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Engineering Professional


Rabindra Phoju


Engineering Professional Practice
Ch1:Hisotry of Engineering Practices( 3hrs)
Ch2: Profession and ethics(6 hrs)
Ch3: Professional Practices in Nepal( 3 hrs.)
Ch4: Sector contract Management (6hrs)
Ch5: Regulatory Environment (5hrs)
Ch6: Contemporary Issues in Engineering (3hrs)
Ch7: Case studies based on Engineering
Practices(4 hrs)


Marking/Evaluation Scheme
Chapter Hours Marks Distribution
3 4

2 6 8

3 3 4

4 6 8

5 5 6

6 3 4

7 4 6

Total 30 40

History of Engineering Practices
Man and Society
Technology and Society
History of Engineering Practice in Eastern
History of Engineering Practice in Western
Engineering Practices in Nepal


Definitions of Society
A.W. Green:
the largest group to which any individual belongs
Schaefer and Lamm:
the largest form of human group, which consists of people
who share common heritage and culture.
Ian Robertson:
society gives content, direction and meaning to our lives,
and we, in turn, in countless ways, reshape the society that
we leave to the next generation. Society is a population that
occupies the same territory, is subject to the same political
authority and participates in a common culture.
John F. Cuber:
a group of people who have lived long enough to become
organized and to consider themselves and considered as a
unit more or less distinct from other human units.

Gisbert: complicated network of social relationships by which every human being is interconnected with his fellowmen. MacIver and Page: system of usages and procedures. of many groupings and divisions. which mark them off from others who do not enter into these relations or who differ from them in behavior P. 6 . Definitions of Society Ginsberg: collection of individuals united by certain relation or modes of behavior. Catechism: A society is a group of persons bound together organically by a principle of unity that goes beyond each one of them. authority and mutual aid. of controls of human behavior and of liberties.

Likeness:  Likeness of members in a social group is the primary basis of their mutuality. women and children together. race.People and plurality: Society consists of people of both sexes. of all ages.  Likeness is the one element which must have strongly stimulated the group feelings in bringing men. Main Elements of Society 1. family benefit or the compactness due to a common to time inculcated between and among the members in the group the feeling of likeness. 2. tribal affinity. of different ideas.  May be in the beginning assumed or real common lineage. and that means Society. 7 . Likeness is the link-up for mutuality. color.  Likeness means mutuality.

viz. monotonous.  We cannot imagine a society in which all people are adults or all old or all young. It alone is not adequate for social organization. The social structure of humanity is based on the family which rests upon the biological differences between the sexes. abilities and tendencies etc... prosaic and uninteresting if differences are not present. men and women.  Life would be boring.  The economic structure of society is based upon division of labor in which the professions and economic activities of people are different or dissimilar. Main Elements of Society.. capacities. 3. Differences:  Sense of likeness in not always sufficient... 8 .  They differ from each other in respect of their interests.

social groups and nations are also interdependent. He needs the help of others for his survival. Interdependence:  Society implies interdependence... It is not possible for human being to satisfy his desire in isolation. communities.  One depends upon the other for the satisfaction of one's needs.  He cannot live alone.. 4.. 9 .  Today not only countries but also continents depend upon one another. Main Elements of Society. It is another essential element to constitute society..  Likewise.

.  No society can be healthy and prosperous without co- operation..  Co-operation avoids mutual destructiveness and results in economy 10 .  In the words of P. Family rests on co-operation with one another to live happily. Main Elements of Society.Gisbert “co-operation is the most elementary process of social life without which society is impossible”.Co-Operation :  Society is based on co-operation.. 5. It is the very basis of social life...  Unless people cooperate with each other they cannot lead a happy and comfortable life.

.  George Simmel maintained that a conflict free harmonious society is practically an impossibility.. cooperation and conflict. Main Elements of Society. Conflict is a process of struggle through which all things have come into existence.. 11 .. Conflict:  Conflict is an ever present phenomenon present in every human society. 6.  Maclver states that "Society is co-operation crossed by conflict".  There is no denying the fact that society requires for its formation and growth both harmony and disharmony..  Not only cooperation but also conflict in necessary for the formation of society.

