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Advances in

Ethane Cracking

Gabriel Castaneda, P.E.


Gabchem Solutions
(713) 873 1708
Gabriel@gabcheminc.com
Linde
Table of Contents
• Economics
• Process Overview
• Areas of Improvement
• Energy Consumption
• Reliability / Operational Issues

• Compression and Fouling


• Refrigeration
• Furnaces
Economical Advantage

Low gas prices thanks to hydraulic fracturing technology

Mark Eramo, IHS


Ethylene Capacity Expansions
Company Project Capacity Location Start-up
Sasol New cracker 1.5m tonnes Lake Charles, Louisiana 2017
Occidental Chemical/Mexichem New cracker 544,000 tonnes Ingleside, Texas Feb-17
ExxonMobil Chemical New cracker 1.5m tonnes Baytown, Texas Late 2016
Chevron Phillips Chemical New cracker 1.5m tonnes Cedar Bayou, Texas mid-late 2017
Dow Chemical New cracker 1.5m tonnes Freeport, Texas 2017
Shell New cracker 1m tonnes Monaca, Pennsylvania 2019-2020*
Formosa Plastics New cracker 1.2m tonnes Point Comfort, Texas 2017
Williams Expansion 272,158 tonnes Geismar, Louisiana Q4 2013**
INEOS Debottleneck 115,000 tonnes Chocolate Bayou, Texas end 2013
Westlake Chemical Expansion 113,399 tonnes Lake Charles, Louisiana 2014
Westlake Chemical Expansion 82,000 tonnes Calvert City, Kentucky Q2 2014
LyondellBasell Expansion 363,000 tonnes La Porte, Texas mid-2014
LyondellBasell Expansion 113,000 tonnes Channelview, Texas 2015
LyondellBasell Expansion 363,000 tonnes Corpus Christi, Texas Late 2015
BASF Fina Petrochemicals Expansion 180,000 tonnes Port Arthur, Texas 2014

Joseph Chang, ICIS


* ICIS Estimate **did not consider 2013 explosion
Considered Expansions
Company Project Capacity Location Start-up
LyondellBasell New cracker World-scale US NA
Hanwha Chemical New cracker World-scale US NA
Axiall New cracker World-scale US NA
Indorama Ventures New cracker 1.3m tonnes US NA
SABIC New cracker World-scale US NA
Braskem New cracker World-scale US NA
PTT Global Chemical New cracker World-scale US NA
Aither Chemicals New cracker 272,000 tonnes US Northeast 2016
NOVA Chemicals Expansion NA Corunna, Ontario, Canada NA

Joseph Chang, ICIS


Process Overview

Emerson
Areas to Improve
• Energy Consumption
• Reliability / Operational Issues
Energy Consumption,
Ethane Cracking
Operation Fraction
Pyrolysis 65
Compression 15
Separation 20

Fuel gas provides most of the energy

Tao Ren, Utrecht University


Production Loss due Reliability

Solomon Associates
Equipment Fouling

GE, Dorf Ketal


Polymerization Rate Constant

120oF 160oF 200oF 230oF

ABB/Lummus
Fouling Deposits in Compressors

• Labyrinth Ends
• Balance Piston
• Inserts
• Return channel
• Impeller

Mitsubishi
Hans Joachim
Moellering
Siemens
Fouling Control in Cracked Gas Compressors

Hans Joachim
Moellering
Siemens
Water and Wash Oil Injection
Oil composition >
80% aromatics

Hans Joachim
Moellering
Siemens
Water Injection in Compressors

Hans Joachim
Moellering
Siemens
Refrigeration
Ethane Cracker Process Flow Diagram

Chevron
Phillips
Single Refrigerant

Ethylene : 3 levels
Propylene : 2 levels
Chevron Phillips
Frank Del Nogal
Cascade Process
Environment

