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ENGINEERING (CE143)

Instructor: Engr. Timothy Daniel Felicia

MODULE 3

DEVELOPMENTAL

COMPONENTS: WATER

RESOURCES

SURFACE WATER

Measurement of Rainfall

Computation of Average

Annual Rainfall over a Basin

Runoff

Computation of Runoff

Estimation of maximum rate

of runoff or flood discharge

2

1.

SURFACE WATER

3

MEASUREMENT OF RAINFALL

Rainfall is the source of all water used for irrigation

purposes and, therefore, a knowledge of its amount,

character, seasons or periods and the effects produced by it

is of prime importance to whose duty is to design, carry out,

improve, or maintain irrigation works.

The amount of precipitation is expressed as the depth in

centimetres (or inches) which falls on a level surface, and it

measured by rain-gauge.

1. Non-Automatic Rain Gauge

This is also known as non-recording rain-gauge.

Symon’s Rain-gauge is the instrument prescribed for

use at all Government rain-gauge stations throughout

india

4

MEASUREMENT OF RAINFALL

2. Automatic Rain Gauge

These are integrating type recording rain-gauges and

are of three types:

a. Weighing Bucket Rain-Gauge

b. Tipping Bucket Rain-Gauge

c. Float Type Rain-Gauge

5

WEIGHING BUCKET RAIN-GAUGE

6

TIPPING BUCKET RAIN-GAUGE

7

COMPUTATION OF AVERAGE RAINFALL

OVER BASIN

In order to compute the average rainfall over a basin or

catchment area, the rainfall is measured at a number of

rain-gauge stations suitably located in the area.

Table 2.1 gives roughly the number of gauges required in

catchment of various sizes.

Number of rain-gauge

Areas in square km

stations

0 to 80 1

80 to 160 2

160 to 320 3

320 to 560 4

560 to 800 5

800 to 1200 6

Table 2.1 8

COMPUTATION OF AVERAGE RAINFALL

OVER BASIN

If a basin or catchment area contains more than one rain-

gauge station, the computation of average precipitation of

rainfall may be done by the following methods:

1. Arithmetic Average Method

2. Thiessen Polygon Method

3. Isohyetal Method

9

ARITHMETIC AVERAGE METHOD

If the rainfall is uniformly distributed in its areal pattern,

the simplest method of estimating average rainfall is to

compute the arithmetic average of the recorded rainfall

values at various stations. Thus, if P1, P2, P3, …., Pn etc., are

the precipitation or rainfall values measured at n gauge

stations, we have:

P +P + ……+Pn σ P

Pave = 1 2 n = n

10

ARITHMETIC AVERAGE METHOD

Precipitation

1 12.6

2 18.8

3 14.8 Pave = 72.8/5

4 10.4 = 14.6 mm

5 16.2

Sum ΣP = 72.8 mm

Sample Arithmetic Average Method

11

THIESSEN POLYGON METHOD

The arithmetic average method is the most approximate

method since rainfall varies in intensity and duration from

place to place. Hence, the rainfall recorded by each rain-

gauge station should be weighted according to the area, it is

assumed to represent.

Thiessen polygon method is a more common method of

weighing the rain-gauge observations according to the

area. Thiessen polygon method is also called weighted

mean method and is more accurate than the arithmetic

average method.

12

THIESSEN POLYGON METHOD

Pave = = σA

A1 + A2 + ……+ An

13

THIESSEN POLYGON METHOD

Rain-gauge Area of Thiessen Precipitation

Polygon (A) AxP

Station (P)

A 45 sq. km 30.8 mm 1386

B 38 sq. km 34.6 mm 1315

C 30 sq. km 32.6 mm 978

D 40 sq. km 24.6 mm 984

Sum 153 sq. km 4663

Pave = (ΣAXP)/(ΣA) = 4663/153 = 30.5 mm

Sample Thiessen Polygon Method

14

ISOHYETAL METHOD

the rainfall is controlled by topography or results from

intense convection. The Isohyetal method is the most

elaborate and accurate in such conditions.

An Isohyet is a line, on a rainfall map of the basin, joining

places of equal rainfall readings. An isohyet map showing

contours of equal rainfall presents a more accurate

picture of the rainfall distribution over the basins.

