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Basic Learning Theories,

Principle and Practices


CONTENTS:
O WHAT IS LEARNING
O LEARNING THEORIES
O BEHAVIORISM
O COGNITIVISM
O CONSTRUCTIVISM
O PRINCIPLES OF TEACHING
O MULTIPLE OF INTELLIGENCES
O KNOWLEDGE, ATTITUDE AND SKILL
O TEACHING AND LEARNING FRAMEWORK
O CONE OF EXPERIENCE
O BLOOM’S TAXONOMY
O BEST PRACTICES IN MAXIMIZING LEARNING THROUGH ICT
What is LEARNING?
LEARNING

It is a process of acquiring, It involves relatively


remembering, and applying permanent change in
skills, knowledge, attitudes behaviour or knowledge as
and other modes of a result of an experience or
response. practice.

PROCESS PRODUCT
O The concept about learning in the
diagram exemplify that learning is
both a process and a product. It
also emphasizes acquiring
knowledge or skills after an
experience or practice.
LEARNING
THEORIES
A. BEHAVIORISM
- Is a theory of animal and human
learning that focuses on objectively
observable behaviors and discounts
mental activities.
- Behaviorists define learning as
nothing more than the acquisition of
new behavior.
TWO DIFFERENT TYPES OF
CONDITIONING BEHAVIORAL
PATTERN:
1. CLASSIC CONDITIONING

2. BEHAVIORAL OPERANT
CONDITIONING
1. CLASSIC CONDITIONING
- Occurswhen a natural reflex
responds to a stimulus. The most popular
example is Pavlov’s observation that dogs
salivate when they eat or even see food.

Essentially, animals and people are


biologically “wired” so that a certain
stimulus will produce a specific response.
2. BEHAVIORAL OPERANT
CONDITIONING
-Occurs when a response to a stimulus is
reinforced. Basically operant conditioning is a
simple feedback system: If a reward or
reinforcement follows the response to a
stimulus, then the response becomes more
probable in the future.

 For example, leading behaviorist B.F. Skinner used


reinforcement techniques to teach pigeons to dance and
bowl a ball in a mini-alley.
In behaviorism, the learners are
passive and just responding to stimuli.
The teachers design the learning
environment. They shape the learners’
behavior by positive and negative
reinforcement. The teacher presents the
information, then the students
demonstrate their understanding from
the teacher’s presentation.
B. COGNITIVISM
O Focuses on the “brain”. It involves processing
and storing information which are very important
in the process of learning.
O Cognitivists believe that learning through
receiving, storing, and retrieving information.
Instructional material designers must consider
the relevant learner characteristics that will
promote or impede cognitive processing of
information.( eg. Test)
C. CONSTRUCTIVISM
O Learning is an active process in which
learners construct new ideas or concepts
based upon their current/past
knowledge, social interactions, and
motivation which affect the construction
of knowledge, social interactions and
motivation.
BASIC PRINCIPLES OF TEACHING
AND
EDUCATIONAL TECHNOLOGY
PRINCIPLE OF ACTIVE
INVOLVEMENT
O This implies that for learning to take place, the
student must be focused or engaged directly
with the activity or task where he may draw
knowledge, concepts, principles, attitudes
,skills or habits.
O The learning is the result of the activity of the
child himself. The student should take an
active role in the search of knowledge and
should contribute his ideas or concepts to
solve issues.
PRINCIPLE OF
CONNECTIVITY
O This involves the building of relationships or linkages
between ad among experiences. Learning is not seen
as compartmentalized or isolated concerns of the
organism. This is meaningless unless a new
experiences is related to the existing experiences of
the individual and is of use to real life situation.
O It facilitates the remembering of names, dates,
events, issues, processes, including spelling ,
number combinations, grammatical relationship and
formula.
PRINCIPLE OF
INTEGRATION
O Tie refers to the organization or putting together
diverse elements to form a unified and
harmonious whole.
O The students should be able to combine his
previous experiences together in meaningful
patterns of understanding and application. One
must be able to see similarities and differences
of ideas, concepts, and issues including various
phenomena.
PRINCIPLE OF
INTENTION(MOTIVATION
AND INTEREST)
O Learning does not take place unless the student
has a purpose or intention for undertaking the
activity.
O Student must have a clear idea as to why he
must do certain activities.
O Learning is not by accident, learning is
intentionally undertaken; there is a purpose for
doing the activities to bring about the desired
change in the behavior of the learner.
PRINCIPLE OF CREATIVITY
AND INNOVATION
O This refers to the ability to produce an original
concept or idea and translate it to some forms
of expression like a piece of art or craft, a
musical score or a literary piece.
O When some aspect are changed to pave the
way for the introduction of new aspects, the
original piece is transformed to something
new, this is creativity takes place.
PRINCIPLE OF DISCOVERY
O This is what psychologists’ term as the “AHA!”
experience.
O Students are elated at the thought of being able to
discover by themselves the solutions to the
problems related to their topics and assignments.
They feel so accomplished if they are able to
discover a process, a relationship or a pattern of
behavior with the least assistance from their
teacher.
O The cogntive and affective states of the students
are being involved and so the impact is very strong.
PRINCIPLE OF
SOCIALIZATION
O Learning ushers the individual to the prevailing
culture of his environment.
O It promotes the acquisition of habits, attitudes,
knowledge and skills necessary for the smooth
integration of the individual into the larger
society.
O One of the most important aspect of this
integration is the development of positive values
and good human relationships to the other
people.
PRINCIPLE OF
UNDERSTADING
O One cannot learn anything unless he/she
comprehends he situation, the process,
he concept, the philosophy, and the
meaning of the learning task or tasks.
O Understanding is seeing relationship, the
differences and or similarities of events
and processes and how they affect the
life of the students.
PRINCIPLE OF
COOPERATIVE PROCESS
O Learning is more impressive if the students or
the pupils share in planning or organizing the
learning activities with the guidance of the
teacher.
O Cooperation promotes a feeling of togetherness
and belongingness. Sharing of responsibility is
ensured, group morale is high, motivation is
intense, and learning is effective.
MULTIPLE
INTELLIGENCES
1. LINGUISTIC
O Using of creative languages in either
written or oral form. Like, people who
are good in creating novels, poems and
essay.
O Shakespeare, Edgar Allan Poe and Dr.
Jose Rizal are good examples exhibiting
of this kind of intelligence.
2. LOGICAL-
MATHEMATICAL

