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  (or  ) is a glass or plastic fiber that carries light along its
    is the overlap of applied science and engineering concerned with the
design and application of optical fibers.
Optical fibers are widely used in fiber-optic communications, which permits
transmission over longer distances and at higherbandwidths (data rates) than other
forms of communications. Fibers are used instead of metal wires because signals
travel along them with less loss, and they are also immune to electromagnetic
Fibers are also used for illumination, and are wrapped in bundles so they can be
used to carry images, thus allowing viewing in tight spaces. Specially designed
fibers are used for a variety of other applications, including sensors and fiber lasers.













þ   m  Ê
There are generally five elements that make up the construction of a
fiber-optic strand, or cable: the optic core, optic cladding, a buffer
material, a strength material and the outer jacket . The optic core is
the light carrying element at the center of the optical fiber. It is
commonly made from a combination of silica and germanium.
Surrounding the core is the optic cladding made of pure silica. It is
this combination that makes the principle of total internal reflection
possible. The difference in materials used in the making of the core
and the cladding creates an extremely reflective surface at the point
in which they interface. Light pulses entering the fiber core reflect off
the core/cladding interface and thus remain within the core as they
move down the line.



wo types of light sources are commonly used for
optical fiber in communications applications.

hese sources are the light-emitting diode (LED) and
the semiconductor laser (or laser diode).

hese two sources have distinct characteristics in
terms of performance, cost, and ease of use.

he selection is usually based on the higher cost and
higher performance of the laser versus the lower cost
and lower performance of the LED.

The light-emitting diode has a wide range of applications since it offers low price, ease of use,
minimal amount of electrical power and does not require any specialized devices to operate.
However, LEDs have got wider spectral width resulting in a heavier penalty in terms of material
dispersion, limiting the fiber bandwidth.

he following types of LED diodes are

Edge Light Emitting Diode
Super Luminescent Diode
LASER produces light that is highly directional, coherent, and
monochromatic. Thus laser diodes dictate the implementation of
high capacity systems. However, laser diodes have several
disadvantages which includes temperature dependence, non-
linear characteristics, requirement of cooling elements and
feedback control, and necessary coupling arrangements for
launching of laser into fiber.



a)Gain-guided Laser Diodes

b)Index-guided Laser Diodes
mm  m  


þhen light travels from a low refractive index medium like air into a high refractive index
medium like glass, it experiences refraction. This causes the ray of light to bend
towards the normal, which is a line at right angles to the glass or air surface. The ratio
of the speed of light in air to the speed of light in glass is called the refractive index. The
larger the refractive index the more the light slows and bends. þhen a ray of light
travels from glass into air then the reverse happens i.e. the ray of light bend away from
the normal.
Ê  m
Optical fibers are classified on the basis of inherent material from which they are made,
refractive index profile of the core , and the way light propagates within the core . Fibers are
selected with respect to different applications and requirements. Fibers are either made of
glass is far more common. Glass fiber, composed of silica or fused quartz, is extremely pure.
Adding specific impurities in to the glass matrix modifies the index of refrection and improves
the guiding properties of the fiber.

here are two general categories of optical fiber: single mode and Multi mode
fibers. Multimode fiber has a much lighter core than single mode fiber, allowing hundreds of
modes of light to propagate through the fiber simultaneously.


Êecause its core is so narrow Single Mode fibre can support only one mode.
his is called the
"Lowest Order Mode". Single mode fiber has some advantages over multimode fibre.

Although it may seem from what we have said about total internal reflection that any
ray of light can travel down the fibre, in fact, because of the wave nature of light, only
certain ray directions can actually travel down the fibre. These are called the "a 
!". In a multimode fibre, many different modes are supported by the fiber.

Step index fibre is so called because the refractive index of the fibre 'steps" up as we
move from the cladding to the core of the fibre. Within the cladding the refractive index is
constant, and within the core of the refractive index is constant.
Π !  

Graded Index Fibre has a different core structure from single mode and multimode fibre.
Whereas in a step-index fibre the refractive index of the core is constant throughout the core,
in a graded index fibre the value of the refractive index changes from the centre of the core
onwards. In fact it has what we call a Quadratic Profile.
his means that the refractive index of
the core is proportional to the square of the distance from the centre of the fibre.
a !"""
r #$$%&'($)*&+*,,%,-.
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— —LUSI 
r a)9%/8*.$)44*33'&)4($)*& is a method of
transmitting information from one place to
another by sending pulses of light through
an optical fiber
r DUE to the advantages of a)9%/8*.$)4
4*33'&)4($)*& over electrical transmission,
optical fibers have largely replaced copper
wire communications in core networks in
the developed world.

rPrinciples Of Communication Systems: Herbt

aub and
Donald L.Schilling;

ata Mcgraw-Hill Publishing Company Limited

elecommunications Engineers Reference Êook :
Fraidan Mazda