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Tests of Hypotheses

Hypothesis Testing

Fundamentals of Hypothesis Testing

There two types of statistical inferences

Estimation and

Hypothesis Testing

(assumption) about one or more population

parameters.

Average price of a six-pack in the U.S. is μ = $4.90

The population mean monthly cell phone bill of this

city is: μ = $42

The average number of TV sets in U.S. Homes is

equal to three; μ = 3

Hypothesis Testing

I believe the

Reject

population mean

hypothesis!

Population age is 50

Not close.

(hypothesis).

Random

sample

Mean

X = 20

Hypothesis Testing

sample evidence and probability theory to determine

whether the hypothesis is a reasonable statement.

Fundamentals of Hypothesis Testing

It Is always about a population parameter, not about a

sample statistic

Sample evidence is used to assess the probability that

the claim about the population parameter is true

H 0 :μ 3 and X=2.79

A. It starts with Null Hypothesis, H0

difference between the sample statistic and true

population parameter is due to chance and not a real

(systematic) difference.

2. Similar to the notion of “innocent until proven guilty”

3. That is, “innocence” is a null hypothesis.

Fundamentals of Hypothesis Testing

B. Next we state the Alternative Hypothesis, H1

1. Is the opposite of the null hypothesis

1. e.g., The average number of TV sets in U.S. homes is

not equal to 3 ( H1: μ ≠ 3 )

2. Challenges the status quo

3. May or may not be proven

4. Is generally the hypothesis that the researcher is trying

to prove. Evidence is always examined with respect to

H1, never with respect to H0.

5. We never “accept” H0, we either “reject” or “not reject”

it

Formulate the Hypothesis

parameter developed for the purpose of testing numerical evidence. It is

represented by H0.

data provide sufficient evidence that the null hypothesis is false. It is

represented by H1 or Ha

Nothing new or interesting happening here!

Ha may usually be considered the researcher’s

hypothesis.

10-8

Important Things to Remember about H0 and H1

The purpose of hypothesis testing is to decide which of the

two hypotheses to support: H0 or Ha?

H0 and H1 are mutually exclusive and collectively exhaustive.

H0 is always presumed to be true.

H1 has the burden of proof.

A random sample (n) is used to “reject H0.”

If we conclude “do not reject H0,” this does not necessarily

mean that the null hypothesis is true, it only suggests that

there is not sufficient evidence to reject H0; rejecting the null

hypothesis, suggests that the alternative hypothesis may be

true given the probability of Type I error.

Equality is always part of H0 (e.g. “=”, “≥”, “≤”).

Inequality is always part of H1 (e.g. “≠”, “<”, “>”).

Summary:

In the process of hypothesis testing, the null hypothesis

initially is assumed to be true

Data are gathered and examined to determine whether the

evidence is strong enough with respect to the alternative

hypothesis to reject the assumption.

In another words, the burden is placed on the researcher

to show, using sample information, that the null

hypothesis is false.

If the sample information is sufficient enough in favor of

the alternative hypothesis, then the null hypothesis is

rejected. This is the same as saying if the persecutor has

enough evidence of guilt, the “innocence is rejected.

Of course, erroneous conclusions are possible, type I and

type II errors.

Step 1: Formulate the Hypothesis

The test of the null hypothesis is a one-tailed test, when

the alternative hypothesis is expressed directionally. Null

Hypothesis: not more than 40% if internet users shop via

the Internet. p

H0: 0.40

H1: p > 0.40

required, and the hypotheses would be expressed as:

Null Hypothesis: 40% if internet users shop via the

Internet.

H0: p = 0.40

H1:p 0.40

What Are the Hypotheses?

from 12 hours?

State the opposite statistically: = 12

Select the alternative hypothesis: Ha: 12

State the null hypothesis: H0: = 12

What Are the Hypotheses?

$25?

State the opposite statistically: 25

Select the alternative hypothesis: Ha: 25

State the null hypothesis: H0: 25

OUR PROBLEM

When originally setting the rates they believed that the

average claim amount was $1,800. They are concerned

that the true mean is actually higher than this, because

they could potentially lose a lot of money. They randomly

select 40 claims, and calculate a sample mean of $1,950.

Assuming that the standard deviation of all claims is $500,

and test to see if the insurance company should be

concerned.

