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CONCEPTS OF

CULTURE AND ITS


IMPORTANCE
• Definition and concept of culture
• Race and ethnicity in Malaysia
• Demographics of race and ethnicity in Malaysia
• The importance of understanding the concept of culture
WHAT IS CULTURE?
THE IMPORTANCE OF UNDERSTANDING
THE CONCEPT OF CULTURE
DIVERSE STUDENTS

1. motivational and learning characteristics of


students different culture and background
2. interplay of social and cultural diversity and
learning style, curriculum content and
instructional style
DIVERSE STUDENTS

• Social relational skills, values, characteristics


• Information processing orientations and skills
• Communication patterns
• Learning styles and strategies
• Motivational styles
• Psychological characteristics
CULTURAL, LEARNING AND
MOTIVATIONAL STYLES
• Non-traditional • Traditional
– Social interactions – Independence
– Peer cooperation – Competition
– Performance – Verbal skills
– Visual perception
– Symbolic expression
– Narrative
CULTURAL, LEARNING AND
MOTIVATIONAL STYLES
• Females • Males
– affiliation – separation
– relationships – autonomy
– collaborative- cooperative – competitive achievements
interaction
LEARNING STYLES

Relational Analytical
– holistic, global – focus on detail
– intuitive – sequential
– social – impersonal
– verbal – abstract
– nonacademic task oriented – academic task oriented
– affected by opinions – not affected by opinions
– withdraw from drill – persist in drills
– style conflicts with school environments – styles matches school environments
EXPERIENTIAL LEARNING MODEL

Concrete Experience

Testing Implications Observations and


of Concepts in New Reflections
Situations

Formation of Abstract
Concepts and Generalizations
EFFECTIVE TEACHING STRATEGIES
• Concrete Experience- readings, examples,
fieldwork, problems, observations, simulations,
primary texts, films, games
• Reflective Observation - logs, journals, discussion,
brainstorming, thought/rhetorical questions
• Abstract Conceptualization - lecture, papers, projects,
analogies, model building
• Active Experimentation - projects, fieldwork,
homework, laboratory, case study, simulations
PRECAUTIONS FOR USING
INSTRUCTIONAL TECHNOLOGIES
• Purpose
• Evaluation of Effectiveness
–teaching
–learning
• Back-up plans
• Reliance on Infrastrucure
“SEVEN PRINCIPLES OF GOOD PRACTICE”
• Increase Contact Cooperation
• Active Learning Feedback
• Time on Task High Expectations
• Respects Diverse Talents and Ways of Learning

• Chickering and Ehrmann 1996 IMPLEMENTING THE SEVEN PRINCIPLES: Technology as


Lever. AAHE Bulletin