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GEA Jet Pumps

GmbH

Application of Vacuum systems


Vacuum Systems and Gas Scrubbers
Ejectors in the
Vegetable Oil Industry Jet Cooling Plants
Ejectors & Mixers
Gunther Höpfinger, 2003

E-mail: info@geajet.de
Internet: www.geajet.de
GEA Jet Pumps
GmbH Edible Oil, Glycerine, Fatty Acid and Soap Noodle
GEA Jet Pumps
GmbH Wrap up

• The application of Vacuum Systems is in


the Refinery of Oils and Fats
• Refining of Oils and Fats is comprising:

1. Neutralisation / Degumming
2. Bleaching
3. Winterization
4. Deodorising
GEA Jet Pumps
GmbH Wrap up

• Vacuum Systems are required at various


process steps in Vegetable Oil Industry,
but mainly in:

• Bleaching Section

• Deodorising Section
GEA Jet Pumps
GmbH Refining process

Seed to Oil
Extraction

Crude Oil
from Extraction Crude Lecithine

Physical Refining Physical Refining


Phospha-
Top Degumming tides
Neutralisation
Special Degumming Free
Fatty
Acide

Metals,
Bleaching Colour Bleaching
Bodies
Free fatty
Acids &
Physical Odours
Deodorization
Refining Odours
(Packed Column) (Tray-Deodorizer)
Edible Oil
RBD Quality
GEA Jet Pumps
GmbH Topics

• What are the Requirements ??


• Low Energy and Utility Consumption
• Low Waste Water Output
• Reliable and simple Operation
• Easy Maintenance
• Quick pay back for Customer
GEA Jet Pumps
GmbH Design Parameters
Distillation Column Vacuum Pump

Crude Oil Energy


Coolant

Vapour / Suction Flow

Stripping P col
Steam t col m,p,t
dp col
mp
Heat tp
pp

Refined Inert
oil Coolant Condensate Gas
GEA Jet Pumps
GmbH Energy Conversion in Steam Jet Ejectors
GEA Jet Pumps Dampfstrahlverdichter
GmbH Steam jet compressor

1 Treibdüse / Motive Nozzle


2 Diffusor / Diffusor
3 Kopf / Head
A Treibmittelanschluß/
Motive Medium Inlet Connection
B Saugstutzen / Suction Connection
C Druckstutzen /
Pressure Outlet Connection

30.006.97
GEA Jet Pumps
GmbH Basics

Pressure versus Flow


GEA Jet Pumps
GmbH Bleaching Section

• Bleaching is removal of colouring


compounds / impurities by adsorption
• Effect is improving organoleptic
quality and oxidative stability of
deodorised product
• Process is continuos
Equipment :
• A steam operated multistage drum
under vacuum condition
GEA Jet Pumps
GmbH Bleaching section

• Vacuum for Bleaching Section:


• Vacuum required is usually
60 to 80 mbar abs
• Vacuum System consists of
Precondenser plus „Airset“
• Deaeration of Precondenser is done
by an „Airset“ Steam Ejector
(2stage) or by a Hybrid System
(Ejector+Liquid Ring Vacuum Pump)
GEA Jet Pumps
GmbH Bleaching Section

Vacuum in precondenser is depending


on cooling water outlet temperature,
operation pressure must be higher than
vapour pressure.
Example :
Cooling water in: 28°C
Cooling water out : 38°C
Vapour pressure at 38°C = 66,24 mbar
Selected condenser Pressure : 70 mbar
GEA Jet Pumps
GmbH Bleaching Section

• How to size Precondenser and Airset?

• Fix Operating pressure of Precondenser (as before)


• Determine Air leakage (see our catalogue)
• Determine steam mass flow going into precondenser
• Select type of precondenser (direct contact type or
shell&tube type)
• Depending on type: determine subcooling of gas to
ejector
subcooling= Cooling water outlet temp. (°C) minus
Gas outlet temp. (°C)
• Calculate the equilibria at gas outlet nozzle as per our
catalogue
GEA Jet Pumps
GmbH Bleaching Section
Water vapour and Air in Vacuum
Cooling water in

Application:

Gas outlet condition at a condenser , subcooling of gas


Gas outlet temperature is depending on design of condenser !! H2O + Air
to Vacuum Ejector
Mv Molw.v pv
---- = ---------- x ----
Ma Molw.a pa
H2O + Air
Molweight water vapour 18.02 to Condenser
air 28.96

pv
Mv = Ma x 0,622 x --- Cooling water out
pa

Data Input: Calculation:


H2O vapours to Condenser: kg/h 100 Partial pres.Air at gas out mbara 12.61
Air to Condenser kg/h 5
Condensation Pressure mbara 72 H2O at gas outlet kg/h 14.65
Cooling water inlet temp. °C 33 Air at gas outlet kg/h 5
Cooling water outlet temp. °C 39 Total to Vacuum Ejector kg/h 19.65
Gas outlet temp. °C 36
Partial pres. H2O at gas out mbara 59.39 Condensed water vapours kg/h 85.35
(from steam table)
GEA Jet Pumps
GmbH Bleaching section

