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DMAIC Tools

DMAIC Roadmap & Tools

Define Measure Analyse Improve Control

Waste walk Affinity diagram SMED


Prioritization KANBAN
matrix
TPM
5 Ws Flow analysis
Process map
SIPOC Brainstorming Standardize Costs saving
VSM work calculation
VOC 5 whys
Data collection Poke Yoke Control plan
CTQ Tree Ishikawa
plan
5S Control chart
Stakeholder FMEA
Check sheet
analysis 5D Process audit
Histogram
Benchmarking
WBS
Pareto
Project Charter
Scatter plot
Run chart

Capability
Process sigma
Process sigma calculation
calculation
©Triumph DMAIC, EL OTMANI Hicham 2
Define

5 Ws • Define the problem with it’s border


SIPOC • Identify the customer and his needs
VOC & CTQ • Identify the appropriate measure

Stakeholder • Stakeholder = people that can impact or be impacted by the project


analysis • Define stakeholder by importance in term of influence and interest

Analysis • Decomposition of the project in smaller component


WBS • Organize and define the total work scope of the project

• One page report which define the reasons of undertaking the project, business
Project case, objectives, constraints and team
charter • In scope and out of scope items and data collection plan
3
• Summarize causes, actions, deadlines and results
• Structures the project via the DMAIC approach including major milestones

©Triumph DMAIC, EL OTMANI Hicham 3


Measure

Waste walk • Physical observation of the flow to identify and eliminate waste

Prioritization • Prioritize issues in term of difficulty and impact


matrix

• Structured way of documenting process using standard symbols


Process map • Analyze and design the flow of materials and information required to bring a
VSM product or service to a consumer from actual to an improved future state.
• It can be applied to nearly any value chain.

Data • Define a plan of data CTQ collection (who, frequency…)


collection • Identify and measure a CTQ when data is not available
Check sheet

Benchmarking • Compare and find best practice from other similar processes or companies

Capability • Measure the capability of the system to produce required quality


6 sigma • Measure the system variability and stability
calculation • Measure the standard deviation of the system
©Triumph DMAIC, EL OTMANI Hicham 4
Analyse

Brainstorming • List and group all potential causes and effects


Affinity diagram • Categorize and prioritize brainstorming ideas

5 whys • Define root causes


Ishikawa • Define relation between causes and effects

Flow chart • Draw the process flow to understand it

• Prioritize problem in term of frequency, concurrency and severity


FMEA
• Define causes and develop adequate solutions

Histogram • Visualise impacts


Pareto • Identify highest impact sources
Scatter plot • Identify relation between causes and effects

©Triumph DMAIC, EL OTMANI Hicham 5


Improve

• Save time by rapid changeover (SMED)


SMED
KANBAN • Change the flow from push to pull by JIT (KANBAN)
• Minimum batch sizes

• Achieve Zero Defects, Zero Breakdown and Zero accidents in all functional
areas of the organization.
TPM
• Involve people at all levels of organization.
• Form different teams to reduce defects and drive Self Maintenance.

Standardize • Define and write work standard


work
• Avoid errors sources
Poke Yoke

5S • Organize workspace for efficiency and effectiveness basis for discipline

5D • Basic problem solving tool


• Define, containment, root causes, corrective actions and preventive action

©Triumph DMAIC, EL OTMANI Hicham 6


Control

Cost saving • Measure the actions implementation impact in term of savings


calculation

• Control the measure that is being put in place its impact and continuity
Control plan • Define measures and their frequency
Control chart • Determine if a manufacturing or business process is in a state of statistical
control

Process audit • Audits new state process

Process sigma
• Statistical calculation to audit and control result
calculation

©Triumph DMAIC, EL OTMANI Hicham 7


Tools Definition

©Triumph DMAIC, EL OTMANI Hicham 8


Define Measure Analyse Improve Control

5 Ws
•Who is it about?
• Line efficiency

•What happened?
• Efficiency drop down

•When did it take place?


• Since one month

•Where did it take place?


• Line A, B and D

•Why did it happen?


