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Patterns

of
Developm
ent
Vocabularies of the
Week
con-fa-bu-
late
Verb
to converse informally; chat
To hold a discussion

Example
After the trial, the judge with his cohorts confabulate
about the decision
com-mis-
sary
Noun
A store for equipment and provisions; specially a
supermarket for military personnel or prisoners

Example
The Chinese lady runs the commissary ever since she
got here.
in-ter-sperse
Verb
To place something at intervals in or among
To insert at intervals among other things

Example
The author has interspersed the guidebook with
illustrations of different birds
Forms of Discourse
• Traditionally, all writing has been divided into the
following forms:
• Exposition
• Description
• Narration
• Argumentation
Exposition
• Exemplification (Giving Examples)
• Process
• Cause and Effect
• Comparison or Contrast
• Definition
• Division and Classification
Exemplification
• In our daily conversations, we often provide
examples– details, particulars, specific instances– to
explain statements that we make.
Statement Example
The corduroy shirt I When I washed it, the
colors began to fade,
bought is poorly
one button cracked and
made. another fell of, a
shoulder seam opened,
and the sleeves shrank
almost two inches.
Exemplification (Giving Examples)
I. Introduction
II. Body
A. Example 1
B. Example 2
C. Example 3
III. Conclusion
The Cruelty of Children
Children can be very cruel. For one thing, they start very early to use
words that wound. Three year-olds in nursery school, for example, call
each other “dum-dum” or weirdo to tease their schoolmates. Children
also attack each other physically. For instance, whenever a group of grade-
schoolers come home from school, there is a lot of pushing, tripping,
punching, and pinching. But far worse is the emotional hurt that children
can cause their classmates. By Junior High School days, for example,
young teenagers use to shut out people they do not like. Popular kids
form groups, and the unpopular ones are left to face social isolation.
Many adults think that childhood is an ideal time, but terribly cruel things
can happen then.
Process Explanation
• Processes are series of steps carried out in a definite
order.
• It answers the question How.
I have crafted an effective method to sneak into the house
at night since I usually do so. The first step I take is bringing
my key along with me. Obviously, I don’t want to have to
knock on the door at 1:30 am and rouse my parents out of
bed. Second, I make it a point to stay out past midnight. If I
come in before then, my father is still up. Next, I am very
careful to be very quiet upon entering the house. This
involves lifting the door up slightly as I open it, so it does
not creak. Finally, I tiptoe to my room without turning on
the light, and slip quietly into bed. With my careful method
of sneaking into the house at night, I have avoided some of
the major hassles with my parents.
Process Explanation
I. Introduction
A. Definition of the process
B. Doer/ Agent of the process
C. Purpose of the process
D. Purpose of the process description
E. Point of view of the process description
F. Main steps in the process
Process Explanation
II. Body/ Step-by-step description
A. Main Step 1
1. Substep 1
2. Substep 2
B. Main Step 2
1. Substep 1
2. Substep 2
a. Sub- substep 1
b. Sub- substep 2
Process Explanation
III. Conclusion/ Summary of the main points
Several factors caused my recent car accident. First of all, because a
heavy snow and freezing rain had fallen the day before, the road that I
was driving on was hazardous. The road had been plowed but was
dangerously in icy spots. Second, despite the slick patches, I was stupidly
going along fifty miles an hour instead of driving more cautiously. Another
factor contributing to my accident was a green Chevy van that suddenly
pulled onto the road from a small intersecting street. The road was a
sheet of ice at that point, but I was forced to apply my brake and also
swing my car into the next lane. Unfortunately, the fourth and final cause
of my accident now presented itself. The rear of my Honda Civic was
heavy because I had a barbell set in the backseat. The result of all the
weight in the rear was that after I passed the van, my car spun completely
around on the slick road. For a few horrifying moments, I was sliding
down the highway with no control with the car. Then, abruptly, I slid off
the road, thumping into a high plowed snow bank. I felt stunned for a
moment, but then also relieved.
Cause and Effect
• By examining causes or effects of an action, we seek
to understand and explain things that happen in our
lives.
Cause and Effect (Causal Analysis)
I. Introduction
II. Body/ Enumeration of Factors (Outcomes)
A. Main Factor (Main Outcome 1)
1. Sub- factor (Sub- outcome) 1
2. Sub- factor (Sub- outcome) 2
B. Main Factor (Main Outcome 2)
1. Sub- factor (Sub- outcome) 1
2. Sub- factor (Sub- outcome) 2
III. Conclusion/ Summary of Main Points
My senior prom was nothing like what I had
expected it to be. I had pictured getting dressed in a
blue gown that my aunt would make. I imagined my
boyfriend coming to the door with a lovely blue
corsage. I saw us setting of for the evening in his
brother’s Lincoln Continental. Our evening would be
capped by a delicious shrimp dinner at the prom and
by dancing together closely together into the early
morning hours.
The prom was held on May 16 at the Pony Club on the
Black Horse Pike. However, because of sickness, my
aunt had no time to finish my gown and I had to buy
an ugly pink one at the last minute. My boyfriend’s
brother was out of town, and I stepped outside to the
stripped- down Chevy that he used at races in
weekends. After we arrived at the prom, I did not have
much more to eat than a roll and some celery sticks.
Worst of all, we left early without dancing because my
boyfriend and I had a fight several days before and at
that time we did not really want to be with each other.
Comparison and Contrast
• We compare things to show how they are similar; we
contrast things to show how they are different.
Comparison and Contrast
I. Introduction
II. Similarities between/ among Items Compared
A. Similarity 1
B. Similarity 2
III. Difference between/ among Items Contrasted
A. Difference 1
B. Difference 2
IV. Conclusion/ Summary of the main points
Comparison
I. Introduction
II. Body/ Enumeration of Similarities
A. Point of Comparison 1
1. Item 1
2. Item 2
B. Point of Comparison 2
1. Item 1
2. Item 2
III. Conclusion/ Summary of the main points
Contrast
Alternating Pattern
I. Introduction
II. Body/ Point-by-point contrast
A. Point of Contrast/ Quality 1
1. Item 1
2. Item 2
B. Point of Contrast/ Quality 2
1. Item 1
2. Item 2
III. Conclusion/ Summary of the main points
Contrast
Block or Opposing Pattern
I. Introduction
II. Body/ Item-by- item contrast
A. Item 1
1. Quality 1
2. Quality 2
B. Item 2
1. Quality 1
2. Quality 2
III. Conclusion/ Summary of the main points
Definition
• In a written definition, we make clear in more
complete and formal way our own personal
understanding of a term. It typically starts with one
meaning of a term.
Definition
I. Introduction
II. Body/ Statement of any of the following about the
term define.
A. Function E. Causation I. Etymology
B. Location F. Comparison J. Analysis
C. Physical DefinitionG. Contrast K. Basic Principle
D. Further Definition H. Exemplification L. Negation
III. Conclusion
Another type of private graffiti is “latrinalia”, the
kind of graffiti found near toilets. In most civilizations
throughout the history, its creators were usually
suppressed individuals in society, for example, slaves
working in monumental construction or prisoners
inside jail cells. In contemporary times, such creation
is not the sole responsibility of adolescence; people
of all ages are equally likely to perform such acts.

