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WATER SUPPLY

ENGINEERING (CE143)
Instructor: Engr. Timothy Daniel Felicia
MODULE 3
 DEVELOPMENTAL
COMPONENTS: WATER
RESOURCES
 SURFACE WATER
 Measurement of Rainfall
 Computation of Average
Annual Rainfall over a Basin
 Runoff
 Computation of Runoff
 Estimation of maximum rate
of runoff or flood discharge

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1.
SURFACE WATER
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MEASUREMENT OF RAINFALL
Rainfall is the source of all water used for irrigation
purposes and, therefore, a knowledge of its amount,
character, seasons or periods and the effects produced by it
is of prime importance to whose duty is to design, carry out,
improve, or maintain irrigation works.
The amount of precipitation is expressed as the depth in
centimetres (or inches) which falls on a level surface, and it
measured by rain-gauge.
1. Non-Automatic Rain Gauge
This is also known as non-recording rain-gauge.
Symon’s Rain-gauge is the instrument prescribed for
use at all Government rain-gauge stations throughout
india
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MEASUREMENT OF RAINFALL
2. Automatic Rain Gauge
These are integrating type recording rain-gauges and
are of three types:
a. Weighing Bucket Rain-Gauge
b. Tipping Bucket Rain-Gauge
c. Float Type Rain-Gauge

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WEIGHING BUCKET RAIN-GAUGE

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TIPPING BUCKET RAIN-GAUGE

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COMPUTATION OF AVERAGE RAINFALL
OVER BASIN
In order to compute the average rainfall over a basin or
catchment area, the rainfall is measured at a number of
rain-gauge stations suitably located in the area.
Table 2.1 gives roughly the number of gauges required in
catchment of various sizes.
Number of rain-gauge
Areas in square km
stations
0 to 80 1
80 to 160 2
160 to 320 3
320 to 560 4
560 to 800 5
800 to 1200 6
Table 2.1 8
COMPUTATION OF AVERAGE RAINFALL
OVER BASIN
If a basin or catchment area contains more than one rain-
gauge station, the computation of average precipitation of
rainfall may be done by the following methods:
1. Arithmetic Average Method
2. Thiessen Polygon Method
3. Isohyetal Method

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ARITHMETIC AVERAGE METHOD
If the rainfall is uniformly distributed in its areal pattern,
the simplest method of estimating average rainfall is to
compute the arithmetic average of the recorded rainfall
values at various stations. Thus, if P1, P2, P3, …., Pn etc., are
the precipitation or rainfall values measured at n gauge
stations, we have:
P +P + ……+Pn σ P
Pave = 1 2 n = n

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ARITHMETIC AVERAGE METHOD

Station No. Precipitation (mm) Average


Precipitation
1 12.6
2 18.8
3 14.8 Pave = 72.8/5
4 10.4 = 14.6 mm
5 16.2
Sum ΣP = 72.8 mm
Sample Arithmetic Average Method

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THIESSEN POLYGON METHOD
The arithmetic average method is the most approximate
method since rainfall varies in intensity and duration from
place to place. Hence, the rainfall recorded by each rain-
gauge station should be weighted according to the area, it is
assumed to represent.
Thiessen polygon method is a more common method of
weighing the rain-gauge observations according to the
area. Thiessen polygon method is also called weighted
mean method and is more accurate than the arithmetic
average method.

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THIESSEN POLYGON METHOD

A1P1 + A2P2 + ……+ AnPn σ (AxP)


Pave = = σA
A1 + A2 + ……+ An
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THIESSEN POLYGON METHOD
Rain-gauge Area of Thiessen Precipitation
Polygon (A) AxP
Station (P)
A 45 sq. km 30.8 mm 1386
B 38 sq. km 34.6 mm 1315
C 30 sq. km 32.6 mm 978
D 40 sq. km 24.6 mm 984
Sum 153 sq. km 4663
Pave = (ΣAXP)/(ΣA) = 4663/153 = 30.5 mm
Sample Thiessen Polygon Method

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ISOHYETAL METHOD

However, this may not always be valid, especially when


the rainfall is controlled by topography or results from
intense convection. The Isohyetal method is the most
elaborate and accurate in such conditions.
An Isohyet is a line, on a rainfall map of the basin, joining
places of equal rainfall readings. An isohyet map showing
contours of equal rainfall presents a more accurate
picture of the rainfall distribution over the basins.

