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MAE 3241: AERODYNAMICS AND

FLIGHT MECHANICS
Finite Wings: General Lift Distribution Summary

Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering Department

Florida Institute of Technology

D. R. Kirk

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SUMMARY: PRANDTL’S LIFTING LINE THEORY (1/2)
Fundamental Equation of
 d  Prandtl’s Lifting Line Theory
 
  y0 
b
2
  y0  
1  dy  dy Geometric angle of attack, , is
V c y0 
  L 0 
4V 
b y0  y equal to sum of effective angle
2
of attack, eff, plus induced
angle of attack, i
 d 
b
2
 
w y0  
1  dy  dy

Equation gives value of
4 b y0  y Downwash, w, at y0
2

 d 
b
2
 
 i  y0  
1  dy  dy Equation for induced angle of
4V 
b y0  y attack, i, along finite wing
2

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SUMMARY: PRANDTL’S LIFTING LINE THEORY (2/2)
L y0    V  y0  Lift distribution per unit span given by
Kutta-Joukowski theorem
b
2

  y dy
Total lift, L
L   V
b
2

b
2

  y dy
L 2 Lift coefficient, CL
CL  
q S V S b
2

b
2

  y   y dy
Induced drag, Di
Di   V i
b
2
b
2

  y   y dy
2
C D ,i  i Induced drag coefficient, CD,i
V S b
2
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PRANDTL’S LIFTING LINE EQUATION

 d 
 
  y0 
b
2
  y0     L  0  y0  
1  dy  dy
V c y0  4V 
b y0  y
2

• Fundamental Equation of Prandtl’s Lifting Line Theory

– In Words: Geometric angle of attack is equal to sum of effective angle of attack
plus induced angle of attack
– Mathematically:  = eff + i

• Only unknown is (y)

– V∞, c, , L=0 are known for a finite wing of given design at a given a
– Solution gives (y0), where –b/2 ≤ y0 ≤ b/2 along span

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WHAT DO WE GET OUT OF THIS EQUATION?
1. Lift distribution L y0    V  y0 

b
2
L  L y dy
b
2
b
2
2. Total Lift and Lift Coefficient L   V   y dy
b
2
b
2

  y dy
L 2
CL  
q S V S b
2

Di  Li i
b b
2 2
Di 
b
 L y   y dy   V   y   y dy
i  
b
i

3. Induced Drag 2 2
b
2

  y   y dy
D 2
C D ,i  i  i
q S V S b
2
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GENERAL LIFT DISTRIBUTION (§5.3.2)
2
• Circulation distribution
 2y 
 y   0 1   
 b 
• Transformation
b – At q=0, y=-b/2
y   cos q
2 – At q=, y=b/2
• Circulation distribution in
q   0 sin q terms of q suggests a Fourier
sine series for general
N
circulation distribution
q   2bV  An sin nq • N terms
1
– now as many as we want
for accuracy
 d  • An’s are unkowns, however
 
  y0 
b
2
 dy  dy must satisfy fundamental
  y0     L  0  y0  
1
V c y0  4V 
b y0  y equation of Prandtl’s lifting-
2 line theory
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GENERAL LIFT DISTRIBUTION (§5.3.2)
N • General circulation
q   2bV  An sin nq distribution
1

 d 
  • Lifting line
  y0 
b
2
  y0     L  0  y0  
1  dy  dy
V c y0  4V 
b y0  y
equation
2

d d dq N
dq • Finding d/dy
  2bV  nAn cos nq
dy dq dy 1 dy

N • Transform to q
N   nA n cos nq
 q 0    
2b 1
 n
cq 0  1
A sin n q 0   L 0 q 0 
  cos q  cos q
1
dq
0 0
• Last integral has
precise form for
2b N N
sin nq 0
 q 0    nA sin n q   q   1 n sin q
nA simplification
cq 0  1
0 L 0 0
0
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GENERAL LIFT DISTRIBUTION (§5.3.2)
2b N N
sin nq0
 q0    An sin nq 0   L0 q0    nAn
cq0  1 1 sin q 0
• Evaluated at a given spanwise location, q0 is specified
• Givens:
– b: wingspan
– c(q0): chord at the given location for evaluation
– The zero lift angle of attack, L=0(q0), for the airfoil at this specified location
• Note that the airfoil may vary from location to location, and hence the zero
lift angle of attack may vary from location to location
• Can put twist into the wing
– Geometric twist
– Aerodynamic twist
• This is one algebraic equation with N unknowns written at q0
• Must choose N different spanwise locations to write the equation to give N
independent equations
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WING TWIST

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GENERAL LIFT DISTRIBUTION (§5.3.2)
b2 • General expression for lift coefficient of
  y dy
2
CL  a finite wing
V S b 2

2b 2 N  • Substitution of expression for (q) and

CL 
S
 A  sin nq sin qdq
1
n transformation to q
0

 sin nq sin qdq 
0
2
for n  1 • Integral may be simplified

 sin nq sin qdq  0 for n  1

0
• CL depends only on leading coefficient
of the Fourier series expansion
b2 (however must solve for all An’s to find
C L  A1  A1AR
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GENERAL LIFT DISTRIBUTION (§5.3.2)
b
2 • General expression for induced drag
  y   y dy
2
C D ,i  i coefficient
V S b
2