OUR PROBLEM

H0: µ = 1800

&

H1: µ > 1800

Reason for Rejecting H0

US is 50 years (H0=50). If in fact this is the true

(unknown) population mean, it is unlikely that we get a

sample mean of 20. So, if we have a sample that

produces an average of 20, them we reject that the null

hypothesis that average age is 50. (note that we are

rejecting our assumption or claim). (would we get 20 if

the true population mean was 50? Probably NO. That is

why we reject 50)

How Is the Test done?

We use the distribution of a Test Statistic, such as Z or t

as the criteria.

Basic Idea

Sampling Distribution

It is unlikely

that we would ... therefore, we

get a sample reject the

mean of this hypothesis that

value ... = 50.

... if in fact this were

the population mean

20 = 50 Sample Means

H0

Step 2: State a Level of Significance

Defined as the probability of rejecting the null hypothesis when

it is actually true.

This is denoted by the Greek letter “α”.

Also known as Type I Error.

We select this probability prior to collecting data and

testing the hypothesis.

A typical value of “α” is 0.05.

-> Significance level—the upper-bound probability of a Type I

error

1 - ->confidence level—the complement of significance level

Step 2: State a Level of Significance

Type II Error

• Type II error occurs when, based on the sample

results, the null hypothesis is not rejected when it is

in fact false.

• The probability of type II error is denoted by β.

Type I vs Type II error

magnitude of β depends on the actual value of the

population parameter (proportion).

Type I and II Errors:

different types of incorrect decisions.

Type I Error

Rejecting a true null hypothesis when it should NOT be

rejected

Considered a serious type of error

The probability of Type I Error is

It is also called level of significance of the test

Type II Error

Fail to reject a false null hypothesis that should have been

rejected

The probability of Type II Error is β

Type I and Type II errors cannot happen at the same time

1. Type I error can only occur if H0 is true

2. Type II error can only occur if H0 is false

3. There is a tradeoff between type I and II errors. If the

probability of type I error ( ) increased, then the

probability of type II error ( β ) declines.

4. When the difference between the hypothesized

parameter and the actual true value is small, the

probability of type two error (the non-rejection region)

is larger.

5. Increasing the sample size, n, for a given level of ,

reduces β

Summary of Errors Involved in Hypothesis Testing

Based on

Sample Data H0 is True H0 is False

Correct decision Type II error

H0 is True Confidence level

= 1- P (Type II error) =

Correct decision

Type I error

H0 is False Significance level Power = 1-

= *

committing a Type I error

Step 3: Formulate a Decision Rule for the Test

Divide the distribution into rejection and non-rejection

regions

Defines the unlikely values of the sample statistic if the

null hypothesis is true, the critical value(s)

Defines rejection region of the sampling distribution

Rejection region(s) is designated by , (level of

significance)

Typical values are .01, .05, or .10

is selected by the researcher at the beginning

provides the critical value(s) of the test

Rejection Region or Critical Value Approach:

Level of significance =

Non-rejection region

Represents

H0: μ = 12 a /2 a /2 critical value

H1: μ ≠ 12

Two-tail test 0

H0: μ ≤ 12 a Rejection

H1: μ > 12 region is

Upper-tail test 0 shaded

H0: μ ≥ 12

a

H1: μ < 12

Lower-tail test 0

Test statistics

TEST STATISTIC A value, determined from sample

information, used to determine whether to fail to reject or

reject the null hypothesis.

To test hypotheses about population means we use the z or

t-statistic.

x µ0 x µ0 x

z t

x s n s n

Based on the selected level of significance, the critical value

is the dividing point between the region where the null

hypothesis is rejected and the region where it is not rejected.

If the test statistic (t or z) is greater than or less than the

critical value (in the region of rejection), then reject the null

hypothesis.

Step 3: Formulate a Decision Rule for the Test

Testing:

1. The rejection region approach allows you to examine

evidence but restrict you to not more than a certain

probability (say = 5%) of rejecting a true H0 by

mistake.

2. The P-value approach allows you to use the information

from the sample and then calculate the maximum

probability of rejecting a true H0 by mistake.

3. Another way of looking at P-value is the probability of

observing a sample information of “A=11.5” when the

true population parameter is “12=B”. The P-value is the

maximum probability of such mistake taking place.

P-Value Approach –

P-value=Max. Probability of (Type I Error), calculated from the

sample.

Given the sample information what is the size of blue are?