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ISOHYETAL METHOD

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ISOHYETAL METHOD
Procedure:
1. From the rainfall values recorded at various rain-
gauge stations, prepare the isohyetal map for the
storm causing the rainfall over the area.
2. Measure the areas enclosed between successive
isohyets with the help of a planimeter.
3. Multiply each of these areas by the average rainfall
between the isohyets.
4. The average rainfall is then computed from the
expression:
σAx
P1+P2
2
Pave = σA
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ISOHYETAL METHOD
Area between Average Product
Isohyet (cm) Isohyets (A) (sq. Precipitation Ax((P1+P2)/2)
km) 1/2(P1+P2)
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22 9.5 209
10
10
80 10.5 840
11
11
105 11.5 1208
12
12
98 12.5 1225
13
13
78 13.5 1053
14
14
16 14.5 232
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Sum 399 4767
Pave = {ΣA x [(P1+P2)/2]}/(ΣA) = 4767/399 = 11.92 mm
Sample Isohyetal Method
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SAMPLE PROBLEM NO. 1
The given figure shows
the map of Cauvery
basin with rainfall
observations in cm of
water marked at
various rain-gauge
stations. Compute the
average rainfall by
arithmetic average
method.

Answer: Average
Rainfall = 70.3 cm
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RUN-OFF
The run-off of a catchment area in any specified period is
the total quantity of water draining into a stream or into
reservoir in t period. This can be expressed as (i)
centimetres of water over catchment, or (ii) the total
water in cubic-meters or hectare-metres of a given
catchment.
The rainfall is disposed in the following manner:
1. Basin Recharge
2. Direct run-off (or simply, run-off)
3. Percolation down to ground water

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BASIN RECHARGE

The basin recharge consists of the following:


a. Rain intercepted by leaves and stems of vegetation
b. Water held up in surface depressions, commonly
known as the depression storage.
c. Soil moisture held as capillary water in pore spaces of
soil or as hygroscopic water absorbed on the surface
of soil particles.

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DIRECT RUN-OFF

Direct run-off is that water which reaches the stream


shortly after it falls as rain. Direct run-off consist of:
a. Over land flow (a surface run-off)
b. Inter flow (Influent stream).

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PERCOLATION DOWN TO GROUND
WATER (BASE FLOW)

If the subsoil is also permeable, water percolate deep


downwards to meet the ground water. Much of the low
water flow in rivers is derived from the ground water.
Stream channels which below the ground water are
called effluent streams.

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FACTORS AFFECTING RUN-OFF
The principal factors affecting the flow from a
catchment are as follows:
1. Precipitation Characteristics
Run-off depends upon type of storm causing
precipitation, its duration, intensity and extent over
the catchment.
2. Size and shape of catchment
Run-off of a catchment depends upon the size,
shape and location of the catchment or sector
shaped catchments give greater run-off in the peak
flood from tributaries is likely to reach the main
stream approximately at the same time.
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FACTORS AFFECTING RUN-OFF
3. Topography
Run-off depends upon the smoothness or
ruggedness of the surface and its slope.
4. Geological conditions
These include the type of surface soil and subsoil,
type of rock and their permeability characteristics.
5. Meteorological characteristics
These include temperature, wind and humidity.
High temperature and greater wind velocity give rise
to greater evaporation loss and reduce the run-off.
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FACTORS AFFECTING RUN-OFF
6. Character of the catchment surface
The run-off also depends upon the surface conditions –
whether the surface is drained or undrained, natural
or cultivated and whether it is bare or covered with
vegetation.
7. Storage characteristics of the catchment
The artificial storage such as dams, weirs etc. and
natural storage such as lakes, ponds, etc. tend to
reduce the peak flow. They also give rise to greater
evaporation losses.
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COMPUTATION OF RUN-OFF
The run-off from a catchment can be computed daily,
monthly and yearly. Following are some of the method of
computing the run-off:
1. Run-off by formulae and tables.
2. By infiltration method

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RUN-OFF BY FORMULAE
Run-off Coefficient
The run-off and the rainfall can be interrelated by run-off
coefficient, by the expression:
R = kP
where
R = run-off in cm,
P = rainfall in cm
k = run-off coefficient

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RUN-OFF BY FORMULAE
Area k
Urban residentials
Single Houses . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 0.3
Garden Apartments . . . . . . . . . . . . . 0.5
Commercial and Industrial . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 0.9
Forested areas, depending on soil . . . . . . . . . 0.05 – 0.2
Parks, farm land, pasture . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 0.05 – 0.3
Asphalt or concrete pavement . . . . . . . . . . . . . 0.85

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RUN-OFF BY INFILTRATION METHOD
Infiltration is defined as the movement of water through
soil surface and into the soil.
At any instant, the infiltration capacity of a soil is the
maximum at which water will enter the soil in a given
condition.
The infiltration rate is the rate at which water actually
enters the soil during storm.