• The mixture of air and adherent water


vapours are the suction mass flow applicable
for airset ejector
• 1st ejector stage compresses into 1st
intercondenser,
• Deaeration of 1st intercondenser is either
done by a 2nd ejector stage or by liquid ring
vacuum pump
• Intercondenser to be determined the same
way as described for precondenser
GEA Jet Pumps
GmbH Bleaching Section
GEA Jet Pumps
GmbH Bleaching Section
GEA Jet Pumps
GmbH Deodorising Section

• Deodorising is usually the final stage in an oil refining


line
• Purpose is removal of odours/ unwelcome flavours
• Physical refining also removes free fatty acid
• Process can be continuous, semi-continuous or batch
• Deacidification / deodorization is combined very often
• Deodorization is a steam stripping process under
vacuum (1 mbar to 5 mbar abs.) at approx. 260°C
• Between deodoriser and vacuum system a scrubber
system is applied in order to remove fatty matters
• Without stable vacuum, the deodoriser cannot operate
GEA Jet Pumps
GmbH Deodorising Section

• How to size a Vacuum System for


Deodoriser?

• Determine characteristics of seed / raw oil


• Determine capacity and quality requirements
• Determine operating pressure / temperature
• Determine stripping steam amount
• Determine air leakage (see our catalogue) and
degassing of air
• Determine efficiency of scrubber for removal of
fatty matters
GEA Jet Pumps
GmbH Deodorising Section
Suction Mass Flow to Vacuum System is:

• Stripping steam kg/h


• Air leakage kg/h
• Adherent fatty matters kg/h

• Suction temperature = temperature at scrubber outlet


( approx 80°C )
GEA Jet Pumps
GmbH Deodorising Section

Specific Steam Consumption Booster Ejectors

10

1,5 mbar

8
2,0 mbar
Reihe1
b-value

Reihe2
7
Reihe3
2,5 mbar Reihe4

6
3,0 mbar

4
30 31 32 33 34 35 36 37 38 39 40 41 42
Cooling water outlet temp.(°C)
GEA Jet Pumps
GmbH Deodorising Section

Particulars of Booster ejectors:

• Due to the suction pressure below 6 mbar, at least


the mixing nozzle to be heated (jacket) to avoid ice
Temperature at 6mbar vapour pressure= -0,22°C
• Arrangement of booster ejectors preferably in a way
that all condensates (fatty matters / water drain easily
into scrubber or 1st intercondenser
• In case cooling water temperature is fluctuating
(summer / winter), a motive steam control may be
economic in order to save steam
• Booster discharge pressure is only depending on
cooling water outlet temperature at first intercondenser
GEA Jet Pumps
GmbH Deodorising Section

1st Intercondenser and Airset :

• The same calculation procedures as for bleaching


section applies

• Airset can be either two or three stage ejector with


intercondenser (s)
or
• Ejector with intercondenser and liquid ring vacuum
pump
GEA Jet Pumps
GmbH Deodorising Section
Traditional design (barometric condensers)
• Cooling water loop is open, means condensate and
cooling water is not separated

Advantage:
• Simple design, cheap in investment

Disadvantage:
• cooling tower maintenance required or high amount of
wastewater to sewage
• Smells from cooling tower
• High cooling water cost
GEA Jet Pumps
GmbH Deodorising section

Steam

Water

Five-stage Steam Jet Vacuum Pump


with direct contact condensation
GEA Jet Pumps
GmbH Deodorising Section

Vacuum production for


a deodorization plant

4-stage jet vacuum pump


with mixing (barometric)
condensers
suction capacity: 160 kg/hr
vapour from 3 mbar
GEA Jet Pumps
GmbH Deodorising Section

Steam Jet Vacuum Pumps with separated condensate/


cooling water stream

Vacuum Systems with surface condenser

Vacuum Systems with direct condensation


and closed cooling water (alkaline) loop

Alcaline System, low cooling water temp


GEA Jet Pumps Vacuum system with surface condenser
GmbH (vapor in tubes, water in shell)

M motive steam
S suction load
RW recycle water
CS caustic soda
V vent
MUW make-up water
D drain
CD condensate disposal

1 booster first stage


2 booster second stage
3 surface condenser
(vapor in tubes,
water in shell)
4 water ring vacuum pump
5 separator
6 caustic soda tank
7 caustic soda feed pump
8 caustic soda and
condensate removal pump
9 cooling tower
10 cooling water recycling
pump
GEA Jet Pumps
GmbH 3-stage Steam Jet Vacuum Pump
GEA Jet Pumps Alcaline System
GmbH Normal Cooling Water Temperature

D motive steam
S stripping steam
KW cooling water

A condensate, highly polluted


B condensate, slightly polluted
C exhaust gas

1 steam jet vacuum ejector


2 direct contact condenser
3 fat separator
4 circulating pump
5 plate heat exchanger
7 steam jet vacuum ejector
8 surface condenser
9 liquid ring vacuum pump
10 separator
11 heat exchanger
GEA Jet Pumps Alcaline System
GmbH Low Cooling Water Temperature