• Novelties introduction

• “How?”
• Daily average drop down

o Each question should have a factual answer — facts necessary to include for a report
to be considered complete.
o Importantly, none of these questions can be answered with a simple "yes" or "no

©Triumph DMAIC, EL OTMANI Hicham 9


Define Measure Analyse Improve Control

SIPOC:Supplier/Input/Process/Output/Customers
SIPOC
A tool used to identify and categorize the parts of a process as relating to
either the suppliers, inputs, process, outputs, or customers.

Supplier Input Process Output Customer


IT prod Min Coupons launching
Finished QC
Cutting Cutted pcs
goods
WH Accessories Preparation
operations

Counting
Work Study AD
Assembly operations

End of line operations

©Triumph DMAIC, EL OTMANI Hicham 10


Define Measure Analyse Improve Control

VOC :
Collective insight into customer needs, wants, perceptions, and preferences gained
through direct and indirect questioning. These discoveries are translated into meaningful
objectives that help in closing the gap between customer expectations and the firm's
offerings.
CTQ tree Aspect CTQ Definition Spec

VOC Quality

Sewing lines Produced minutes/


complain Cost ( 82%
that OEE presence+absence)
efficiency
drop down Produced mins
Efficiency /presence minutes -
influences its minutes HR
results in
term of Delivery Time Between
delivery and preparation and
Leadtime 18 days
cost expedition of
commission

97%
Service OTIF

General Specific
Not© easy to measure Easy to measure
Triumph DMAIC, EL OTMANI Hicham 11
Define Measure Analyse Improve Control

PROJECT ONE PAGE CHARTER Define Measure Analyse Improve Control


Deadline Deadline Deadline Deadline Deadline
Title : 1. BUSINESS CASE S Q C D E 4. IMPROVEMENT PLAN OVERALL STATUS LEGEND
X X Completed
Work in Progress
Area: Process serial:
Business KPI impact Behind Schedule

UPDATED: Sl. No. Action Date Who Status


1
2
In scope 3
4
Out of scope 5
6
7
2.MEASURE 8
LEGEN D
5. CONTROL STATE OV ER A LL ST A T U S
Summary Chart Completed
Work in Progress
No of Defects Behind Schedule

Seam w idth
Soiling Defects improvement
Current Issues-
Delays AQL improvement
Nos. of Hand offs Rew ork/Yield improvement
Rolled Yield Process Metrics
% Defect Scrap Rework
RM Handwork Environment

Root cause 1
Effect Root cause 2
3. ANALYSIS Root cause 3
Business Metrics
Hard($) Soft($) Others(eg C.sat.)
Missing label in
finished good
Key Changes-

6. LEARNINGS
1. OBJECTIVES

©Triumph
Machine / Tools Method
DMAIC, EL OTMANI Hicham 12
Define Measure Analyse Improve Control

Stakeholder analysis
Managerial step taken to identify each stockholder's level of interest or
involvement in a given project and how that involvement can influence the
project. Based on this analysis, project managers may alter how a project will be
executed or decide the necessary steps that must be taken in order to limit a
stockholder's influence over the project.


StakeHolder Analysis

Lines Sup
Influence / Power of stakeholders Mecanic

HR

Method

Controllers

Meet their interest Key player

Packaging

Least importante Show considaration →


©Triumph DMAIC, EL OTMANI Hicham 13
Interest of stakeholders
Define Measure Analyse Improve Control

WBS
Deliverable oriented decomposition of a project into smaller components.

1-
Project : efficiency
drop down

1-1 1-2 1-3 1-4 1-5


Define Team Define project Define Implement Close
measure action plan

1-1-1 1-2-1 1-3-1 1-4-1 1-5-1


Production VOC Measurement Brainstorming Control chart
plan
1-1-2 1-2-2 1-4-2 1-5-2
Quality Stakeholders Ishikawa Control plan
1-3-2
VSM
1-1-3 1-2-3 1-4-3 1-5-3
Methods Validate project FMEA Audit
1-3-3
Benchmark with
1-1-4 1-4-4
Sefrou
Mecanics Action plan

©Triumph DMAIC, EL OTMANI Hicham 14


Define Measure Analyse Improve Control

Waste walk Potential change


to avoid / improve
Process Waste Description waste
description
Process walk worksheet
Date : ………………………………………… Page n° : …………………………………………
Process reference : ………………………………………… of : ………………………………………… Change action
Process Description : ………………………………………… priority
IDENTIFICATION OF WASTE
KEY POINTS OBSERVATION DESIRED CHANGES PRIORITY
OVER PRODUCTION
(Too much / too fast)

