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Unit 3 Fire Suppression

Section 1 Detection and Alarm Systems


1. Importance of Fire Detection
and Alarm Systems
1.1. Time Element
1.2. Notification

a. Type A Manual Alarm


b. Type B Automatic Alarm

1.3. Activation

Note: Studies with children and notification!


2. Types of Detectors

2.1. There are three broad classifications


of fire detection:
Heat, Smoke & Flame Detectors.

2.2. Fire Detectors are used in a variety


of fire prevention and suppression
systems.
3. Classification of Heat Detectors

3.1. Heat Detectors respond to the excess heat


generated in a fire

3.2. Two subclassifications based on operation


3.2.1. Fixed Temperature which
operate at predetermined
temperature
3.2.2. Rate of Rise operate based on a
specified rate of temperature rise
(degrees/min.)
4. Smoke Detectors

4.1. Smoke detectors respond to the


presence of smoke

4.2. General Information


4.3. Classifications of Smoke
Detectors

4.3. Two Classifications

4.3.1. Photoelectric smoke detectors

4.3.2. Ionization smoke detectors


4.3. Classifications of Smoke
Detectors

4.3.1. Photoelectric smoke detectors


4.3. Classifications of Smoke
Detectors

4.3.2. Ionization smoke detectors


VS 19-2
PROPER LOCATION OF
SMOKE DETECTORS
On Each Level
of House
Outside Sleeping
Areas

Dining Kitchen BR BR
Bedroom Bedroom
No. 1 No. 2

Dining Living
Room
Bath
Room

Basement
Living Room Entry Master Bedroom
VS 19-3
PROPER MOUNTING OF SMOKE
DETECTORS
No Closer Horizontal
Best in than Distance
Center of 4 inches from Peak
Ceiling (102 mm)
From
Side Wall
Dead Air
Space Mount on Wall
at least
4 inches
(102 mm)
from ceiling
No more than 3 Feet
12 inches (1m)
(305 mm)
from ceiling

Best Location
Acceptable Location
5. Flame Detectors

5.1. Flame detectors respond to the


presence of a flame

5.2. General Information

5.3. Principle of Operation


6.0 Placement of Fire Detectors

6.1. In general, fire detectors are


normally placed on the ceiling or
within 12" of ceiling

6.2. Where possible the detectors


should be located throughout
entire building
6.0 Placement of Fire Detectors
Cont’d

6.3. Spacing of detectors will vary


based on several factors

6.4. Connection to Remote Locations

6.5. Testing & Maintenance of fire


detectors
7.0 Components to a Fire Alarm
System

7.1. Power supply

7.2. Detectors & manual pull boxes

7.3. Signal supervisors


7.0 Components to a Fire Alarm
System Cont’d

7.4. Local Alarms

7.5. Indicator Boards

7.6. Reference for


Alarm Systems
Unit 3 Fire Suppression

Section 2 “Fixed Extinguishment Systems”


1. Introduction to Sprinkler Systems

1.1. Effectiveness of Sprinkler Systems

1.2. Function of Sprinklers

1.3. Advantages of Sprinklers

1.4. Cost of Sprinklers


2. Types of sprinkler systems

2.1. There are four major classifications


of sprinkler systems
2. Types of sprinkler systems

2.2. Wet-pipe Systems


2.2.1. Operation of system
2. Types of sprinkler systems

2.3. Dry Pipe System


2.3.1. Operation of system
Dry Pipe System
Two question to ask:
• activation / trip pressure for valve
• is air pressure greater than activation/trip
pressure (should be 10 – 15 psi greater)

Air
Activation/Trip
pressure = 40 psi

Air pressure should be


Water 50 – 55 psi

Activation/Trip
70 psi
pressure set by
the manufacture
2. Types of sprinkler systems