12 .. and some change rapidly. values. the norms..Stable and dynamic:  Society is relatively stable.  Yet. society is dynamic.. and culture are normally stable.  Some elements of a society change slowly. Main Elements of Society. 7.. depending on external and internal factors..

slash and burn  Agricultural: cultivation of crops. communication and service. do not produce food  Pastoral: domesticate animals. beginning of town and cities  Industrial: mechanized production. generation of knowledge 13 . mass production. gathers natural products. chicken. feudal. large cities and slums  Post-industrial: information. goat. saving of seed. for meat  Horticultural: domesticate plants. Types of Society Sociologists have classified the different types of societies into six categories:  Tribal: hunting and gathering society: hunts for meat. awareness of plant from seed. animal energy. irrigation. mostly sheep.

14 . there is division of labor based on sex.  A majority of the members' time is spent looking for and gathering food.  The members survive primarily by hunting.  Family is the society's primary institution.  Although there is equal division of labor among the members of hunting and gathering societies. Hunting and gathering society  Earliest form of society. Family determines the distribution of food and how to socialize children. trapping. and gathering edible plants. and women are typically gatherers. which means that they move constantly in order to find food and water.  Hunting and gathering societies are nomadic. fishing.  Men are typically responsible for hunting.  Members of hunting and gathering societies are mutually dependent upon each other.

 Pastoral societies also allow for job specialization.  Pastoral societies are common in areas where crops cannot be supported. 15 . others are able to produce tools or clothing.  Domesticating animals allows for a more manageable food supply than do hunting and gathering.  These societies rely on products obtained through the domestication and breeding of animals for transportation and food.  Unlike hunting and gathering societies. For example. Pastoral society  began around 12. since not everyone is needed to gather or hunt for food. while some people breed animals. pastoral societies only have to move when the land in which the animals graze is no longer usable. for example in North Africa. which allows for specialization in these areas.000 years ago.

horticultural societies had to be mobile.  These societies first appeared in different parts of the planet about the same time as pastoral societies. which permitted storage as well as the emergence of other professions not related to the survival of the society.  Horticultural societies occasionally produced a surplus. horticultural societies rely on cultivating fruits. and plants. Horticultural society  Pastoral societies rely on domesticating animals. 16 .  Like hunting and gathering societies. vegetables.

rice. Began around 8500 years ago  Increases in food supplies then led to larger populations than in earlier communities.  nobility organized warriors to protect the society from invasion. conflicts with other communities inevitably occurred.  nobility managed to extract goods from the “lesser” persons of society. 17 .  As villages and towns expanded into neighboring areas. corn) over a large area for their subsistence. Agricultural society  People rely on cultivate crops (especially grains like wheat.  Use the phrase Agricultural Revolution .  Farmers provided warriors with food in exchange for protection against invasion by enemies.  Greater degrees of social stratification appeared in agricultural societies.

and then quickly spread to the rest of the world.  Industrial revolution brought significant changes in almost every aspect of society. means of transportation improved to better facilitate the transfer of products from place to place. impersonal positions. 18 . complete with written rules. and hierarchical methods of management. Industrial society  Industrial societies are based on using machines to produce goods. and the “masses” found jobs working in the factories.  Great wealth was attained by the few who owned factories. job descriptions.  As productivity increased.  The Industrial Revolution appeared first in Britain.  The Industrial Revolution also saw to the development of bureaucratic forms of organization.

and the selling of services. Postindustrial society • With the advent of the computer microchip. • That is. the world is witnessing a technological revolution. and sell information. manipulate. knowledge. society is being shaped by the human mind. store. 19 . • Although factories will always exist. aided by computer technology. rather than being driven by the factory production of goods. the key to wealth and power seems to lie in the ability to generate. • This revolution is creating a postindustrial society based on information.