TRANSPORT
(Too much / too fast)

STOCK
(Excessive stock)

REWORK
(Rework / Repair)

WAITING
(Idle-Time)

OVER-PROCESSING
(Not adding to value)

MOTION
(Inefficient movement)

7 Wastes
©Triumph DMAIC, EL OTMANI Hicham 15
Define Measure Analyse Improve Control

Prioritization matrix
These are used in process improvement to help prioritize decisions. The
Prioritization Matrix is used to sort a list of items into an order of importance
Prioritization matrices are especially useful if problem-solving resources, such
as people, time or money, are limited, or if the identified problem-solving
actions or CTQ s are strongly interrelated.

Prioritization Matrix
Importance (revenue, cost-saving, risk of not doing…)

Increasing
Ensure the AD operators
reliability flexibility

Training and
monitoring of
Workstation
sewing operators
arrangement

Motivation of
operators

No-Braines / Quick Wins More Strategic (simplify or split)

Checking the
level of difficulty
Periodic of each operation
maintenance of
machine

Possibly / Reconsider Drop →


Difficulty (time, cost, effort, risk, complexity…)
©Triumph DMAIC, EL OTMANI Hicham 16
Define Measure Analyse Improve Control

Process mapping

Diagram that represents an algorithm or process

Sewing execution
This process is done to execute sewing operations by operators.

N
Monitor
Verify machin with Monitor Operator
Method Description New Show operator * sew a batch Finished
Operator Method & operation /
(Setting + Accessories + operation / how to perform * Write operator’s Number in
Sew some Quality
Sewing Dept

Measurement chart) Operator Y Container


according to AD pces ok coupon list comission
Y/N and coupon N° * Stick the coupon com in the
allocated by Y efficiency card
sewing some pces
Monitor
Inform Controller that
an operator has a new
Launching Operator
operation
on SL Autocontrol 1/
5 pces

N
Y
N
Quality

Rdt / Method de Controlling quality Quality


travail ? according to AD ok
©Triumph DMAIC, EL OTMANI Hicham 17
Define Measure Analyse Improve Control

VSM

Seeing Waste and Planning for Improved Performance

CUSTOMERS
PLANNING
400 products
ROLLING FORECASTS
MRPII + 40,000 ca./ month
4 week leadtime
MANUAL SYSTEMS
PURCHASE FIRM 50% service level !
ORDERS ORDERS
SUPPLIERS

work work manual work work


order order intervention order order
SHIPMENT
Spread & Cut Moulding Sewing Packing
5 btc/ 8 hrs 1 btc/ 2 hrs 1 btc/ 12 hrs 1 btc/ hr
2 shifts 2 shifts 3 shifts 2 shifts
5 variants 25 variants 100 variants 400 variants
4 wks
3 machines 8 machines 3o machines 15 machines
4 wks
c/o = n/a c/o = n/a c/o = n/a c/o = 1 hr w/e
.5 wks FOM = ABC ? 2.5wks FOM = ABC?
1 wk FOM = 25/wk 6 wks
1.6 hrs .5 wks 2 hrs 2.5wks +12 hrscure
12 hr 1wk 75 1
cahr
/ btc 6 wks
ELAPSED TIME = 14w 2d
V.A. TIME = 16.6 hrs
©Triumph DMAIC, EL OTMANI Hicham 18
V.A.RATIO = 3%
Define Measure Analyse Improve Control

Data collection plan


Define a plan of data gathering

Measure Definition Calculation mode Sources Data collection Who ? When Frequency

Y Efficiency Produced mins/Presence mins-minutes HR IT Prod Estelle IT prod employe Feb 2013 monthly

X1 OEE Produced minutes/ ( presence+absence) Controlling Estelle Sara Feb 2013 monthly
Time Between preparation and expedition
X2 Leadtime of commission Planning Estelle Planning employe Feb 2013 monthly

©Triumph DMAIC, EL OTMANI Hicham 19


Define Measure Analyse Improve Control

Check sheet
A document used to collect data, such as machine performance statistics, during
the troubleshooting process. It is generally a simple form that can be filled out
on the shop floor.
Check sheet
Name of data recorder : NF
Location : Sewing Lines Fez
Data collection dates : Week 9……………………………………………………….

