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The Three Stages of Cellular

Respiration
How eukaryotic cells produce ATP
Glycolysis
• In the cytoplasm
• Does NOT require oxygen (is anaerobic)
• Substrate (starting reactant) is glucose
• Products include:
• 1) 2, 3-C molecules of pyruvate
• 2) NADH (to use later)
• 3) 2 ATP
Glycolysis
• Glucose (6-C)

• 2 Pyruvate (3-C)
• 2ATP
• NADH
Krebs (Citric Acid) Cycle
• In the mitochondrial matrix
• O2 is present (is aerobic)
• Substrate is Acetyl-CoA (made from pyruvate)
• Products include:
• 1) 2 ATP
• 2) NADH and FADH2 (to use later)
• 3) CO2
The Coenzymes
• NADH and FADH2 are coenzymes
• They carry high energy electrons (and
hydrogen atoms)
• The e- are passed on to the electron transport
chain
Oxidative Phosphorylation
(Electron Transport Chain)
• In and across the cristae (folds of inner
membrane)
• O2 present; serves as the final e- acceptor
• Substrate: the electrons (and hydrogen
atoms) carried on NADH and FADH2
• Products:
• 1) 34 ATP (made by chemiosmosis)
• 2) H2O
H+ H+ H+ H+
H+
Protein H+ H+
complex Electron H+
of electron H+ ATP
Intermembrane carrier synthase
carriers
space

Inner
mitochondrial
membrane
FADH2 FAD
Electron
flow 1
NADH NAD+ 
2 O2 + 2 H+
H+
Mitochondrial H+
matrix ADP + P ATP
H+ H2O H+

Electron Transport Chain Chemiosmosis

OXIDATIVE PHOSPHORYLATION
Chemiosmosis
• The redox reactions cause a build-up of H+ ions
in the intermembrane space.
• This creates a chemical (and electrical) gradient
across the inner membrane.
• The H+ ions flow through ATP synthase to get
back into the matrix.
• This flow of H+ ions provides the energy needed
to catalyze the production of ATP from ADP + P.
ATP synthase serves as the enzyme PLUS the
channel for the ions to get through.