetic variation underlying resistance
heritability and estimated breeding values
Genome-wide markers
Genomic selection
 Observed variability in host response on exposure to
infectious disease
 in part, due to host genetic variation in resistance
B.taurus cattle more susceptible than B.indicus

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Transmission Routes of Infectious Agents

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Host States in Relation to Pathogen Transmission

Pathogen
Exposure

Susceptible Infected Resistant

= the rate or probability of movement from


one state to another
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Herd Immunity
 Immunity of a population, group, or
community against an infectious disease
when a large proportion of individuals are
immune either through vaccinations or prior
infection.

Aged immunity
 Coccidiosis almost attack against young chickens

Sex immunity
 Brucellosis almost attack against female as a
definitive host
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Risk factors
 Vectorborne diseases - Development of underpinning
knowledge and tools for early warning, detection &
monitoring and novel control strategies

 Zoonoses and antimicrobial resistance, excluding


microbial safety of products - Development of
underpinning knowledge and tools for early warning,
detection & monitoring and novel control strategies

 Major infectious diseases affecting production


Development of underpinning knowledge and tools
for early warning, detection & monitoring and novel
control strategies, including genetics of resistance

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Risk factors

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See you next week

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