Dates
Event occurrence Monday Tuesday Wednsday Thursday Friday Saturday Total

Machine breakdown IIIII IIIIIII IIIIIII III IIIIII II 29


Other sections IIIIIII IIIIIIII IIIIIII IIIIIIII IIIIIII I 39

Reworks IIIIIII III IIIIIII IIIIIIIII IIIIIII IIIII 38


AD Errors II III III II II 12

Total 21 21 24 22 20 10 118

©Triumph DMAIC, EL OTMANI Hicham 20


21
Define Measure Analyse Improve Control

Benchmarking
Compare and find best practice from other similar processes or companies

©Triumph DMAIC, EL OTMANI Hicham 21


Define Measure Analyse Improve Control

Capability
Measure of the ability of a process to achieve its objectives, KPIs...

©Triumph DMAIC, EL OTMANI Hicham 22


Define Measure Analyse Improve Control

Process sigma calculation


shows how much
variation or
"dispersion" exists
from the average
(mean, or expected
value)

©Triumph DMAIC, EL OTMANI Hicham 23


Define Measure Analyse Improve Control

Affinity diagram
Idea n°1 Idea n°2 Idea n°3 Idea n°4

handwork Machines process envirenement

Data
Training Machine errors Workstation
arrangement
breakdown
Demonstration Missing
motivation

Operator

competences

Flexibility

Operators
Turn Over

The affinity diagram is a tool used to organize ideas


and data: Idea Participants marks Total
N°1 5 4 3 5 4 21
1. Record each idea on cards or notes N°2 2 5 4 3 5 19
2. Look for ideas that seem to be related N°3 4 1 5 2 1 13
3. Sort cards into groups until all cards have been N°4 1 2 1 1 2 7
used.
4. Once completed, the affinity diagram may be
used to create a cause and effect diagram

©Triumph DMAIC, EL OTMANI Hicham 24


Define Measure Analyse Improve Control

Flow analysis
The performance is used to chart a process flow from “dock to dock”
using ASME symbols (American Society of Mechanical Engineers).
Process Flow Step Measure Process Waste Identified Lean Manufacture Potential
Nº Qty. Time Dist. Description & Category of waste Man M/c Mat'ls. Meth. Envir. Maint.

Area observed: Observer: Page: of Date:


DECISION OPERATION INSPECTION STORAGE DELAY TRANSPORT

Waste Categories: 1. Overproduction 2. Waiting 3. Transport 4. Motion 5. Inventory 6. Over-processing 7. Correction

•This helps us identify waste and improvement potential.


•It is used to help us understand the current process acting as a benchmark for improvements.
©Triumph DMAIC, EL OTMANI Hicham 25
Define Measure Analyse Improve Control

Brainstorming
Brainstorming is a group or
individual creativity technique by which
efforts are made to find a conclusion for
a specific problem by gathering a list of
ideas spontaneously contributed by its
member(s).

Brainstorming golden rules :


• Focus on maximum ideas
• Withhold criticism
• Welcome unusual ideas
• Combine and improve ideas

Progress :
Enunciate topic
Establish a Rememb One by one
and display it on
working er golden team members
the board as
group rules gives ideas
©Triumph
question
DMAIC, EL OTMANI Hicham 26
Define Measure Analyse Improve Control

5 Whys
The 5 Whys is an iterative question-asking technique used to explore the cause-and-
effect relationships underlying a particular problem. (The "5" in the name derives from
an empirical observation on the number of iterations typically required to resolve the
problem.)

©Triumph DMAIC, EL OTMANI Hicham 27


Define Measure Analyse Improve Control

Ishikawa diagram

Ishikawa diagram, in fishbone shape, showing factors of equipment, Process,


People, Materials, Environment and Management, all affecting the overall
problem. Smaller arrows connect the sub-causes to major causes.