Types of Society • Ancient communism • Stone age societies • Copper age • Slave age societies • Iron age • Feudal societies • Silicon age • Capitalism • Socialism • Communism 20 .

knowledge and skills: Rate of social change depends on access to information. landslide. displacement for “developmental” activities. Factors of Social Change  Physical environment: Physically easily accessible society changes rapidly than those located in remote (difficult to access) areas  Information. mass migration 21 . ability to convert the knowledge into skills  Natural causes: Earthquake. flood. desertification. ability to put together the information into knowledge.  Human activities: International War. Civil War. and tsunami disintegrate social fabric and changes society. industrial accidents.

society continuously develops through time and change.  Critics of this theory cite examples that do not follow the 1000 year cycle.  Society progresses in each stage. birth and death.  Oswald Spengler: approximate 1000 year cycle. Evolution:  Society change from simple to complex  Changing with time. getting complex with time. Theories of Social Change Cyclical:  Social Change is a natural process and rise ups and downs. 22 .

23 .. This theory emphasizes on changing role of different parts of a society to maintain stability of a society.. Theories of Social Change. when particular part of a society changes.. and Talcott Parsons propagate this theory. Herbert Spencer. August Comte... Emile Durkheim. Functionalist: Changes as required to keep the whole society functioning..

causing them to compete against one another......  Unequal groups usually have conflicting values and agendas...  Based on Karl Marx and Engels (1818-1883/1820-1895) society consists of classes  Class conflict between haves and have-nots..  Cycle of thesis . Theories Conflict: of Social Change. antithesis and synthesis continues in the society  Thesis: existing condition of society(contradictions& Antagonism)  Antithesis: contradictions & Antagonism pose threats to existing society  Synthesis: Conflict between thesis and antithesis needs to resolved and resolution stage is antithesis 24 .

depend on technology in our daily life and our needs and demands for technology keep on rising. to communicate. to do business and to live in comfort. • We use technology. • Humans use technology to travel. • Technology impacts the environment. • Its poor application has resulted in the pollution of the environment and it has also caused a serious threat to our lives and society. people and the society as a whole. TECHNOLOGY AND SOCIETY • Technology and human life cannot be separated. 25 . to learn. • The biggest challenge facing people is to determine the type of future we need to have and then create relevant technologies which will simplify the way we do things.

no more seasonal Fertilizer/Pesticide • From organic to chemical. for most. reduced by micro- irrigation 26 . pesticide use increasing Water use • Increasing due to cash crops & agricultural intensification. patented seeds and food processing techniques Food Variety • Increasing. Green Revolution Food Processing • Food processing getting complex. requiring industrial management Food Preservation • Food security increasing. year round availability. food production increasing. better food preservation Mechanization • Mechanization of agriculture/food processing Commercialization • From subsistence to cash crop.Positive Impacts Of Technology On Society a) Impact on Agriculture Food Production • Food production mechanized.

Magazines. tele-medicines • Less need of physical presence in meeting. FM Radio. virtual reality. instant/breaking news) • Enhanced public awareness. timely information to people  Internet and Social Media • Increased access to information. distance medicine services and remote controller operation possible 27 . TV.b Impact on Communication  Information generation and dissemination • Increasing access to information  Mass communication(Newspaper. social media influencing design of communication techniques  Telephone. mobile phone • Increased and easier access to telephone  Virtual Meeting.