D motive steam
S stripping steam
KW cooling water

A condensate, highly polluted


B condensate, slightly polluted
C exhaust gas

1 steam jet vacuum ejector


2 direct contact condenser
3 fat separator
4 circulating pump
5 plate heat exchanger
7 steam jet vacuum ejector
8 surface condenser
9 liquid ring vacuum pump
10 separator
11 heat exchanger
GEA Jet Pumps
GmbH 3-stage Steam Jet Liquid Ring Vacuum Pump
GEA Jet Pumps
GmbH Special Advantage

• Smooth booster suction curves, easy operation (by


controls)
• Stable operation of airset, even when suction
stream is blinded off
• Low steam / cooling water consumption
• Booster design reflects also start-up conditions (wet
service)
• Shell&Tube Condenser design allows CIP cleaning of
tubes if required
• Condenser design reflects the experience of thousands
of applications
GEA Jet Pumps
GmbH Special Advantage

• Flanged design allows easy assembly /


disassembly

• Easy access to motive steam nozzles

• Except gaskets, no spare parts to be stocked

• Maintenance limited to steam supply /


condensate legs
GEA Jet Pumps
GmbH Deodorising Section

Dry Condensation, a process offered by Niro A/S


• Operates below triple point (water vapour is
directly cristallizing to ice)
• Parallel precondenser operates alternatively
• At defined intervals, a condenser is isolated from
the process and gets defrosted. A parallel
condenser takes over the function of the de-iced
condenser in the meantime.
• Precondensers are vented by steam jet vacuum
pumps
• Advantage: low utility consumption
• Disadvantage: high investment
GEA Jet Pumps
GmbH Deodorising Section
GEA Jet Pumps
GmbH Application of
Ejector
Fat Modification (Hydrogenation)

• Hydrogenation is mainly used to increase oxidative


stability and improve melting properties of fats
(margarine) made from vegetable oil
• Hydrogenation is a reaction involving the use of a
catalyst
• Hydrogen is forced and distributed into the oil
until gas is completely consumed
• This is done in a closed pressure vessel
(hydrogenator) using a liquid jet gas compressor
GEA Jet Pumps
GmbH Fatty Acids / Glycerine - Hydrolysis
Crude Oil / Fat

Pre-treatment

Hydrogenation

High Pressure
Hydrolysis

Crude, Glycerine
Fatty, Acids Water

Fatty, Acid Purification


Distillation

Fractionation Evaporation

Fractionated Glycerine
Fatty Acids Pharma Grade
GEA Jet Pumps
GmbH Process Steps
Vegetable Oils Animal Fats

Electrolizer Degumming

Hydrogenation Neutralisation Fractionation

Bleaching
Degumming
Winterising Deodorization Bleaching

Soapstock Distillative
Decomposition Deacidification
Deodorization
Soapstock Edible Oils & Fats
Fatty Acid Hydrogenated Fats Fatty Acid
GEA Jet Pumps
GmbH

G as

G as
GEA Jet Pumps
GmbH

Specific interfacial
Spezifische surface areaimfor
Phasengrenzfläche a jet reactor
Strahlreaktor
(Test results from
(Versuchsergebnisse Himer,
nach Blenke)
Himer, Blenke )

10000

1000 high gas


hoher throughput
Gasdurchsatz
A/V

[m²/m³] low gas throughput


geringer Gasdurchsatz
100

10
0,01 0,1 1 10
P / V [kW/m³]
GEA Jet Pumps Liquid jet gas compresso
GmbH gas liquid reaction
GEA Jet Pumps
GmbH Mechanical Specification

• Standard: No code calculation required

• Extra: Code calculation acc.

• AD-Merkblätter

• ASME Sect.VIII

• Chinese Pressure Vessel Code

• British Standard
GEA Jet Pumps
GmbH Scope / Materials

• Supply of complete Plant


• Supply of Ejectors & Condenser Engineering
• Direct Contact Condenser Design
• Surface Type Condenser Design
• Combination with Liquid-Ring Vacuum Pump
• Basic: Carbon Steel
• Option: Stainless Steel
GEA Jet Pumps
GmbH Other Applications

Vacuum Systems for the Oleo-chemical


Industry
Fatty Acid Fractionation
• Fatty Acid Distillation
• Glycerine Distillation
• Glycerine Distillation
• Thin film & short path distillation

Vacuum Systems for Soap Industry


GEA Jet Pumps
GmbH 3-stage Steam Jet Liquid Ring Vacuum Pump
GEA Jet Pumps
GmbH 3-stage Steam Jet Vacuum Pump
GEA Jet Pumps
GmbH 4-stage Steam Jet Vacuum Pump
GEA Jet Pumps
GmbH References

• GEA Jet Pumps has more than 50 years


of experience with Ejectors and Vacuum
Systems
• GEA Jet Pumps is qualified
according ISO 9001
• Permanent Research and Development
is conducted
• Well equipped Test Bed is available