15

ISOHYETAL METHOD

16

ISOHYETAL METHOD

Procedure:

1. From the rainfall values recorded at various rain-

gauge stations, prepare the isohyetal map for the

storm causing the rainfall over the area.

2. Measure the areas enclosed between successive

isohyets with the help of a planimeter.

3. Multiply each of these areas by the average rainfall

between the isohyets.

4. The average rainfall is then computed from the

expression:

σAx

P1+P2

2

Pave = σA

17

ISOHYETAL METHOD

Area between Average Product

Isohyet (cm) Isohyets (A) (sq. Precipitation Ax((P1+P2)/2)

km) 1/2(P1+P2)

9

22 9.5 209

10

10

80 10.5 840

11

11

105 11.5 1208

12

12

98 12.5 1225

13

13

78 13.5 1053

14

14

16 14.5 232

15

Sum 399 4767

Pave = {ΣA x [(P1+P2)/2]}/(ΣA) = 4767/399 = 11.92 mm

Sample Isohyetal Method

18

SAMPLE PROBLEM NO. 1

The given figure shows

the map of Cauvery

basin with rainfall

observations in cm of

water marked at

various rain-gauge

stations. Compute the

average rainfall by

arithmetic average

method.

Answer: Average

Rainfall = 70.3 cm

19

RUN-OFF

The run-off of a catchment area in any specified period is

the total quantity of water draining into a stream or into

reservoir in t period. This can be expressed as (i)

centimetres of water over catchment, or (ii) the total

water in cubic-meters or hectare-metres of a given

catchment.

The rainfall is disposed in the following manner:

1. Basin Recharge

2. Direct run-off (or simply, run-off)

3. Percolation down to ground water

20

BASIN RECHARGE

a. Rain intercepted by leaves and stems of vegetation

b. Water held up in surface depressions, commonly

known as the depression storage.

c. Soil moisture held as capillary water in pore spaces of

soil or as hygroscopic water absorbed on the surface

of soil particles.

21

DIRECT RUN-OFF

shortly after it falls as rain. Direct run-off consist of:

a. Over land flow (a surface run-off)

b. Inter flow (Influent stream).

22

PERCOLATION DOWN TO GROUND

WATER (BASE FLOW)

downwards to meet the ground water. Much of the low

water flow in rivers is derived from the ground water.

Stream channels which below the ground water are

called effluent streams.

23

FACTORS AFFECTING RUN-OFF

The principal factors affecting the flow from a

catchment are as follows:

1. Precipitation Characteristics

Run-off depends upon type of storm causing

precipitation, its duration, intensity and extent over

the catchment.

2. Size and shape of catchment

Run-off of a catchment depends upon the size,

shape and location of the catchment or sector

shaped catchments give greater run-off in the peak

flood from tributaries is likely to reach the main

stream approximately at the same time.

24

FACTORS AFFECTING RUN-OFF

3. Topography

Run-off depends upon the smoothness or

ruggedness of the surface and its slope.

4. Geological conditions

These include the type of surface soil and subsoil,

type of rock and their permeability characteristics.

5. Meteorological characteristics

These include temperature, wind and humidity.

High temperature and greater wind velocity give rise

to greater evaporation loss and reduce the run-off.

25

FACTORS AFFECTING RUN-OFF

6. Character of the catchment surface

The run-off also depends upon the surface conditions –

whether the surface is drained or undrained, natural

or cultivated and whether it is bare or covered with

vegetation.

7. Storage characteristics of the catchment

The artificial storage such as dams, weirs etc. and

natural storage such as lakes, ponds, etc. tend to

reduce the peak flow. They also give rise to greater

evaporation losses.

26

COMPUTATION OF RUN-OFF

The run-off from a catchment can be computed daily,

monthly and yearly. Following are some of the method of

computing the run-off:

1. Run-off by formulae and tables.

2. By infiltration method

27

RUN-OFF BY FORMULAE

Run-off Coefficient

The run-off and the rainfall can be interrelated by run-off

coefficient, by the expression:

R = kP

where

R = run-off in cm,

P = rainfall in cm

k = run-off coefficient

28

RUN-OFF BY FORMULAE

Area k

Urban residentials

Single Houses . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 0.3

Garden Apartments . . . . . . . . . . . . . 0.5

Commercial and Industrial . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 0.9

Forested areas, depending on soil . . . . . . . . . 0.05 – 0.2

Parks, farm land, pasture . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 0.05 – 0.3

Asphalt or concrete pavement . . . . . . . . . . . . . 0.85

29

RUN-OFF BY INFILTRATION METHOD

Infiltration is defined as the movement of water through

soil surface and into the soil.

