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Thermoelastic effect:

finite element approach

Michele Bonaldi, Enrico Serra

South Kensington Campus, Imperial College London, October 26th - 27th, 2006
Presentation outline
• We are interested in the simulation of dissipative
effects in solids which are joined together with direct
Silicon Wafer Bonding process.
• We developed Ansys tools for the solution of
thermoelastic problems.
• The problem of small flexural vibrations of a thin beam
is analyzed for validation
• The extension to detector test masses give rise to
convergence problems

South Kensington Campus, Imperial College London, October 26th - 27th, 2006
The thermoelastic problem
solved with FEM
Navier –Lamè -Stokes Eq.
E E E  2u
 u
2
(  u)  T  f  m 2
2(1   ) 2(1   )(1  2 ) 3(1  2 ) t

Thermal conduction Eq.


T ET 
cv  k 2T  u
t (1  2 ) t

By using a FEM discretization T T0  Temperature definition


scheme based on v.p. Ctu T0Kut Coupling matrices


M 

0 
..

0 0

.

K K

ut
u
F
u
 
 u
  
 .. tut.  t

0 
 
0

T 
 
C C 



T 
0 K

T
H

South Kensington Campus, Imperial College London, October 26th - 27th, 2006
The thermoelastic damping
computation
Boundary Value Problem (solved in harmonic regime )

2  
   


ut
M 0 00 K K U F

  
 t  

   
j tu t 
   
0 0 C C 0K
T 
0

Boundary
conditions

From the solution of the Boundary


Value Problem BVP in case of harmonic
Ne
force load
Im[W]
j 1
Q1  Ne

Re[W]
j 1 W
1 T
 dV
4V

South Kensington Campus, Imperial College London, October 26th - 27th, 2006
Small flexural vibrations in a thin beam
(benchmark)
The cases under investigation Problem’s domain Reid et al. Phys lett A
are summarized in the table
where two different materials are
considered. Comparisons with the Reference temp.
model developed by R. Liftshitz 4.2T300
K
and M.L. Roukes Phys Rew B t
was done. The analysis performed
are: Harmonic
- Modal analysis with TED uniform pressure
- Harmonic analysis TED adiabatic
- Harmonic analysis TED and SD conditions
TED = Thermo-Elastic Damping on the beam’s boundaries
SD = Structural Damping

Mechanical and thermal


properties are retrieved at
MPDB
http://www.jahm.com

South Kensington Campus, Imperial College London, October 26th - 27th, 2006
Modal Analysis (Si)
Modal analysis was performed
for the computation of the 3D Beam’s FEM model
cantilever’s resonant modes
including only TED

- The analysis is not limited to


mode frequencies.
Element
Remark. The use of high Aspect ratio
73.26
aspect ratio elements is not
critical up to 10^3

38.737 Hz 243.18 Hz 454.45 Hz 682.07 Hz


South Kensington Campus, Imperial College London, October 26th - 27th, 2006
Harmonic Analysis (Si)
Two Harmonic Analysis were performed for the Temperature gradient
computation of the loss angle in presence of
TED.

1. Harmonic analysis at 300 K varying the force f


 b
frequency [500-200000 Hz] 

2. Harmonic analysis at 681Hz (third flexural


mode) varying the temperature 4.2<T<300 K

The expected loss angle is evaluated by using theory developed by L-R


66 
Sinh
[] 

Sin[
]

 
f
  


Q

1
 
 b
 
E 2 3
 Cosh
[] 
Cos[
]

South Kensington Campus, Imperial College London, October 26th - 27th, 2006
Good agreement with theory (10 % agreement)
1)
1) 2)

3) Considerations:
- FEM data accounts for all modes:
L-R solution are smaller
- Good solution convergence (linear
scale)
- Hysteretic damping simply sums up
to TED
- The modelling of composite
cantilever is also possible
Discussion on convergence
When the test body’s dimensions are
increased convergence problems
appear ! We consider the case of beam
with square cross-section (10 mm
beam’s width – in this case L-R theory
is approximate).
Convergence is obtained for Silicon
but not for Fused Silica.
Loss angles are:

Q 8
1-6
.74
Si10

Q 6
1-10
.28
10
fuSi

Too small. We are approaching


the numerical precision ?

 Q

E2
T 
1
max
CV
South Kensington Campus, Imperial College London, October 26th - 27th, 2006
Conclusions
- The tool for thermoelastic analysis works only in
presence of thin structures
- The application of the tool for the computation of
dissipation effects in bonding (and coatings)
problems is promising
-
The developed tool present
convergence problems in
case of mass (like DUAL,
mirrors) because of low
dissipation rate)

South Kensington Campus, Imperial College London, October 26th - 27th, 2006
Future developments
What we can do now:
1) Develop Ansys tools for the simulation of
dissipative effects in bonding layers (or coatings)
on Silicon substrate
2) Understand the convergence problem !
Possible solutions:
- using adaptive mesh strategy in highly
stressed regions
- increasing the numerical precision by using
arbitrary precision arithmetic modules in
combination with a proprietary FEM tool (it must
be realized)
South Kensington Campus, Imperial College London, October 26th - 27th, 2006
End of the presentation

Contacts:

Michele Bonaldi
- Istituto di Fotonica e nanotecnologie CNR-ITC and
INFN Trento, I-38050 Povo(Trento), Italy
Email: michele.bonaldi@science.unitn.it

Enrico Serra
- Istituto Trentino di Cultura, ITC-irst Microsystem
Division, 38050Povo(Trento),Italy
Email: eserra@itc.it
What will I do
First of all understand if the convergence problem
appears during the matrix assembly phase or when
the algebraic system is solved:

• External solvers with arbitrary precision can be


used (this strategy is quite simple)

• Development of a FEM tool (is much mode difficult


and we need a small group of sw developers )

South Kensington Campus, Imperial College London, October 26th - 27th, 2006
Ansys realease v10.0
- Offer the possibility to perform a Direct Coupled-Field Analysis for
thermoelastic problems by solving mechanical and thermal equations
at the same time

- 2D and 3D elements with (ux,uy,uz,temp) dofs are available

A second order version


of the
thermoelastic element
is available

South Kensington Campus, Imperial College London, October 26th - 27th, 2006
Structural and thermoelastic losses
Thermoelastic and structural losses can be considered at the same
time.

SD+TED
For a very low quality factor the
structural damping is dominant
along all the temperature range.

In case of high structural quality


factor the thermoelastic effect is
dominant for certain temperature
range and it is combined with
structural damping in another
range.

South Kensington Campus, Imperial College London, October 26th - 27th, 2006