2.4. Pre-action Systems


2.4.1. Operation of System

2.4.2. Advantages over dry-


pipe system

2.4.3. Disadvantage--two
systems must both
function properly
2. Types of sprinkler systems

2.5. Deluge sprinkler system

2.5.1. Operation of system

2.5.2. Uses of Deluge System


3. Basic Sprinkler System Components

3.1. Water Supplies


3.1.1. Types of water supplies

 Public Water

 Pressure Tanks
Basic Sprinkler System Components

3.1.1. Types of water supplies


• Gravity feed from tank

Easier for
water to flow
down than up
3. Basic Sprinkler System Components

3.1.1. Types of water supplies

 Fire pumps

 Fire Department
Connections
3. Basic Sprinkler System Components

3.1.2. Amount of water supply

a. Hazard of Occupancy—most important


 Light hazard class
 Ordinary hazard class
Group 1
Group 2
 Extra hazard class
Group 1
Group 2
Basic Sprinkler System Components

a. Hazard of occupancy

Combustibility Amount of Heat


Hazard Class Heads Open
of Content Combustibles Liberation

Light Low Low Low Few

Ordinary
Low Moderate Moderate Moderate
Group 1
Ordinary Moderate - Moderate -
Moderate Moderate
Group 2 High High
Extra Hazard
Very High Very High Very High Many
Group 1
Extra Hazard
Very High Very High Very High Many
Group 2
3. Basic Sprinkler System Components

3.1.2. Amount of water supply

b. Obstructions to water delivery


c. High ceilings
d. Unprotected vertical openings
between floors
e. Division of spaces
3. Basic Sprinkler System Components

3.1.3. Calculating water supply

Q = k √P

Where:

Q = supply (GPM)
k = coefficient of orifice (inside pipe size)
P = pressure (PSI)
3. Basic Sprinkler System Components

3.2. Sprinkler Piping


3.2.1. The piping and type of valve
will vary depending on type of
system

3.2.2. Types of piping

3.2.3. Hydraulic design


of systems
SPRINKLER PIPING

riser
(alarms, water flow
valve, sprinkler valve)

tank
yard main (or natural water supply
6” – 8”
always below freeze line
cross main “open” or
“closed”

sprinkler head branch lines feed main should be


“open”
post indicator valve pad lock

public water supply - 8” – 12” unlock to


close valve
3. Basic Sprinkler System Components

3.3. Sprinkler Valves


3.3.1. The purpose of a sprinkler
valve is to retain & control
flow of water and to isolate
individual risers.
VS 15-4

CONTROL VALVE LOCATION


Every system will have two
valves: a main water
control valve and a
sprinkler valve.
The main control valve
should always be in the
OPEN position.

Main Control
Valve
(OS&Y)
VS 15-5
TYPES OF CONTROL VALVES
OS&Y (Outside PIV (Post
Screw and Indicator Valve)
Yoke) WPIV (Wall Post
Indicator Valve)
3. Basic Sprinkler System Components

3.4. Alarms on Sprinkler Systems

3.4.1. Every sprinkler system should


have an alarm that sounds
when water flows through the
system.
3.4.2. Types of Alarms
3.4.3. Supervisory signals
3. Basic Sprinkler System Components

3.5. Test Connections

3.5.1. Two Inch Drain Test


3.5.2. Inspectors Test Connection
3.6. Sprinkler Heads
3.6.1. Operating Principle

Deflector
Frame
Arms
Release
Lever Mechanism
Arms (Fusible Link)

Valve
Cap
3. Basic Sprinkler System Components

3.6. Sprinkler Heads

3.6.2. Type based on position


VS 15-3

SPRINKLER DESIGNS
Pendant
Upright

Sidewall
3. Basic Sprinkler System Components

3.6. Sprinkler Heads


3.6.3. Type based on activation
a. Solder-link
b. Frangible bulb
c. Fusible pellet
VS 15-2
RELEASING MECHANISMS
Fusible
Frangible
Link
Bulb
(Standard)

Chemical Fusible Link


Pellet (Quick
Response)
3. Basic Sprinkler System Components

3.6. Sprinkler Heads


3.6.4. Deflectors
3.6.5. Flow rates
VS 15-3

SPRINKLER DESIGNS
Pendant
Upright

Sidewall
3. Basic Sprinkler System Components

3.6. Sprinkler Heads


3.6.6. Temperature rating of sprinkler
heads
Non-Colored  Ordinary  135-1700F
White  Intermediate  175-2250F
Blue  High  250-3000F
Red  Extra High  325-3750F
Green  Very High  400-4750F
Orange  Ultra High  500-6500F
3. Basic Sprinkler System Components