PERT. Project Management  ICT use for construction site control • Better access control.C. glass as structural elements. and Robotics use • More mechanization. prefabricated. increased use of aluminum. fire proof. Automation. light weight. pre-stressed  Size of infrastructure • Increasing  Mechanization. Impact on Construction Methods  Construction Technology • Labor based technology gradually replaced by capital based technology  Construction materials • Better materials. Primevera. automation and robotics use  Construction Project Management • From ad hoc and haphazard decisions to scientific and systematic management tools. better material management 28 . like CPM. better safety. and software like MS Project.

family size reducing. surrogacy. employment opportunity increasing. new economic class emerging  Language • International language use increasing. Living standard & HDI increasing. poverty decreasing. cloning. life span increasing. Impacts on Family Structure. language getting standardized. pay per view  Social Norms and Values • Social norms and values increasingly challenged and altered or replaced.D. same sex marriage. price decreasing 29 . Culture and Livelihood  Family • Family relation more complex. theme parks. test-tube baby. video games. IV-fertilization. social class disintegrating. brail script & sign language use increasing  Livelihood and living standard • Livelihood diversification & specialization increasing. change in status of female and disabled  Tradition/Culture • Traditions-values challenged and altered or replaced . micro-family getting possible.heritage preservation better  Recreation • Traditional dances/music/drama/games giving ways to movies.

e) Impact on Transportation  Land transportation • Road. air travel. railways  Underground • Metro/Underground railways  Water • Naval transportation. multi level roads. river navigation  Air • Air cargo. air ambulance  Transportation safety • Increasing 30 .

information available when needed • Judgment based on written laws rather than wisdom of justices. laws. manuals. from micro- components to 3D maps to house and bridges 31 . procedure. easily available Effects: • need to memorize diminished. • 3D printing: can change production mode. regulations. journals.Effects of Major Technological Developments a) 2D and 3D Printing: • written and mass produced record of agreements. guidelines. newspapers. magazines. books. rules.

. Terrorism Effects: warfare getting increasingly violent and costly. Colonization..Effects of Major Technological Developments . Endangered species. Crime. Warfare. Dynamite. b) Dynamite: • Explosives. increasing use of gunpowder in crimes and terrorist activities 32 . species getting extinct..

robotics. material comfort 33 .. automation. shape • Safer working environment for dangerous jobs • Higher living standard. Effects: • Lower cost of goods and food • Easier movement over long distances • Standardization and interchangeability of design.. size.... transportation.Effects of Major Technological Developments . c) Automation/Mechanization: • Industrial production. agricultural mechanization.

fossil fuel. paint 34 . light weight and stronger materials. Polymer.. d) Organic Chemistry • Plastic.Effects of Major Technological Developments . PPR pipes. Construction glues. plastic. bio- degradable plastic. construction materials Effects: New materials: including construction materials. water proofing.... synthetic glues. synthetic clothes. PVC pipes.

TV..Effects of Major Technological Developments . Internet. WWW. Remote Sensing 35 . virtual meetings.. Climate Modeling. LiDAR. social media. GPS. Open Source Mapping... TV. Wild Fire detection. Surveying. Weather forecasting. GIS based planning (urban. Satellite maps. Google Maps. GPS. e)Effects of developments in Internet. Map making.. Communication Satellite Communication Satellites • Mass Communication: Radio. GIS.. Newspaper. Satellite Maps. Global Circulation Modeling.. Early Warning Effects: • ICT development. land use etc).

0 to Industry 4. Industrial revolution Level of complexity Introducing mass production lines powered by electric energy 1.0 Industry 4.0 Industry 2. Industrial revolution Through the use of electronics and IT further progression in autonomous production 2. Industrial revolution Based on cyber-physical- systems 3.0 Industry 3.0 End of the Beginning of the Beginning of the Today 18th century. Industrial revolution Introducing mechanical production machines powered by water and steam Industry 1.0 4. Industry 1. 20th century 70th Source: DFKI/Bauer IAO .

•They allow us to add capabilities to physical systems by merging computing and communication with physical processes. Cyber Physical Systems •A cyber-physical system (CPS) is a system of collaborating computational elements controlling physical entities. •CPS are physical and engineered systems whose operations are monitored. . coordinated. controlled and integrated by a computing and communication core.

0 Artificial Inteligence Reality Industrial Internet of 3D Printing Things Cyber Security .Building blocks of Industry 4.0 Autonomous Robots Big data analytics Simulation Augmented reality/Virtual Industry 4.

