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Chapter 1

The Changing Role


of Managerial
Accounting in a
Dynamic Business
Environment

McGraw-Hill/Irwin Copyright © 2009 by The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved.
Learning
Objective
1

McGraw-Hill/Irwin Copyright © 2009 by The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved.
Define Managerial Accounting

Managerial accounting is the process of


 Identifying
 Measuring
 Analyzing
 Interpreting
 Communicating information

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Learning
Objective
2

McGraw-Hill/Irwin Copyright © 2009 by The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved.
Managing Resources, Activities,
and People
An organization . . .
Directing

Acquires Resources Decision


Organized set Making
of activities

Controlling Planning
Hires People

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Learning
Objective
3

McGraw-Hill/Irwin Copyright © 2009 by The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved.
How Managerial Accounting Adds
Value to the Organization
• Providing information for decision making and
planning.
• Assisting managers in directing and controlling
activities.
• Motivating managers and other employees
towards organization’s goals.
• Measuring performance of activities, managers,
and other employees.
• Assessing the organization’s competitive position.

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Learning
Objective
4

McGraw-Hill/Irwin Copyright © 2009 by The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved.
Managerial versus Financial
Accounting
Managerial Accounting Financial Accounting
Users of Information Managers, within the organization. Interested parties, outside the organization.
Regulation Not required and unregulated, since it is intended Required and must conform to generally accepted
only for management. accounting principles. Regulated by the Financial
Accounting Standards Board, and, to a lesser
degree, the Securities and Exchange
Commission.
Source of Data The organization's basic accounting system, plus Almost exclusively drawn from the organization's
various other sources, such as rates of effective basic accounting system, which accumulates
products manufactured, physical quantities of financial information.
material and labor used in production, occupancy
rates in hotels and hospitals, and average take-off
delays in airlines.
Nature of Reports and Reports often focus on subunits within the Reports focus on the enterprise in its entirety.
Procedures organization, such as departments, divisions, Based almost exclusively on historical transaction
geographical regions, or product lines. Based on a data.
combination of historical data, estimates, and
projections of future events.
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Learning
Objective
5

McGraw-Hill/Irwin Copyright © 2009 by The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved.
Line and Staff Positions
• A line position is directly • A staff position supports
involved in achieving the and assists line positions.
basic objectives of an – Example: A cost
organization. accountant in the
manufacturing plant.
– Example: A production
supervisor in a
manufacturing plant.

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Learning
Objective
6

McGraw-Hill/Irwin Copyright © 2009 by The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved.
Controller
The chief managerial and financial accountant
responsibility for:
– Supervising accounting personnel
– Preparation of information and reports, managerial
and financial
– Analysis of accounting information
– Planning and decision making

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Treasurer
Responsible for raising capital and safeguarding the
organization’s assets.
– Supervises relationships with financial institutions.
– Work with investors and potential
investors.
– Manages investments.
– Establishes credit policies.
– Manages insurance coverage

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Internal Auditor
Responsible for reviewing accounting procedures,
records, and reports in both the controller’s and the
treasurer’s area of responsibility.
– Expresses an opinion to top
management regarding the
effectiveness of the
organizations accounting
system.

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Learning
Objective
7

McGraw-Hill/Irwin Copyright © 2009 by The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved.
Major Themes in Managerial
Accounting
Behavioral Costs and
Issues Benefits

Information Evolution and


and Incentives Adaptation

Managerial
Accounting
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Evolution and Adaptation in
Managerial Accounting
E-Business Product Life Cycles
Service vs. Time-Based
Manufacturing Firms Competition

Emergence of New
Change Information and
Communication
Industries Technology

Global Competition Just-in-Time Inventory

Focus on the Customer Total Quality Management

Cross-Functional Teams Continuous Improvement


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Cost Management Systems
Objectives
 Measure the cost of resources
consumed.
 Identify and eliminate non-
value-added costs.
 Determine efficiency and
effectiveness of major
activities. Cost
 Identify and evaluate new Management
activities that can improve System
performance.

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Learning
Objective
8

McGraw-Hill/Irwin Copyright © 2009 by The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved.
Strategic Cost Management and
the Value Chain
Product
Design
Production
Research
and
Development Marketing

Securing raw
materials and Distribution
other resources

Customer
Start Service

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Learning
Objective
9

McGraw-Hill/Irwin Copyright © 2009 by The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved.
Ethical Climate of Business
The corporate scandals experienced over the last
few years have shown us that unethical behavior
in business is wrong in a moral sense and can be
disastrous in the economy. In addition to
Sarbanes-Oxley, there will likely be more reforms
in corporate governance and accounting.

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Learning
Objective
10

McGraw-Hill/Irwin Copyright © 2009 by The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved.
Managerial Accounting as a
Career
Professional Organizations
Institute of Management Accountants (IMA)

Develops
Publishes Administers
Standards of
Management Certified
Ethical
Accounting Management
Conduct for
and research Accountant
Management
studies. program
Accountants

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Professional Ethics

Competence
Confidentiality
Integrity
Credibility

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End of Chapter 1

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