2 
• Substitution of (q) and transformation
 N

 i q sin qdq
2b
C D ,i 
S 0  1 n
 A sin n q

to q

• Expression contains induced angle of

 d  attack, i(q)
b
2
 
 i  y0  
1  dy  dy • Expression for induced angle of attack
4V b
 y0  y
2

N
cos nq
 i  y0  
1

 nAn 
1 cos q  cos q
dq
• Can be mathematically simplified
0 0

N
sin nq 0 • Since q0 is a dummy variable which
 i q 0    nAn
1 sin q 0 ranges from 0 to  across the span of
N
sin nq wing, it can simply be replaced with q
 i q    nAn
1 sin q
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GENERAL LIFT DISTRIBUTION (§5.3.2)

2b 2  N  • Expression for induced drag coefficient
  i q sin qdq
S 0  1
C D ,i   An sin nq

N
 i q    nAn
sin nq • Expression for induced angle of attack
1 sin q

2b 2  N  N  • Substitution of i(q) in CD,i
C D ,i     An sin nq   nAn sin nq dq
S 0 1  1 

 sin mq sin kq  0 for m  k

0
• Mathematical simplification of integrals

 sin mq sin kq 
0
2
for m  k

2b 2  N   N 
C D ,i    nAn2   AR  nAn2 
S  1 2  1 

 N

C D ,i  AR A12   nAn2 
 2 

• More simplifications leads to expression

 N
 An  
2
2
C D ,i  ARA1 1   n  for induced drag coefficient
  A1  
 2
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GENERAL LIFT DISTRIBUTION (§5.3.2)
 N
 An 

2
• Repeat of expression for induced drag
2
C D ,i  ARA1 1   n  coefficient
  A1  
 2

b2 • Repeat of expression for lift coefficient

C L  A1  A1AR
S

C L2
C D ,i  1    • Substituting expression for lift
AR coefficient into expression for induced
drag coefficient
2
 An 
N
   n 
2  A1 
• Define a span efficiency factor, e, and
1 note that e ≤ 1
e – e=1 for an elliptical lift distribution
1 

C L2
C D ,i 
eAR
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VARIOUS PLANFORMS FOR STRAIGH WINGS

Elliptic Wing

Rectangular Wing

cr ct

Tapered Wing
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INDUCED DRAG FACTOR,  (e=1/(1+))

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SPECIAL CASE:
Elliptical Wings → Elliptical Lift Distribution

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ELLIPTICAL LIFT DISTRIBUTION
• For a wing with same airfoil shape across span and no twist, an elliptical
lift distribution is characteristic of an elliptical wing planform

CL
i 
AR
C L2
C D ,i 
AR 17
SUMMARY: ELLIPTICAL LIFT DISTRIBUTION (1/2)

2
 2y 
 y   0 1   
 b 

/0
2
 2y 
L y    V 0 1   
 b 

y/b
Points to Note:
1. At origin (y = 0)  = 0
2. Circulation and Lift Distribution vary elliptically with distance, y, along span, b
3. At wing tips (-b/2) = (b/2) = 0
– Circulation and Lift → 0 at wing tips
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SPECIAL SOLUTION:
ELLIPTICAL LIFT DISTRIBUTION
d 4 y
  20 Elliptic distribution
dy b 4 y2
1 2
b
b
 2
Equation for downwash
w y0   02
y
b  1
dy
 4y  2
b 2
1  2   y0  y 
2

 b 
b b
y  cos q ; dy   sin qdq Coordinate transformation → q
2 2

0 cos q
wq 0     dq
2b 0 cos q  cos q 0 See reference for integral

0
wq 0    Downwash is constant over span for an elliptical lift distribution
2b
w 
i    0 Induced angle of attack is constant along span
V 2bV Note: w and i → 0 as b → ∞
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SUMMARY: ELLIPTICAL LIFT DISTRIBUTION
0
w Downwash is constant over span for an elliptical lift
distribution
2b
0
i  Induced angle of attack is constant along span for an
2bV elliptical lift distribution

b
L   V 0  Total lift
4
CL Alternate expression for induced angle of attack,
i  expressed in terms of lift coefficient
AR
C L2 Induced drag coefficient
C D ,i 
AR
L y 
For an elliptic lift distribution, the chord must vary
c elliptically along the span
q cl → the wing planform is elliptical in shape
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SPECIAL SOLUTION:
ELLIPTICAL LIFT DISTRIBUTION
b 1
 4y 2 2
 2 b We can develop a more
L   V 0  1  2  dy   V 0  useful expression for i
b  b  4
2

SC Combine L definition for elliptic

 i  2L profile with previous result for i
b
b2 Define AR because it
AR 
S occurs frequently
CL
i  Useful expression for i
AR

b Calculate CD,i
2 i 2
C D ,i 
V S   y dy
b
2

C L2 CD,i is directly proportional to square of CL

C D ,i 
AR Also called ‘Drag due to Lift’
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