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RUN-OFF BY INFILTRATION METHOD
Infiltration Index
Infiltration index is the average rate of loss such that the
volume of rainfall in excess of that rate will be equal to
direct run-off. Estimates of run-off volume from large
areas, having heterogeneous infiltration and rainfall
characteristics, are made by use of infiltration indices.
There are two types of infiltration indices:
a. Average Infiltration Rate or W-index
b. ‘Φ-index

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RUN-OFF BY INFILTRATION METHOD
The W-index is calculated from the expression:
𝑷 −𝑹
W= cm/hr
𝒕𝒓
where: tr = duration of rainfall in hours

The Φ-index is defined as the rate of rainfall above which


the rainfall volume equals the run-off volume.

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RUN-OFF BY INFILTRATION METHOD
For flood forecasting, appropriate index values must be
derived by correlation with those factors which
determine the index at any time. In such approach, there
seems to be no advantage over the method discussed
earlier, in which the run-off and rainfall are correlated.
However, the infiltration index can be used to estimate
run-off coefficient (k) from the relation:
𝒊 −𝑾
k= 𝒊
Where i = rainfall intensity (cm/hr)

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ESTIMATION OF MAXIMUM RATE OF RUN-
OFF FLOOD DISCHARGE
Flood Discharge Formulae
Some of the empirical formulae for estimating the flood
discharge are given below. Most of these are in the form
Q = CAn
Where Q = flood discharge
A = catchment area
n = flood index
C = flood coefficient
Both C and n depend upon various factors, such as (i)
size, shape and location of catchment, (ii) topography of
the catchment, (iii) intensity and duration of rainfall and
distribution pattern of the storm over the basin.
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ESTIMATION OF MAXIMUM RATE OF RUN-
OFF FLOOD DISCHARGE
Dicken’s Formula
Q = CA3/4
where Q = discharge in cu.m/s
A = area of basin in sq. km.

Region C
Northern India 11.4
Central India 13.9 – 19.5
Western Ghats 22.2 – 25

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ESTIMATION OF MAXIMUM RATE OF RUN-
OFF FLOOD DISCHARGE
Ryve’s Formula
Q = CA2/3
where Q = discharge in cu.m/s
A = area of basin in sq. km.

Location of the Catchment C


Areas within 24 km (15 miles) from
the coast 6.75
Areas within 24 km – 161 km (25 to
100 miles) from the coast 8.75
Limited areas near hills 10.1 36
ESTIMATION OF MAXIMUM RATE OF RUN-
OFF FLOOD DISCHARGE
Inglis Formula
𝟏𝟐𝟑𝑨
Q= 𝑨+𝟏𝟎.𝟒
= 123A1/2
where Q = discharge in cu.m/s
A = area of basin in sq. km.

Fanning’s Formula
For American catchments
Q = CA5/6
where average value of C may be taken equal to 2.54
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SAMPLE PROBLEM 2
A 12-hour storm rainfall with the following depth in cm
occurred over a basin:
2.0, 2.5, 7.6, 3.8, 10.6, 5.0, 7.0, 10.0, 6.4, 3.8, 1.4 and 1.4
The surface run-off resulting from the above storm is
equivalent to 25.5 cm of depth over the basin. Determine the
average infiltration index for the basin.

Answer: Average Infiltration = 3.0 cm/hr

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SAMPLE PROBLEM 3
From the storm data given in the previous example,
determine the average depth of hourly rainfall excess for a
basin of area of 120 hectares. The basin consists of areas A1,
A2 and A3 having average infiltration indices given below:

Area Designation A1 A2 A3
Area (hectares) 20 40 60
Infiltration Index (Φ) 7.6 3.8 1.0
(cm/hour)

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