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Carbohidratos

Introducción

Monosacáridos

Oligosacáridos

Polisacáridos
17/07/2018 Ms.C. LUIS CHÁVEZ ABANTO
Carbohidratos

Celulosa n

Pedro Antonio García Ruiz


Catedrático de Escuela Universitaria Profesor Titular de Universidad
Area Química analítica Area Química Orgánica

17/07/2018 Departamento deCHÁVEZ


Ms.C. LUIS QuímicaABANTO
Orgánica - Universidad de Murcia
Carbohidratos
Introducción

Monosacáridos

Oligosacáridos

Polisacáridos
17/07/2018 Ms.C. LUIS CHÁVEZ ABANTO
Introducción
¿Que es un carbohidrato?

Son polihidroxi aldehídos o cetonas o


compuestos que conducen a ellos por hidrólisis
y sus derivados.

Se denominan Hidratos de carbono por


responder muchos de ellos a la formula
empírica:

C (H2O)n
17/07/2018 Ms.C. LUIS CHÁVEZ ABANTO
Introducción
¿Que es un carbohidrato?

Se producen en la fotosíntesis.
Las plantas verdes contienen clorofila que
capta de la luz solar la energía necesaria para
realizar el proceso:

6 CO2 + H2O

C6(H2O)6 + 6 O2
17/07/2018 Ms.C. LUIS CHÁVEZ ABANTO
Introducción
¿Como se clasifican?
C
a Aldosas
r Monosacáridos
b
Azúcares Cetosas
o
h
-2 Di
i Oligosacáridos
-3 Tri
d
r -4 tetr
a -5 pent
t Polisacáridos
-6 Hex
o
- 7 Hept
s 17/07/2018 Ms.C. LUIS CHÁVEZ ABANTO
Introducción
¿Para qué sirven?

- Como principios inmediatos son soportes de la vida


Alimento Cultura Alcohol
- Proporcionan: Casa Higiene Medicina

Vestido Comodidad Decoración

- Muchas Polímeros Furfural Políesteres


aplicaciones en
Sintesis Conserva Farmacia
la industria
Química Quiral Celulosa Bebidas

17/07/2018 Ms.C. LUIS CHÁVEZ ABANTO


Carbohidratos
Introducción

Monosacáridos

Oligosacáridos

Polisacáridos
17/07/2018 Ms.C. LUIS CHÁVEZ ABANTO
Monosacáridos

Estructura

Reacciones y derivados

Aislamiento y análisis
17/07/2018 Ms.C. LUIS CHÁVEZ ABANTO
Monosacáridos
Estructura

Aldosas

Cetosas

Estructura cíclica

17/07/2018 Ms.C. LUIS CHÁVEZ ABANTO


Monosacáridos Estructura

Aldosas
Tres carbonos: Aldotriosas

CHO CHO

H C OH HO C H

CH2 OH
CH2 OH

D (+) L (-) currentpoint 192


Gliceraldéhido

17/07/2018 Ms.C. LUIS CHÁVEZ ABANTO


Monosacáridos Estructura
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Enantiómeros Enantiómeros
CHO CHO CHO CHO

H C OH HO C H HO C H H C OH

H C OH HO C H H C OH HO C H

CH2 OH CH2 OH CH2 OH CH2 OH


currentpoint 192837465 currentpoin
D-eritrosa L-eritrosa D-treosa L-treosa

17/07/2018 Ms.C. LUIS CHÁVEZ ABANTO


DIASTEROISOMEROS
Monosacáridos Estructura
Aldosas
dL
20
DSt
370
796
552
952
352
513
214
095
822
122
1 1952
[14
59[12
1345
2047
2086
1878
1904
2736
2756
2580
2606
1033
50
I 1345
I3122
40
2464
4370
1427
4921
1952
4352
4882
3845
2464
1453
3122
80
1952
3425
2580
40
1714]
2416]
2455]
1878]
1904]
3105]
3125]
2580]
2606]
3425]
20
1714]
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CH2 OH CH2 OH CH2 OH CH2 OH


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D-eritrosa L-eritrosa D-treosa L-treosa

17/07/2018 Ms.C. LUIS CHÁVEZ ABANTO


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