Handwork Machine
Training Labours Turn Over
Spareparts
reworks Machine breakdown
Flexibility Maintenance

Communication
AD

Bonus
Missing motivation
Efficiency drop down
Arrangement
workstation
Quality Supplier Design Technical Data Errors
Internal

Novelties
Fabric
Environment
process

©Triumph DMAIC, EL OTMANI Hicham 28


Severity (S) Occurrence (O) Detection (D)

FMEA The consequences


of a failure mode
The frequency of a
failure occurrence
The means of
detection of the
failure mode
RPN
after the
implementation of
the countermeasure

Detection
Failure root after the
The loss of an causes implementation of
intended function the countermeasure
Immediate
of a device under
consequences Occurrence
stated conditions
of a failure RPN after the
=SxOxD implementation of
the countermeasure

Severity
after the
implementation of
the countermeasure

RPN = Risk Priority Number

Define Measure Analyse Improve Control


©Triumph DMAIC, EL OTMANI Hicham 29
Define Measure Analyse Improve Control

Histogram
A graphical representation, similar to a bar chart in structure, that organizes a group
of data points into user-specified ranges. The histogram condenses a data series into
an easily interpreted visual by taking many data points and grouping them into logical
ranges or bins.

Histogram : % Efficiency

25

20

15

10

0
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8

©Triumph DMAIC, EL OTMANI Hicham 30


Define Measure Analyse Improve Control

Pareto
This is also called the Pareto principle or the 80/20 rule and is used the Vital few Xs
Cut-off level to be decided by team consensus based on
Process knowledge
Resource availability

Mins lost causes Pareto


700

600
500

400

300

200
100

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©Triumph DMAIC, EL OTMANI Hicham 31
Define Measure Analyse Improve Control

Scatter plot
A graph of plotted points that show the relationship
between two sets of data. Average Quality
efficiency after defect
In this example, each dot represents the defect rate 6 months rate
versus their % efficiency. 65% 3%
45% 6%
35% 5%
Scatter chart 66% 3%
25% 8%
9% 20% 5%
8%
95% 1%
41% 5%
7% 32% 6%
6% 33% 2%
50% 1%
Quality

5% 24% 8%
4% 21% 6%

3%

2%

1%

0%
0% 10% 20% 30% 40% 50% 60% 70% 80% 90% 100%
Efficiency

©Triumph DMAIC, EL OTMANI Hicham 32


Define Measure Analyse Improve Control
SMED: Single Minutes Exchange of Die
Single-Minute Exchange of Die (SMED) is one of the many lean production methods for reducing waste in a
manufacturing process.
It provides a rapid and efficient way of converting a manufacturing process from running the current
product to running the next product.
This rapid changeover is key to reducing production lot sizes and thereby improving flow (Mura).

Separate Convert Improve time


Actual state internal and internal to set up
external external

Future state

©Triumph DMAIC, EL OTMANI Hicham 33


Define Measure Analyse Improve Control

KANBAN Push versus Pull


Scheduling system for lean and
just-in-time (JIT) production.

©Triumph DMAIC, EL OTMANI Hicham 34


Define Measure Analyse Improve Control

Total Productive Maintenance


Autonomous Maintenance in 7 steps
Pillar Description
1. Initial cleaning Autonomous Maintenance It means "Maintaining one's equipment by oneself".
2. Countermeasures to sources of contamination (Jishu Hozen) There are 7 Steps in & Activities of Jishu Hozen.
3. Cleaning and lubrication standards Focussed improvement
Continuously even small steps of improvement.
4. Overall inspection (Kobetsu Kaizen)
5. Autonomous Maintenance standards It focusses on Increasing Availability of Equipments &
Planned Maintenance
6. Organisation reducing Breakdown of Machines.
7. Autonomous maintenance Quality Maintenance is establishment of machine
Quality Maintenance conditions that will not allow the occurrence of defects &
(Hinshitsu Hozen) control of such conditions is required to sustain Zero
Method for improved machine Defect.

availability through better


Formation of Autonomous workers who have skill &
Education & Training
technique for autonomous maintenance.

utilization of maintenance and Initial Control


To establish the system to launch the production of new
product & new equipment in a minimum run up time.
production resources. The main role of SHE (Safety, Hygiene & Environment) is
Safety, Hygiene & to create Safe & healthy work place where accidents do
Environment not occur, uncover & improve hazardous areas & do
activities that preserve environment.