Eastern & Western Society The human societies in the world have been broadly divided into two. Eastern society. compositions and values and cultures. and 2. as following on the bases of its beginning. 39 . 1. Western society.

and achievement in religious activities. • They. power of truth. Eastern Society • The values accorded by the culture to the individual and groups in the eastern societies are to achieve high morality. who have achieved those. Sadhu are examples. Mahatma. are regarded higher than those acquiring materialistic and physical objects. 40 . • The Saint.

• Progress. • Equality. • Material comforts. 41 . the following values are regarded as the success in lives- • Achievement & success. • Individualistic. • Moral orientation. • High concern over time. • Freedom. • Efficiency and practicability. • Use of technology. Western Society In the western societies. • Activity and work.

and crumbling relics. Engineering practices in earlier days can only be traced from dusty manuscripts. explains as well the state of the world today as all the accounts of kings and philosophers. 42 .  Agricultural revolution brought about changes fully. From Iraq and Syria. science and other features of civilization. The revolution seems first taken place in the hills that curve around to the north of Iraq and Syria. which in turn became centers of cultural radiations.000 years ago. which save times for other works. generals and politicians.  Civilization has arisen only when men discovered how to raise crops and tame animals about 10. Then with a rush came metals. agriculture revolution quickly spread to the valley of the Nile and the Indus. In 3000 to 4000 BC. some of the farming villages of the Near and Middle East grew into cities. writings. large-scale government.

 They combined practical experiences with knowledge of general. thus. those inventions in turn made denser and more widely interconnected population possible. Wealth and experiences piled up.  Those projects called for the work of hundred or even thousands of men.  The mere fact of having large interconnected populations. 43 .the technician and Engineers. designers and foremen. theoretical principles. but all were men who could imagine something new and transfer a mental picture into physical reality.  Hence arose a new class of men. meant that inventions took place at faster rate than before. even with the help of his sons and apprentices. Men undertook projects too large for a single craftsman. organized and directed towards a common goal.  Sometimes they were inventors. as well as contractors.  The technicians and engineers could negotiate with the king or priesthood for building a public works plans the details and directing the workmen.

 Civilization failed to penetrate the Negro-Africa. and the mountains of Abyssinia. and oceans stopped the spread. and they spread to lands where these ideas could be profitably applied. the swamps of the White Nile.  In another millennium. the inventions on which civilization was founded tended to spread. and they died out where conditions made them useless.  Natural barriers such as deserts.  They spread along trade route. old world civilization failed to leap the watery barriers to reach the Pacific Islands. being stopped by the barrier of the Sahara desert.  Similarly.  These inventions did not spread out evenly in all directions. 44 . Australia. or the Americas. Moreover. however the people of Central and South America began independently to develop their own civilizations.

the priests insisted that the Gods would be offended. Architects and Military engineers were the first engineers.• Irrigators. they called upon Architects to build Palaces. • Soon the kings who ruled cities desired houses larger and more comfortable than the huts of stones. bricks were used. as they were not housed at least as splendid as the kings. containing statues of the gods and other arts of work. The Babylonian Gugallu or irrigation inspector was such an expert. • Next. the architects put up temples. • They were expected to be an expert at all three kinds of works. Where stones were not available. So. clay and reeds wherein people had been living. 45 . • To protect the wealth of the Gods and the Kings. So. military engineers built walls and dug moats around cities.

During 5000 BC. 2. During 3300 – 3200 BC. History of Engineering Practice in Eastern Society Engineering practices in eastern societies can be with significant events as follows. People used earthen pottery and stone tools. early Chinese communities planned cities according to Grid pattern with intersecting streets at right angles to each other. . During 4000 BC. civilization developed near Yanshao. particularly among merchants and metal workers. 1. Egyptians first developed a system of Division of Labor on closed societies in Sumar and Egypt. where people roamed seeking new soil for animals and agriculture. 3.