O Analysing of the abstract concepts


and answering of mathematical
logical problems.
O Physicist Albert Einstein is a good
example of a person exhibiting this
kind of intelligence.
3. SPATIAL

O Good in visual and spatial


information. Expert in visualizing and
using of shapes and space to
present a message.
O Pablo Picasso is the greatest
example of this intelligence.
4. BODILY KINESTHETIC
O Is related to physical movement and the
knowledge of the body and how it functions.
O It includes the ability to use the body
express emotion/s to play a game, and to
interpret and to invoke effective “body”
language.
O Example: athletes, dancers , actors, mimes
and clowns.
5. INTERPERSONAL(PEOPLE SMART)
O Used in person-to person relationships. It
includes the ability to communicate with
others and to have empathy for their
feelings and beliefs.
O Example: counselors, business people,
politicians, community organizer
6. INTERPERSONAL (SELF SMART)

O Is based on knowledge of the “self”. It


includes metacognition(thinking about
thinking), emotional responses, self-
reflection, and an awareness of
metaphysical concepts.
7. MUSICAL/RHYTHMIC
( MUSIC SMART)
O Includes the ability to recognize tonal
patterns, rhythm and beat. It includes
sensitivity to environmental sounds, the
human voice and musical instrument.
O Example: choirs, orchestra, bands, disc
jockeys, theatre
8. NATURALIST (NATURE SMART)

O Includes the ability to recognize flora


and fauna to make other
consequential distinctions in the
natural world, and to use this ability
productively.
KNOWLEDGE, SKILL
AND ATTITUDE
LEARNING
COGNITIVE( KNOWLEDGE)
O This domain includes content
knowledge and the development of
intellectual skills. This includes the
recall or recognition of specific
facts and concepts that serve
developing intellectual abilities and
skills.
AFFECTIVE( ATTITUDE)
O This domain involves behavior and
educational objectives that have some
emotional overtones that deal with
awareness, interest, attention,
concern and responsibility.
PSYCHOMOTOR(SKILL)
O These domains are those specific to discreet
physical functions, reflex actions and interpretive
movements. Traditionally, these types of
objectives are concerned with movement and/or
with activities where the gross and fine muscles
are used for expressing or interpreting
information or concepts. A development of these
skills requires practice and is measured in terms
of speed, precision, distance, procedure or
technique in execution.
TEACHING AND LEARNING
FRAMEWORK FOR
INTEGRATING
TECHNOLOGY IN THE
CURRICULUM
A. TEACHING AND LEARNING
FRAMEWORK FOR TECHNOLOGY
INTEGRATION