H0: μ = 12

H1: μ ≠ 12

Two-tail test 0

H0: μ ≤ 12

H1: μ > 12

Upper-tail test 0

H0: μ ≥ 12

H1: μ < 12

B. P-Value approach to Hypothesis Testing, Cont.

of for which H0 can be rejected based on the

sample information

5. Convert Sample Statistic (e.g., sample mean) to

Test Statistic (e.g., Z statistic )

6. Obtain the p-value from a table or computer

7. Compare the p-value with

If p-value < , reject H0

If p-value , do not reject H0

Test of Hypothesis for the Mean

σ known σ Unknown

X μ X μ

Z t n-1

σ S

n n

Steps to Hypothesis Testing

2. Identify the test statistic (two-tail, one-tail, and Z

or t distribution

3. Depending on the type of risk you are willing to

take, specify the level of significance,

4. Find the decision rule, critical values, and

rejection regions. If –CV<actual value (sample

statistic) <+CV, then do not reject the H0

5. Collect the data and do the calculation for the

actual values of the test statistic from the sample

Steps to Hypothesis testing, continued

(There is sufficient evidence of

H1)

Make

management/business/admi

nistrative decision

Review of Hypo. Testing

What is HT?

Probability of making erroneous conclusions

Type I – only when Null Hypo is true

Type II – only when Null Hypo is false

Two Approaches

The Rejection or Critical Value Approach

The P-value Approach (we calculate the observed level of significance)

Test Statistics

Z- distribution if Population Std. Dev. is Know

t-distribution if the Population Std. Dev. is unknown

Tests About

a

Population Mean

Hypothesis Tests for the Mean

Hypothesis

Test for μ

(n≥30)Populatio (n<30)Population

has normal dist.

n has any dist.

(z test) (t test)

Known: use σ Unknown: use s

Unknown: use s

Large-Sample Test of Hypothesis about µ

H0: µ = µ0

x - µ0 x - µ0

Test Statistic: z= »

sx s n

Alternative

Hypothesis Rejection Region

H a : 0 z z

H a : 0 z z

H a : 0 z z / 2 or z z / 2

Hypothesis Tests for the Mean

Hypothesis

Test for μ

(n≥30)Populatio (n<30)Population

has normal dist.

n has any dist.

(z test) (t test)

Known: use σ Unknown: use s

Unknown: use s

Small-Sample Test of Hypothesis about µ

H0: µ = µ0

x-m

Test Statistic: t =

s n

Alternative

Hypothesis Rejection Region

H a : 0 t t ,n 1

H a : 0 t t , n 1

H a : 0 t t / 2, n 1 or t t / 2,n 1

where t and t are based on (n – 1) degrees of freedom

OUR PROBLEM

When originally setting the rates they believed that the

average claim amount was $1,800. They are concerned

that the true mean is actually higher than this, because

they could potentially lose a lot of money. They randomly

select 40 claims, and calculate a sample mean of $1,950.

Assuming that the standard deviation of all claims is $500,

and test to see if the insurance company should be

concerned.

Set α = .05

OUR PROBLEM

H0: µ = 1800

&

H1: µ > 1800

OUR PROBLEM

Test statistics is

OUR PROBLEM

Critical value is 1.645

OR

From the test statistics z = 1.897366596

p = 0.0288897188

OUR PROBLEM

So reject Ho

Or p= 0.0288897188 < α=0.05

So reject Ho

OUR PROBLEM

average claim is higher than $1800.

GetKahooh...

Connection to Confidence Intervals

While the confidence interval estimation and hypothesis

testing serve different purposes, they are based on same

concept and conclusions reached by two methods are

consistent for a two-tail test.

mean with a degree of confidence. If the estimated interval

contains the hypothesized value under the hypothesis

testing, then this is equivalent of not rejecting the null

hypothesis. For example: let’s say that for a sample with

mean 5.20, the confidence interval is:

P(4.61 ≤ μ ≤ 5.78)=95%

we do not (did not) reject the null hypothesis at = .05

results.

