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◦ Destruction of material by
◦ Chemical, electro-chemical or metallurgical interaction between the environment and
◦ Dissolution of material in the environment
◦ Includes the destruction of metals in all types of atmospheres, liquids and gases at any
◦ It is a slow process but it is persistent in character.
◦ No metal which will withstand corrosive attack in all environments.
◦ Any metal will corrode under certain conditions and then, will get destroyed or
rendered useless.
◦ Mechanical Strength is reduced and the section ultimately fails if extensive corrosion
◦ When corrosion is localized, severe pitting may occur and hole will be produced.
◦ Almost all corrosion involves electrochemical action of some kind
◦ The loss of electron by the metal atoms – Oxidation
◦ Gain of electrons by other atoms – Reduction
METALS WANT TO CORRODE – they want to exist as oxide compounds because oxides
contain less energy and are more stable!!
Requirements for Corrosion:
Ionic – Current Path


Electronic Path
Factors Influencing Corrosion
◦ Difference in electrical potential of dissimilar metals when coupled together and
immersed in an electrolyte
◦ This potential is due to the chemical nature or anodic and cathodic regions
◦ Factors influencing corrosion rate
◦ Agitation that bring fresh corroding solution into contact with metals
◦ Residual stress
◦ Voids, inclusion and dissolved gases
◦ Concentration and temperature of corrodent
◦ Existence of stray electric currents
◦ Surface films
◦ Presence of impurities (e.g. dust, dirt, foreign matter, etc.)
◦ Gases absorbed on the metal surface
Types of Corrosion
◦ Direct corrosion
◦ Electrochemical and galvanic corrosion
◦ Liquid-metal corrosion
◦ Corrosion of a metal by gas
◦ Special corrosion types
◦ Uniform Corrosion ◦ Fretting corrosion
◦ Atmospheric Corrosion ◦ Erosion Corrosion
◦ Pitting Corrosion ◦ Cavitation Corrosion
◦ Intergranular Corrosion ◦ Crevice Corrosion
◦ Stress Corrosion ◦ Microbiological corrosion
◦ Corrosion Fatigue
Direct Corrosion
◦ An ordinary chemical attack by a corrosive solution on a metal
◦ Acid pickling used to clean steel surface
𝐹𝑒 + 2𝐻 + → 𝐹𝑒 ++ + 𝐻2 𝑔𝑎𝑠
◦ The direct corroded surface has an etched appearance and may look clean as
through it were grounded or it may look darkened by the appearance of the non-
metallic compounds which are formed.
◦ The rate of direct corrosion tends to be relatively high as compared with that of other
corrosion mechanism.
◦ Direct corrosion may be controlled by suitable addition (of an inhibiting chemical)to
the corroding medium to cause to form a protective layer of the corrosion reaction
product to alter the process by which corrosion occurs.
Electrochemical Corrosion
◦ The most serious corrosion takes the form of chemical reaction in conjunction with
◦ Factors governing electrochemical corrosion are:
◦ Existing potential difference - between a metal and its surrounding medium
◦ Presence of an electrolyte – plain water, salt water or acids, alkaline solutions
◦ Completion of a closed circuit – connection between anode and cathode
◦ Maintenance of current through the circuit.
Liquid-Metal Corrosion
◦ Electrochemical and galvanic corrosion take place at or near room temperature, the
liquid-metal corrosion occurs at high temperature
◦ A serious damage by liquid-metal attack occurs in heat exchangers carrying liquid-
metal coolants.
◦ As the solid container approaches the equilibrium with the liquid-metal in the hot zone
of the heat exchangers, a portion of the solid goes into the solution in the liquid.
◦ As the liquid moves to a cooler part of the heat exchanger, the solid tends to deposit
on the walls of the exchanger tubes.
◦ This way the hot zone of the heat exchanger is continuously corroded and the cold
zone becomes plugged with the deposited corrosion products.
Corrosion of metals by a gas
◦ The gas molecules are absorbed on the surface of metal and they react with the
surface atoms of metal
◦ Most metals react with air, oxygen or other gases to produce corrosion products.
Special Corrosion types
◦ Uniform Corrosion ◦ Microbiological corrosion
◦ Atmospheric Corrosion
◦ Pitting Corrosion
◦ Intergranular Corrosion
◦ Stress Corrosion
◦ Corrosion Fatigue
◦ Fretting corrosion
◦ Erosion Corrosion
◦ Cavitation Corrosion
◦ Crevice Corrosion
Special type Corrosion
◦ Uniform Corrosion
◦ When the entire surface if metal is attacked to the same degree
◦ One type of uniform corrosion may be the uniform dezincification that proceeds through a
brass water pipe
◦ Dezincification not only means removing of zinc, it is now applied to any condition of corrosion
in which a specific element is removed from an alloy.
◦ Dezincification is associated with galvanic action
◦ Mostly, the uniform corrosion is unusual in metals, since they are homogeneous that the surface
will be evenly corroded.
◦ Atmospheric Corrosion
◦ Is very frequent on ferrous materials, humid atmosphere is mainly responsible for atmospheric
◦ Atmospheric corrosion follows oxygen absorption mechanism
Special type Corrosion
◦ Pitting Corrosion
◦ It’s a non-uniform corrosion results from electrochemical corrosion
◦ Inhomogeneities in metal due to inclusion, coring and distorted zones which setup difference of
potential at localized spots to cause deep isolated hole or pits.
◦ Pitting of the metal occurs when there is a break in the protecting layer.
◦ Crevice Corrosion
◦ Implies attack at the junction of two metals exposed to a corrosive environment
◦ It occur in crevices that retain (corrosive) solutions and take longer to dry out
Special type Corrosion
◦ Erosion Corrosion
◦ Mechanical abrasion – on the metal surface caused by the impingement of entrained air
bubbles, abrasive particles suspended in the liquid or turbulent flow of liquids
◦ Chemical corrosion – is caused by the breakdown of the protective film at the spot of
impingement, which contributes, to the formation of differential cells at such areas and causes
localized pitting at the anodic points of the cells
◦ Type of corrosion is encountered in
◦ Pump mechanism
◦ Turbine
◦ Condenser tubes and piping
◦ Tubes carrying sea water
Methods to Control Corrosion

◦ There are five methods to control corrosion

◦ material selection
◦ coatings
◦ changing the environment
◦ changing the potential
◦ design
How to avoid (or control) Corrosion?
◦ Material Selection! Remember – environment key. Look at potential pH diagrams!!!
◦ Eliminate any one of the requirements for corrosion!
◦ Galvanic - Avoid using dissimilar metals.
◦ Or close together as possible
◦ Or electrically isolate one from the other
◦ Pitting/Crevice: Watch for stagnate water/ electrolyte.
◦ Use gaskets
◦ Use good welding practices
◦ Intergranular – watch grain size, environment, temperature, etc.. Careful with Stainless
Steels and AL.
How to avoid (or control) Corrosion?
◦ Consider organic coating (paint, ceramic, chrome, etc.) – DANGER IF IT GETS
◦ OR BETTER YET, consider cathodic protection:
◦ such as zinc (or galvanized) plating on steel
◦ Mg sacrificial anode on steel boat hull
◦ Impressed current, etc..
DESIGN for Corrosion
DESIGN for Corrosion