1. The Cone of Experience


- the most important message that is being given by the
cone of experience is the awareness of teachers that
learning is more impressive if students are given
adequate direct, real and hands on experiences in the
classroom as seen in its broad base.
2. Taxonomy of Educational Objectives
( Benjamin Bloom)
- designed to help teacher formulate
instructional objectives which are
specific , measurable, achievable,
researchable, time bounded and more
importantly high level in nature.
TAXONOMY OF NATURE ILLUSTRATIVE VERBS
OBJECTIVES USED
Knowledge Very easy but there is Recall, define ,state ,
of specific facts, the danger of give, tell , memorize ,
processes, principles emphasizing rote name , recognize ,
and generalizations memory. Thinking is not repeat list , copy.
a concern.
Comprehension Gaining meaning of Review , retell , restate ,
of facts, principles , facts and principles of paraphrase , locate ,
verbal materials and graphing the thought of summarize , explain ,
non- literal materials work, interpreting verbal select , arrange ,
materials, charts and differentiate , discuss ,
graphs, paraphrasing describe , classify ,
communication from interpret.
one language or form to
another, understanding
figures of speech,
predicting trends.
Application Applying concepts and Solve , illustrate , apply
of concepts, principles, principles , theories and , choose , modify ,
laws, abstractions, laws to new and operate , manipulate ,
methods and procedures practical situations, relate , classify ,
selecting and applying schedule , use ,
abstractions to demonstrate , show ,
appropriate activities , interpret
presenting data in
graphs and solving
problems.
Analysis Distinguishing facts Analyze , calculate ,
detection of facts and from hypotheses; appraise , categorize ,
hypothesis, recognition of recognizing unstated question , differentiate
causes and symptoms , assumptions, point of , discriminate , rest ,
opinions and biases view and biases of deduce , compare ,
writers; breaking down distinguish , recognize
of communications into
elements hierarchy of
ideas is made clear.
Synthesis Formulating a theory; Arrange , compose
Putting together writing ideas , statements , assemble ,
fragments to form a , topics ; producing formulate , create
, propose ,
whole. communications;
discover , devise ,
designing, inventing , contruct , write ,
composing and proposing plan , design ,
solutions to problems; discuss , collect ,
and deriving sets of set up
abstration.

Evaluation Assessing the value of Criticize , assess ,


Making judgement about ideas, works , projects, argue , judge ,
the worth , value , merit , solution , methods , and predict , support ,
rate , justify ,
advantage , significance materials based on
choose , value ,
of meaning of the product accepted standards; select , defend ,
or the activity including appraise beliefs and appraise , valuate
the behavior recognized merits of , estimate
alternative actions
O It is suggested that the teachers should
choose objectives from analysis, synthesis
and evaluation to ensure that they are
addressing higher order thinking skills.
BASIC APPROACHES
RELEVANT TO ICT
INTEGRATION
1. The INQUIRY- BASED Learning- approach that
does not prescribe limited or specific
resources or answers to problems. It is
premised on the belief that there is an influx
of knowledge, which may in anytime become
obsolete.
2. The PROJECT-BASED Learning- is
more engaging on the part of the
students/pupils because the responsibility for
the learning outcomes is transferred from the
teacher to the students.
3. COOPERATIVE LEARNING
- this is an approach to teaching where
students are grouped into small terms of
not more than five sharing together a
variety of learning activities to improve
their understanding of the subject.
BEST PRACTICES IN
MAXIMIZING
LEARNING THROUGH
ICT
1. The WEB LOGS or BLOGS
- a digital diary or a personal account
or a group account for a class in a
specific course in the secondary or in
college which everybody can share.
2. ON-LINE TREASURE HUNTS AND
WEB QUEST
- this is teaching with the web which
is inspired by cooperative and
collaborative learning and the
development of higher order thinking
skills.
3. THE COLLABORATIVE LEARNING
- it happens when one student connects
with another student or a peer at a
distance for various reasons. It could be for
gathering information about a country
where one lives, e.g. political set up or
government, educational system, economic
enterprises, weather and climate among
others to be analyze in relation to a given
problem or to a specific project.
4. E-LEARNING
- is a catch-all term that covers a wide rage of
instructional materials that can be delivered on
a CD-ROM or DVD, overall local area network
(LAN), or on internet. It includes Computer-
Based Training (CBT), Web-Based Training
(WBT), distance online learning and on line
tutorials. E-Learning provides the student with
information that can be accessed in the setting
from time and place constraints. He can also
go through the lessons at his/her own pace.
5. ORGANIZING ICT CLUBS
- one of the best practice to promote learning thru the
use of ICTs is the organization of e-learning clubs. In
schools, where the basics of computers are taught or
are integrated in the curriculum , we find student who
are highly interested in the use of the technology. In
fact, their interest or motivation can propel their
teachers to retool themselves with the basis of ICTs so
that they can catch up with the trend and shall not be
out done by their students. The more advance students
are encourage to bind themselves together so that they
can promote the extensive use of ICTs in learning
activities.