Width of CI

In general, with all other things being equal:

Smaller sample size wider CIs

Higher confidence wider CIs

Larger variability wider CIs

Similarly,

Smaller sample size smaller test statistics (z, or t)

(higher rejection chance)

Lower significance larger critical value (higher

rejection chance)

Larger variability smaller test statistics (z, or t)

(higher rejection chance)

Hypothesis Test of a Population Mean, Known

Population Standard Deviation – Example

and assembles desks and other office

equipment. The weekly production of the

Model A325 desk at the Fredonia Plant

follows the normal probability

distribution with a mean of 200 and

a standard deviation of 16. Recently,

new production methods have been

introduced and new employees hired. The

VP of manufacturing would like to

investigate whether there has been a

change in the weekly production of the

Model A325 desk. Use α=0.01 (1 %)

Example

H0: = 200

H1: ≠ 200

(Note: The keyword in the problem “has changed.”)

α = 0.01 as stated in the problem.

Example

Use z-distribution since σ is known.

Example

Formulate the decision rule.

Reject H0 if |z| >z/2

z > za /2

x-m

> za /2

s/ n

203.5 - 200

> z.01/2

16 / 50

1.55 is not > 2.58

Make a decision and interpret the result.

H0 is not rejected because 1.55 does not fall in the

rejection region.

Interpret the result.

We conclude that the population mean is not different

from 200. So we would report to the vice president of

manufacturing that the sample evidence does not show that the

production rate at the plant has changed from 200 per week.

10-52

Test of a Population Mean, Known Population

Standard Deviation – One-tail Example

know whether there has been an increase in the number of

units assembled. To put it another way, can we conclude,

because of the improved production methods, that the mean

number of desks assembled in the last 50 weeks was more

than 200?

Recall: σ=16, n=200, α=.01

One-Tailed Test versus Two-Tailed Test

10-54

One-tail Example

Step 1: State the null hypothesis and the

alternate hypothesis.

H0: ≤ 200

H1: > 200

(Note: The keyword in the problem “an increase.”)

α = 0.01 as stated in the problem.

Use z-distribution since σ is known.

One-tail Example

Step 4: Formulate the decision rule.

Reject H0 if z > z.

t > -ta ,n-1

x-m

za

s n

203.5 - 200

> z.01

16 50

1.55 is not > 2.326

rejection region,

H0 is not rejected.

Step 6. Interpret the result. Based on the evidence, we

cannot conclude that the average number of desks assembled

increased in the last 50 weeks.

10-56

p-Value in Hypothesis Testing – Example

H0: ≤ 200

H1: > 200

Reject H0 if z >z,

where z = 1.55 and z = 2.33.

0.0606 is not < 0.01.

Testing for the Population Mean:

Population Standard Deviation Unknown

The population has approximately Normal distribution

The t-distribution is used as the test statistic, which is

computed using the formula:

Population Standard Deviation Unknown Example

reports the mean cost to process a claim is $60. An

industry comparison showed this amount to be larger than

most other insurance companies, so the company instituted

cost-cutting measures. To evaluate the effect of the cost-

cutting measures, the Supervisor of the Claims Department

selected a random sample of 26 claims processed last

month. The sample information is reported below.

At the .01 significance level, is it reasonable to conclude that

a claim is now less than $60?

Example

Step 1: State the null hypothesis and the alternate

hypothesis.

H0: ≥ $60

H1: < $60

(Note: The keyword in the problem is “now less than.”)

α = 0.01 as stated in the problem.

Since σ is unknown, use a t-distribution with n-1 (26 – 1 =

25)

degrees of freedom.

t-Distribution Table (Portion)

Example

Step 4: Formulate the decision rule.

Reject H0 if t < -t,n-1.

rejection region, H0 is not rejected at the .01 significance level. OR

p-value is around 0.04, which is >0.01.

cost-cutting measures reduced the mean cost per claim to less than

$60. The difference of $3.58 ($56.42 - $60) between the sample

mean and the population mean could be due to sampling error.

10-62

One-Tailed t Test Example

140 ampere-hours? A random sample of 20

batteries had a mean of 138.47 and a

standard deviation of 2.66. Assume a normal

distribution. Test at the .05 level of

significance.

One-Tailed t Test Solution

Ha: < 140 x 138.47 140

t 2.57

=.05 s 2.66

df =20 – 1 = 19 n 20

Critical Value(s):

Decision:

Reject H0 Reject at = .05

.05 Conclusion:

There is evidence population

-1.729 0 t average is less than 140

Large-Sample Test of Hypothesis

about a Population Proportion

Hypothesis Tests for the Proportion

Hypothesis Test

for p

(np0 ≥ 15 and nq0 ≥ (np0 < 15 or nq0 <

15) 15)

(z test)

p̂ - p0

z=

p0 q0 / n

Conditions Required for a Valid Large-

Sample Hypothesis Test for p

population.