Propylene

Ethylene

Process

Ethylene and propylene used


Mixed Refrigerant
Cooling Curve of Gas

Natural gas MR: 8% N2 45% C1,45%C2, 2% C3


Cracked Gas MR: Methane/Ethylene, Methane/Ethylene/Propylene
7-20% Methane, 7-20% ethylene, 50-86 %propylene
Lee
Natural Gas Cooling Curves

Single Refrigerant Mixed Refrigerant Double Mixed and


Mixed Refrigerant Single Refrigerant

Il Moon et al
Efficient Heat Exchanger Arrangement
used with Mixed Refrigerants

Kettle vs BAHE Frank Del Nogal


Olefin Plant Refrigeration System

In 2010 there were 13


mixed refrigeration
systems in operation and
9 more in engineering

Lummus
US 6,637,237
Coalescers

Pall
Furnace

Linde
Tubes
1-2.5 in DI tubes
Length reduced to about 30-40 feet

Operate between 1900-2100oF

Residence time : 0.2 seconds

Element C Ni Cr Mn Al Ta Ti Si
% min .35 38 28 .5 - - Add 0.5
% max .6 42 32 1.5 3 add Add 2

Carburization resistance, longer run lengths Sandvik


G Verdier, Manoir Industries
Gas Chromatography
Mass Chromatograph vs GC

Emerson
Coke Resistant Coating
• CAMOL Coating, BASF, Quantiam

majid.keyvani@lyondellbasell.com
Camol Coating Benefits

Quantiam / BASF
Effect of Fins on Furnace Efficiency

Nova Chemicals, US 2012/0251407 A1


Thanks!

Gabriel Castaneda, P.E.


713 873 1708
Gabriel@gabcheminc.com
Water Injection In Compressors

Hans Joachim
Moellering
Siemens
Steam Cracking Furnace

A Chauvel
Heat Exchanger for Cracked Gas

US 2008/0121383
Linde Furnace

US 20030070963
KM Van Geem
Steam Cracking Furnace

Nova Chemicals, US 2012/0251407 A1


Mixed Refrigerant Loop for Ethylene Process

M Amidpour
Composite Curve of System
Selection of Mixed Refrigerant Composition
C1 to C4 and Nitrogen
Cracked Gas Compressor
Failures/ Problems Overview

Bill Broussard
Emerson
Steam Cracking Furnace

A Chauvel
Linde Furnace

US 20030070963
Cold Separation of Products

A Chauvel
Hydraulic Fracturing

Propublica.org
North America New Polyethylene Projects

Sarpol
Global Polyethylene Capacity Additions

Sorpol
Furnace Main Components

Linde
Hydrocarbon Pyrolisis Furnace

US 7718052
Heat Exchanger for Cracked Gas

US 2008/0121383
Announced Capacity, 1000 MT
2012-2014 2016-2020
BASF/Total (Port Arthur) 180
Chevron Phillips (Cedar Bayou) 1500
Dow (Taft/ Freeport) 396 1500*
Eastman 90
Equistar (all locations) 521
Exxon (Baytown) 1500
Formosa (Point Comfort) 800
Ineos (Chocolate Bayou) 107
Oxy (Ingleside) 550*
Sasol (Lake Charles) 1400
Shell (Northeast) 1000*%
Westlake (Lake Charles / Calvert City) 310
Williams (Geismar) 300
Nova (Sarnia) 250*
Braskem / Idesa (Mexico) 1000
Total 1894 9500
Cummulative Total 11394

IHS
Coalescers/ Filters in Ethane Cracking Process

Pall
Ethylene Production Costs, Naphtha, 2010
utilities costs
item dollars/ton
naphtha 1651.1
catalyt and chemicals 3.6 0.02 0.00
0.10 0.06
raw materials cost 1655

fuel 195.1 fuel


high pressure steam, (40 bar) 24.1 high pressure steam, (40 bar)
cooling water 14 cooling water
electricity 5.9 electricity
other utilities 0.3 0.81 other utilities
total utilities 239.4

total variable costs 1894.4

direct fixed cost 38.8


allocated fixed cost 31.8

total costs 1965