Adapted from Koon Hwee Kan’s Adolescents and Graffiti


The time a student spends studying for a test can be divided
into three phase. Phase 1, often called the “no problem” phase,
runs from the day the test is announced to approximately 48
hours before the dreaded exam is passed out. During phase 1,
the student is carefree and smiling. During this phase, no actual
studying takes place. Phase 2 is entered two days before the
test. During phase 2, no actual studying takes place. Phase 3,
the final phase, is entered 12 hours before “zero hour”. This is
the acute phase characterized by sweaty palms, nervous
twitches, and confused mental patterns. Phase 3 is also termed
the “shock” phase since the student is shocked to discover the
imminent nature of the exam and the amount of material to be
studied. This phase will not end until the exam is over.
Dividing and Classifying
• To classify means to put something into categories so
that you can understand it better.
Dividing and Classifying
I. Introduction
A. Definition of the thing being classified.
B. Basis of classification
C. Main groups in classification
II. Body/ Group- by- group description
A. Main group 1
1. Subgroup 1
2. Subgroup 2
B. Main group 2
1. Subgroup 1
2. Subgroup 2
III. Conclusion/ Summary of the main points
Problem- Solution
I. Introduction– Statement of the Problem
II. Body/ Enumeration of Solutions
A. Main Solution
1. Sub- solution 1
2. Sub- solution 2
B. Main Solution
1. Sub- solution 1
2. Sub- solution 2
III. Conclusion/ Summary of the main points
Forms of Discourse
• Traditionally, all writing has been divided into the
following forms:
• Exposition
• Description
• Narration
• Argumentation