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Higher Engineering Education Alliance Program

Boolean Logic

Prepared by: Ngo Van Thuyen

Topics and Objectives

 Boolean algebra
 Converting between Boolean algebra and
logic gates and ladder logic
 Logic examples
Objectives: Be able to simplify designs
with Boolean algebra

Recap of Boolean logic functions: AND, NAND,

Boolean Logic axioms
Design ideas can be converted to Boolean
equations directly, or with other techniques
The Boolean equation form can then be
simplified or rearranges, and then converted into
ladder logic, or a circuit.
Logic design

Example 1:
Logic Design

Example 2:
Logic Design

Construct the ladder logic for equation (3)

Boolean equation

Write the Boolean equation and then

simplify it and convert the simplified
equation into ladder logic
Boolean equation simplification

When simplifying Boolean equations

that are to be implemented in ladder
logic there are a few basic rules.
 Eliminate NOTs that are for more than one
variable. This normally includes replacing
NAND and NOR functions with simpler ones
using DeMorgan’s theorem.
 Eliminate complex functions such as EORs
with their equivalent.
Simple design case 1

Problem 1: Develop a program that will

cause output D to go true when switch A
and switch B are closed or when switch C
is closed.

Simple design case 1
Simple design case 2

Problem 2: Develop a program that will

cause output D to be on when push button
A is on, or either B or C are on.
Simple design case 2
Car safety system

Problem 3: Develop Ladder Logic for a

car door/seat belt safety system. When
the car door is open, and the seatbelt is
not done up, the ignition power must not
be applied. If all is safe then the key will
start the engine.
Car safety system
Motor forward/reverse
 Problem: Design a motor controller that has a
forward and a reverse button. The motor forward
and reverse outputs will only be on when one of
the buttons is pushed. When both buttons are
pushed the motor will not work.
A burglar alarm
A burglar alarm

Construct the truth table

Write the Boolean equation, simplify it,
construct the digital circuit and ladder
Write the Boolean equation, simplify it,
construct the digital circuit and ladder
Karnaugh map

How is the Karnaugh map constructed?

How is the equation simplified?


Construct a truth table for the following

i) there are three buttons A, B, C.
ii) the output is on if any two buttons are
iii) if C is pressed the output will always turn
 Develop a Boolean expression.
 Develop a Boolean expression using a
Karnaugh map.

Boolean logic used to design the

ladder logic program for a PLC
Boolean logic simplification/Karnaugh
map used to simplify the design