2. The sample size n is large. (This condition will be

satisfied if both np0 ≥ 15 and nq0 ≥ 15.)

Large-Sample Test of Hypothesis about p

H0: p = p0

p̂ - p0 where s p̂ = p0 q0 n

Test Statistic: z =

s p̂

q0 = 1 - p0

Alternative

Hypothesis Rejection Region

z z

Ha: p > p0

Ha : p < p 0 z z

Ha: p ≠ p0 z z / 2 or z z / 2

One-Proportion z Test Example

system produces 10%

defective cereal boxes.

Using a new system, a

random sample of 200

boxes had 11 defects.

Does the new system

produce fewer defects?

Test at the .05 level of

significance.

One-Proportion z Test Solution

11

Ha: p < .10 ˆp p0 200 .10

z 2.12

=.05 p0 q0 .10 .90

n =200 n 200

Critical Value(s):

Decision:

Reject H0 Reject at = .05

.05 Conclusion:

There is evidence new

-1.645 0 z system < 10% defective

One-Proportion z Test Example

A year-end audit showed 4% of

transactions had errors. You

implement new procedures. A

random sample of 500

transactions had 25 errors. Has

the proportion of incorrect

transactions changed at the

.05 level of significance?

One-Proportion z Test Solution

25

Ha: p .04 pˆ p0

.04

z 500 1.14

=.05 p0 q0 .04 .96

n =500 n 500

Critical Value(s):

Decision:

Reject H 0 Reject H 0

Do not reject at = .05

.025 .025 Conclusion:

There is evidence

-1.96 0 1.96 z proportion is not 4%

Test of Hypothesis about a Population

Variance

Variance

about a population mean (or proportion), it is sometimes

of interest to make an inference about a population

variance, 2.

Examples:

Investors use variance as a measure of risk.

Conditions Required for a Valid Hypothesis Test for 2

population.

2. The population from which the sample is selected has a

distribution that is approximately normal.

Hypothesis Tests for the Variance

Hypothesis

Test for σ2

population has normal

distribution

Test Statistic:

c 2 = (n -1)s 2 / (s 0 )2

Test of a Hypothesis about 2 (Variance)

Test Statistic: c2 =

( n - 1) s 2

s 02

Alternative

Hypothesis Rejection Region

Ha: < 0 <

Ha: ≠ 0 c 2 < c(21-a 2) or c 2 > c(2a 2)

is based on (n – 1) degrees of freedom.

Several 2 probability Distributions

Critical Values of Chi Square

distribution. So, be careful…

Finding Critical Value Example

Ha: 2 > 0.7

Reject

n=3

=.05? = .05

df = n - 1 = 2

0 5.991 2

2 Table Upper Tail Area

(Portion)

DF .995 … .95 … .05

1 ... … 0.004 … 3.841

2 0.010 … 0.103 … 5.991

Finding Critical Value Example

Ha: 2 < 0.7

n=3

What do you do

=.05? if the rejection

region is on the

left?

Finding Critical Value Example

Ha: 2 < 0.7

n=3

=.05?

df = n - 1 = 2

.103

Chi-Square (2) Test Example

of cereal, measured by

the variance, equal to

15 grams? A random

sample of 25 boxes had

a standard deviation of

17.7 grams. Test at the

.05 level of significance.

Chi-Square (2) Test Solution

H0:2 = 15

Test Statistic:

Ha:2 15

(25 1) 17.7

2

(n 1) s 2

=.05

2

df =25 – 1 = 24

2

0 152

= 33.42

Critical Value(s):

Decision:

/2 = .025 Do not reject at = .05

Conclusion:

There is no evidence

0 12.401 39.364 2 2 is not 15

Calculating Type II Error Probabilities:

More about

Type II Error

defined as the probability of rejecting the null

hypothesis when it is actually true. It is denoted by

the Greek letter alpha, “”.

“accepting” the null hypothesis when it is actually

false. It is denoted by the Greek letter beta, “β”.

Type II Error

that the null hypothesis is false because it is defined as

the probability of accepting H0 when it is false.

The situation corresponding to accepting the null

hypothesis, and thereby risking a Type II error, is not

generally as controllable.

For that reason, we adopted a policy of nonrejection of

H0 when the test statistic does not fall in the rejection

region, rather than risking an error of unknown

magnitude.