. which played a lifeline for north China providing a transportation route for grains and commodities. In 132 AD. the Buddhist text “Dharani Sutra” was printed in Korea during 704-751 AD.. 7. Chinese philosopher Chang Heng invented a Seismoscope... 6.. It is the oldest existing printed book. Engineering Practice in Eastern. using block- printing technique. During 704 AD. 5. In 510 AD. China’s Grand Canal (Shan-Yang) in southern China was built connecting Yangtze (Chang- Jiang) and Huang-He (yellow river). 8. the appearance of towns and cities coincide with the production and distribution of goods through trades. in Sumeria. During 3500-3000 BC.

resembling flame throwers. early models consisting of Roman Candles tied two spears. In 805 AD. Printing with movable type was developed in Europe in mid 15th century. the forerunners of Gun were invented.. Engineering Practice in Eastern..a.In 1045-1048 AD. 10. Chinese writer Tseng Kung – Liang published the first known Gun-powder formula for use in three weapons. Bomb held by a king of catapult. which is called ‘fire lance’. 9. . Poison smoke ball 11....In 1040 AD. b. Pi-Sang invented movable type of printing.. Bomb with hooks and c.

however of which some survive from the time of Shapur-I (300 AD). 13..Engineering Practice in Eastern.. 14.The Iranians built many bridges. In less than a century.In 1805 AD. true guns with a gun powder chamber and strengthening explosion chamber to prevent splitting appeared in China.In 1250 AD. .. guns reached in Europe and changed to characters of medieval warfare.. 12. Habaoka Seishu performed the first Surgery under a general anesthesia in Japan.

” The vault is 77 feet wide at the base and 112 feet high. Part of this palace still stands. Engineering Practice in Eastern..In 400 AD. the Sassaid kings built a great palace at Ctesiphon. north east of deserted Babylon and downstream from the village of Baghdad. . 16...In 515 BC. including most of the vaulted dining hall –“the widest single span vault of unreinforced brick work in the world.. Persian building method with stone instead of wood introduced in to India when Darius conquered the Punjab.. which was a capital on Tigris. 15.

3. In 1268 AD. . 2. Stonehenge – a monument consisting of concentric circles of stone oriented towards the Sun position on the summer solstice in England. 1. many wealthy and elite people in Europe. agriculture and power appeared in ancient Mesoamerica. 4. In 250-900 AD. and Africa wear glasses. English scientist and philosopher Roger banon records a statement about using lenses to improve vision with eyeglasses. History of Engineering Practice in Western Society Engineering practices in western societies can be traced out with significant events as follows. At the end of 13th century. Asia. In 300-100 AD. In 3000-1000 BC. Maya created and maintained a sophisticated pair of interlocking calendar to help them plan ceremonies.

In 1793 AD. 6.. 8.. 7. an enormous double pyramid in Tenochtitlan to the warrior God of the Sun.. John Hadlley and American inventor Thomas Godfery independently invented the Sextant. 9. English Mathematician.. Engineering Practice in Western. a device that rapidly and effectively removes the seeds from cotton fiber.. American Eli Whitney invented the cotton gin. In 1747-1752 AD. Scottist inventor James Watt and English manufacturer Matthew Boulton began manufacturing a steam engine for individual use. . In 1780 AD. In 1487 AD Aztee ruler Ahuizotl dedicated the new Tempo Mayor (great temple). an optical instrument to measure angular distance between any two objects. 5. In 1673 AD. American Scientist Benjamin Franklin theorized that lightning is a form of electricity.

. In 1807 AD... In 1548-1620. American inventor and engineer Robert Fulton inaugurated a new era of power driven navigation as a steamboat. In 1660 AD. Engineering Practice in Western. an architect to Charles II for rebuilding the burnt city before the ashes cool down. a fine opportunity for planned city was offered after a great fire of London by John Evelyn. 12. which helped to calculate the actual load on the members of cranes. trusses and other structures. 10.. the diarist and civil servant and Christopher Wren.. 11. Simon Stevin discovered the triangle of forces in Netherlands..