Office TPM To make an efficient working office that eliminate losses.

©Triumph DMAIC, EL OTMANI Hicham 35


Define Measure Analyse Improve Control

Standardize work
By documenting the current best practice,
standardized work forms the baseline for
kaizen or continuous improvement.

©Triumph DMAIC, EL OTMANI Hicham 36


Define Measure Analyse Improve Control
Poke Yoke
Avoid errors System

A poka-yoke is any mechanism in a lean that helps an equipment


operator avoid (yokeru) mistakes (poka)

©Triumph DMAIC, EL OTMANI Hicham 37


Define Measure Analyse Improve Control

5S
Organize workspace for efficiency and effectiveness basis for discipline

Sort Straighten

Separate useful A place for


from useless everything,
everything in
Eliminate the
its place
unnecessary

Shine Standardise Sustain


MAY 1996
Achieve JUNE 1996
JULY 1996
permanent
cleanliness Standardise
best practice Strictly
Clean to maintain
enhance Spot any
standards
monitoring anomaly

©Triumph DMAIC, EL OTMANI Hicham 38


Define Measure Analyse Improve Control

5D analysis
Define containment then identify potential correctives and preventives actions

D1: Problem D4: Corrective D5: Preventive


Title D2: Containment D3: Root Cause
Description actions Actions

Efficiency drop What? The efficiency Double workstations to •More •Training and
Down drop down avoid bottlenecks demonstration of monitoring of sewing
* Machine breakdown
Where? Sewing lines operation. operators
* Untrained Operators
• Periodic
* Operators competences maintenance of
How many? -10 % •Checking the level
*Operators Turn over of difficulty of machine
* Reworks each operation
When? 2012 * Operators Flexibility • Ensure the AD •Increasing operators
reliability flexibility
* Technical errors
* Workstation arrangements
• Workstation •Motivation of
arrangement operators

©Triumph DMAIC, EL OTMANI Hicham 39


Define Measure Analyse Improve Control

Control plan
A document that sets the limits within which the process should operate. This
tool lists specific process activities and then states the variables or risks
affecting them, as well as their specifications.

% Efficiency 2012

100,00
90,00
80,00
70,00
60,00
%

50,00
40,00
30,00
20,00
10,00
0,00

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©Triumph DMAIC, EL OTMANI Hicham 40


Define Measure Analyse Improve Control

Cost Saving Calculation


The benefits to the organization derived from the project impact
LEGEN D
5. CONTROL STATE OV ER A LL ST A T U S
Completed
Work in Progress
Behind Schedule

Defects improvement
AQL improvement
Rew ork/Yield improvement
Process Metrics
% Defect Scrap Rework

Business Metrics
Hard($) Soft($) Others(eg C.sat.)

©Triumph DMAIC, EL OTMANI Hicham 41


Define Measure Analyse Improve Control

Control Chart

Illustrate the results of


measurements over time. Upper and
lower control limits are established
along with a mean. The results of
equal measurements, such as 100
units in manufacturing, and the
number of errors per 100 units, can
show trends, process improvements,
or assignable causes. A series of
seven measurements all on one side
of the mean is called the “Rule of
Seven” and is also an assignable
cause – something has caused the
trend to occur.

©Triumph DMAIC, EL OTMANI Hicham 42


Define Measure Analyse Improve Control

Process audit
Evaluation of an organization, system, process, enterprise,
project or product.
WP
Quick Change Total
Cutural Organization Standardized Flexible Continuous Material Level
Error Proofing Over Productive
Awareness & Visual Work Operations Improvement Control Production
Capability Maintenance
Management
Supplier - Level 2
Ford - Level 2 6,8 8,4 7,8 7,5 3,6 3,4 7,5 5,0 5,8 10,0
Cutural Awareness
10,0

Level Production WP Organization & Visual Management


8,0

6,0

4,0
Material Control Standardized Work

2,0

0,0

Total Productive Maintenance Flexible Operations

Quick Change Over Capability Continuous Improvement

Error Proofing
©Triumph DMAIC, EL OTMANI Hicham Supplier - Level 2 43
Ford - Level 2
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