Type II Error

EXAMPLE

A manufacturer purchases steel bars to make cotter pins.

Past experience indicates that the mean tensile

strength of all incoming shipments is 10,000 psi and

that the standard deviation, σ, is 400 psi. In order to

make a decision about incoming shipments of steel

bars, the manufacturer set up this rule for the quality-

control inspector to follow: “Take a sample of 100 steel

bars. At the .05 significance level if the sample mean

strength falls between the correct limits, accept the lot.

Otherwise the lot is to be rejected.”

Type II Error

Type II Error

Then the prob of “not rejecting a sample” although the

mean is 9000 is

Type I and Type II Errors Illustrated

Type II Errors For Varying Mean Levels

Steps for Calculating for a Large-Sample Test

about µ

border(s) of the rejection region. There will be one

border value for a one-tailed test and two for a two-

tailed test. The formula is one of the following,

corresponding to a test with level of significance :

Upper-tailed test:

s

x0 0 z x 0 z

n

Steps for Calculating for a Large-Sample

Test about µ

s

Lower-tailed test: x0 0 z x 0 z

n

s

Two-tailed test: x0, L 0 z 2 x 0 z 2

n

s

x0, U 0 z 2 x 0 z 2

n

Steps for Calculating for a Large-Sample

Test about µ

for which the value of is to be calculated. Then

convert the border value(s) of x0 to z-value(s) using

the alternative distribution with mean µa. The general

formula for the z-value is

x0 a

z

x

Steps for Calculating for a Large-Sample

Test about µ

and shade the area in the acceptance (nonrejection)

region. Use the z-statistic(s) and Table II in Appendix

D to find the shaded area, which is .

Power of Test

• Correct decision

Equal to 1 –

Used in determining test adequacy

Affected by

• True value of population parameter

• Significance level

• Standard deviation & sample size n

Two-Tailed z Test Example

cereal contain 368 grams

of cereal? A random

sample of 25 boxes had x

= 372.5. The company

has specified to be 15

grams. Test at the .05

level of significance. 368 gm.

Finding Power

Step 1

Hypothesis: n Reject H0

Do Not

H0: 0 368 15

25 Reject H0

Draw

Ha: 0 < 368 = .05

0 = 368 x

Finding Power

Steps 2 & 3

Hypothesis: n Reject H0

Do Not

H0: 0 368 15

25 Reject H0

Draw

Ha: 0 < 368 = .05

0 = 368 x

‘True’ Situation:

a = 360 (Ha)

Draw

1–

Specify

a = 360 x

Finding Power

Step 4

Hypothesis: n Reject H0

Do Not

H0: 0 368 15

25 Reject H0

Draw

Ha: 0 < 368 = .05

0 = 368 x

15

‘True’ Situation:

a = 360 (Ha)

xL 0 z

n

368 1.64

25

Draw

363.065

1–

Specify

= 360 363.065

a

x

Finding Power

Step 5

Hypothesis: n Reject H0

Do Not

H0: 0 368 15

25 Reject H0

Draw

Ha: 0 < 368 = .05

0 = 368 x

‘True’ Situation:

a = 360 (Ha)

xL 0 z

368 1.64

15

Draw n 25

= .154

363.065

Specify

z Table 1– =.846

= 360

a

363.065

x

Properties of and Power

the value of

decreases, and the

power increases as

the distance

between the

specified null value

µ0 and the specified

alternative value µa

increases.

Properties of and Power

values of µ0

and µa, the

value of

increases, and

the power

decreases as

the value of

is decreased.

Properties of and Power

of decreases, and the power increases as the

sample size n is increased.

Key Ideas

Parameter

– Mean, Average

p – Proportion, Fraction, Percentage, Rate,

Probability

2 – Variance, Variability, Spread

Key Ideas

1. Null hypothesis (H0)

2. Alternative hypothesis (Ha)

3. Test statistic (z, t, or 2)

4. Significance level ()

5. p-value

6. Conclusion

Key Ideas

(occurs with probability )

Type II Error = Accept H0 when H0 is false

(occurs with probability )

Power of Test = P(Reject H0 when H0 is false)

=1–

Key Ideas

Lower-tailed : Ha : < 50

Upper-tailed : Ha : > 50

Two-tailed : Ha : ≠ 50

Key Ideas

2. Obtain p-value of the test

3. If > p-value, reject H0

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