3.6. Sprinkler Heads


3.6.7. Special service sprinkler
heads
4. Location and Spacing of Sprinklers

4.1. Fundamental rule

4.2. Reference on location and


spacing: NFPA code 13, Sprinkler
Standards
4. Location and spacing of sprinklers

4.3. Spacing depends on the class of


hazard of occupancy and the type of
ceiling construction

4.3.1. Light hazard - 15' maximum


between sprinklers
4.3.2. Ordinary hazard - 12-15' ft.
depending on use of area
4.3.3. Extra hazard - 12' maximum
4. Location and spacing of sprinklers
4.4. Sprinklers must also be spaced so that each
sprinkler does not protect more than a specified
area:

4.4.1. Light hazard occupancy—floor area/sprinkler maximum


of 130-200 square feet, depending on type of ceiling

4.4.2. Ordinary hazard occupancy--max. area per sprinkler


100-130 square feet, depending on use of space

4.4.3. Extra hazard occupancy--90 square Extra High


feet sprinkler maximum
Hazard
90 ft2
4. Location and spacing of sprinklers

4.5. Determine protection area for sprinkler


heads using the following formula:

As = S X L

Where “S” is the distance between heads on


the lines and “L” is the distance between branch
lines.
4. Location and spacing of sprinklers
4.5. Protection area of sprinklers along “walls”
As = S X L

S is the larger of either twice the distance to the wall or the distance to the
next sprinkler head

L is the larger of either twice the distance to the wall or the distance to the
next branch line.

4 ft
10 ft AS = S x L
3 ft
S = 3 x 2 = 6 or 10
9 ft
L = 4 x 2 = 8 or 9

AS = S x L

AS = 90 ft
4. Location and spacing of sprinklers

4.6. Other location specifications that


may influence spacing
5. Carbon Dioxide Extinguishing Systems

5.1. Application

5.2. Advantages

5.3. Disadvantage
5. Carbon Dioxide Extinguishing Systems

5.4. Storage of CO2

5.5. Delivery Mechanism


5. Carbon Dioxide Extinguishing Systems

5.6. Types of fixed systems


5.6.1. Total flooding
5.6.2. Local application

5.7. Inspection of Systems


6. Dry Chemical Fire Extinguishing Systems

6.1. Application

6.2. Operation of system


Carbon Dioxide Extinguishing Systems

6.3. Types of fixed systems


– Total flooding
• apply to an entire room or confined area

– Local application
• applying CO2 over the surface of the tank
local application

Acid Pickling Tank


6. Dry Chemical Fire Extinguishing Systems

6.4. Quantity and rate of application is


determined by a qualified professional

6.5. Inspection and maintenance must be


completed at least once each year
(NFPA Code #17)
7. Foam Fire Extinguishing System

7.1. Application

7.2. Inspection and maintenance

7.3. Fire code for foam systems is NFPA #11


and NFPA #16 for foam-H2 combination
systems
Foam Fire Extinguishing System
7.4. Types of systems

– fixed
• activate with detector head
• high hazard areas

– portable
• fire departments mechanical
agitation
air

liquid

7.5 Video on Foam


Unit 3 Fire Extinguishment

Section 3 “Explosion Prevention”


1. Introduction

1.1. Principles of Explosion Prevention

a) Venting to relieve the pressure

b) Suppression to extinguish or retard the


deflagration

c) Purging to eliminate the combustible


mixture
2. Fundamentals of explosion venting

2.1. Location of hazardous operations

2.2. Design of the vent

2.2.1. Location of vent is important


2.2.2. Size of vent
2.2.3. Design variables for vents
2. Fundamentals of explosion venting

2.3. Design of vent closures

2.3.1. Most effective vent for release of


explosion pressure is an unobstructed
vent opening
2.3.2. Several small vents may be as
effective as one large opening as long
as total area is the same
2. Fundamentals of explosion venting

2.3. Design of vent closures


2.3.3. The nearer a vent is located to the
point of explosion the more effective it
will be
2.3.4. If diaphragms (of the same size and
thickness) are made thicker then more
pressure will be required to rupture
them
2. Fundamentals of explosion venting

2.4. Maintenance of vents


3. Explosion Suppression

3.1. Elements in the system

3.1.1. Pressure Detector


3.1.2. Suppressors
3.1.3. Suppressant Material