At any instant, the infiltration capacity of a soil is the

maximum at which water will enter the soil in a given

condition.

The infiltration rate is the rate at which water actually

enters the soil during storm.

30

RUN-OFF BY INFILTRATION METHOD

Infiltration Index

Infiltration index is the average rate of loss such that the

volume of rainfall in excess of that rate will be equal to

direct run-off. Estimates of run-off volume from large

areas, having heterogeneous infiltration and rainfall

characteristics, are made by use of infiltration indices.

There are two types of infiltration indices:

a. Average Infiltration Rate or W-index

b. ‘Φ-index

31

RUN-OFF BY INFILTRATION METHOD

The W-index is calculated from the expression:

𝑷 −𝑹

W= cm/hr

𝒕𝒓

where: tr = duration of rainfall in hours

the rainfall volume equals the run-off volume.

32

RUN-OFF BY INFILTRATION METHOD

For flood forecasting, appropriate index values must be

derived by correlation with those factors which

determine the index at any time. In such approach, there

seems to be no advantage over the method discussed

earlier, in which the run-off and rainfall are correlated.

However, the infiltration index can be used to estimate

run-off coefficient (k) from the relation:

𝒊 −𝑾

k= 𝒊

Where i = rainfall intensity (cm/hr)

33

ESTIMATION OF MAXIMUM RATE OF RUN-

OFF FLOOD DISCHARGE

Flood Discharge Formulae

Some of the empirical formulae for estimating the flood

discharge are given below. Most of these are in the form

Q = CAn

Where Q = flood discharge

A = catchment area

n = flood index

C = flood coefficient

Both C and n depend upon various factors, such as (i)

size, shape and location of catchment, (ii) topography of

the catchment, (iii) intensity and duration of rainfall and

distribution pattern of the storm over the basin.

34

ESTIMATION OF MAXIMUM RATE OF RUN-

OFF FLOOD DISCHARGE

Dicken’s Formula

Q = CA3/4

where Q = discharge in cu.m/s

A = area of basin in sq. km.

Region C

Northern India 11.4

Central India 13.9 – 19.5

Western Ghats 22.2 – 25

35

ESTIMATION OF MAXIMUM RATE OF RUN-

OFF FLOOD DISCHARGE

Ryve’s Formula

Q = CA2/3

where Q = discharge in cu.m/s

A = area of basin in sq. km.

Areas within 24 km (15 miles) from

the coast 6.75

Areas within 24 km – 161 km (25 to

100 miles) from the coast 8.75

Limited areas near hills 10.1 36

ESTIMATION OF MAXIMUM RATE OF RUN-

OFF FLOOD DISCHARGE

Inglis Formula

𝟏𝟐𝟑𝑨

Q= 𝑨+𝟏𝟎.𝟒

= 123A1/2

where Q = discharge in cu.m/s

A = area of basin in sq. km.

Fanning’s Formula

For American catchments

Q = CA5/6

where average value of C may be taken equal to 2.54

37

SAMPLE PROBLEM 2

A 12-hour storm rainfall with the following depth in cm

occurred over a basin:

2.0, 2.5, 7.6, 3.8, 10.6, 5.0, 7.0, 10.0, 6.4, 3.8, 1.4 and 1.4

The surface run-off resulting from the above storm is

equivalent to 25.5 cm of depth over the basin. Determine the

average infiltration index for the basin.

38

SAMPLE PROBLEM 3

From the storm data given in the previous example,

determine the average depth of hourly rainfall excess for a

basin of area of 120 hectares. The basin consists of areas A1,

A2 and A3 having average infiltration indices given below:

Area Designation A1 A2 A3

Area (hectares) 20 40 60

Infiltration Index (Φ) 7.6 3.8 1.0

(cm/hour)

39

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