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Impression Materials

o In addition to hydrocolloids – another group - Elastomers

o As per ADA Sp. No. 19 - non-aqueous elastomeric
dental impression materials.


A group of flexible chemical polymers
which are either chemically or physically
cross linked. Generally they can be easily
stretched and rapidly recover their original
dimensions when applied stresses are
released. - GPT

o Large molecules with weak interactions among them

o Tied together at certain points to form 3 dimensional

o On stretching chains uncoil – later snap back to original

o Liquid polymers which are converted into solid rubber at
room temperature when mixed with catalyst.

o They undergo polymerization / crosslinking by addition or
condensation reaction to produce a solid.

o Liquid polymer is filled with filler to form a convenient

Types According to According to chemistry Viscosity Light body or syringe Polysulfides consistency Condensation silicones Medium or regular body Addition silicones Heavy body or tray Polyether consistency Putty consistency .

Polysulfides – low (syringe wash).low and putty consistencies. Condensation silicones . medium. heavy (tray). medium (regular). . medium .extra low.high.The catalyst of the condensation silicone can be supplied in low and putty consistencies. Polyether -First supplied in medium consistencies. Addition silicones . low. putty. heavy. but now available in low.

General properties o Excellent reproduction of surface details o Generally hydrophobic (except polyether) o Good elastic properties (repeated pouring is possible) o Dimensional inaccuracies are lower but exist due to various reasons o Excellent tear strength o Electroplating – can be copper or silver plated o Extended shelf-life o Requires tray adhesive or mechanical interlocking .

Dimensional changes occur due to o Curing shrinkage o Loss of by-products (Condensation. Polysulfide) o Hydrophilic – absorbs water and loses soluble plasticizers o Thermal contraction o Incomplete elastic recovery o Amount of filler o Uniform thickness of material o Adhesion of impression tray o Time of pouring impression .

Dentures and edentulous impressions Border moldings of special trays (poly ether) Bite registration As duplicating material for refractory casts . Fixed partial dentures .two paste systems (base & catalyst) Putty consistency – supplied in jars General uses Impression material for all applications including . Supplied as All elastomers .

Reactor paste Viscosities – Light.Accelerator. Catalyst. POLYSULFIDES o Ist elastomer to be introduced o Mercaptan/Thiokol Mode of supply: Tubes – base . Medium and Heavy .

First dental elastomers Indications complete denture removable fixed partial denture crown and bridge Examples Permlastic (Kerr) Omni-Flex (GC America) .

copper carbonate and silica) provide strength. Composition BASE PASTE: POLY SULPHIDE POLYMER .to enhance the reaction. SULPHUR .dibutyl phthalate. confers the appropriate viscosity to the paste. lithopone. zinc sulphate. .80 to 85% FILLER .16 to18% (titanium di oxide.0. PLASTICIZER .5%.

provide strength.Catalyst paste or accelerator paste (reactor paste): LEAD DIOXIDE . DEODORANTS . PLASTICIZER -30-35% dibutylphthalate.60-68% (gives dark brown colour to polysulphides). confers the appropriate viscosity to the paste.Titanium dioxide & lithopone. FILLER . RETARDERS – 2% Oleic acid and stearic acid. control the rate of setting.

R-S-S-R-SH + H2O Mercaptan + Lead dioxide Poly sulfide + Water The lead dioxide reacts with the poly sulfide polymer Chain lengthening by oxidation of the terminal .SH HS .SH groups .SH groups Cross-linking by oxidation of the pendant . Chemical reaction PbO2 + S HS .R.

Chemical reaction .

o It is accelerated by heat and moisture o Other cross linking system used are inorganic hydroxides (Copper) o Loss of water in reaction ---Dimensional instability Tray adhesive – Butyl rubber or styrene/ acrylonitrile dissolved in a volatile solvent such as chloroform or a ketone .3 to 40 C rise in temp.o Exothermic reaction .

Manipulation Adhesive to tray For uniform layer : Custom tray Mode of supply : Two pastes in collapsible labeled as base and other as catalyst .

– 16. 37* C. – 12.3 min. 37* C.0 min.0 min. . Setting time: 23* C. – 4.5 min.Mixing system: Hand mixing – 45 sec Impression technique: Dual viscosity or multiple mix technique Working time: 23* C. – 6.

Advantages: Excellent reproduction of surface details Proven accuracy High tear resistance Less hydrophobic Long shelf life Can be electroplated (more with silver than copper) .Pouring not longer than 30 min.

Second pour is less accurate Long working time .Disadvantages: Require a custom tray Poured in stone immediately Potential for significant distortion Odor offends the patient Messy and stains clothes Dimensional stability .

Disinfection Immersion in sodium hypochlorite iodophors complex phenolics glutaraldehydes phenolic glutaraldehyde .

T – butyl hydroperoxide have poor dimension stability because of hydroperoxide volatility Inorganic hydroxides …… copper – cross linking system (viable alternative ) .Modifications : Lead dioxide used as a reactor and has contributed to disadvantage. Alternatives : organic hydroperoxide eg.

Silicone Rubber Impression Material Developed to over come some of the disadvantages of polysulfide .


Based on the type of polymerization reaction

Condensation silicones Addition silicones

Condensation silicones
Available in light, medium and putty consistency

Mode of supply: Base paste and
catalyst in paste form or liquid form


complete dentures
crown and bridge


Primasil (TISS Dental)

Base paste:

linear silicone
(polydimethylsiloxane) with the reactive terminal
hydroxyl groups.

Fillers - Microsized metal oxide or colloidal silica.
35% (low consistency), 75% (putty)

Color pigments

Catalyst . Composition Catalyst paste or accelerator paste (reactor paste): Tetraethyl ortho silicate (alkyl silicates) – Crosslinking agent Stannous octoate .

Chemical reaction .

OC2H5 Silicone + CH3CH2OH octoate CH3 OC2H5 Dimethyl + orthoethyl Silicone + ethyl siloxane silicate rubber alcohol Ethyl alcohol .evaporate .byproduct .shrinkage & dimensional instability Tray adhesive – Polydimethyl siloxane & Ethyl silicate . SETTING REACTION: CH3 OC2H5 Sn OH-Si-OH + C2H5O-Si.

Disposable stock trays to support putty. . Manipulation Adhesive to tray : Adhesive contain polydimethyl siloxane or other silicone that reacts with impression material and an ethyl silicate to create a physical bond with the tray. Mode of supply : Low consistency wash and liquid accelerator are in a small container and bottle. The liquid accelerator is dispensed with syringe and mixed with wash material in the container.

Putty and paste accelerator are in large containers and tube.The putty is dispensed with the scoop. .

Impression technique : Putty wash technique reduces effect of polymerization shrinkage stock tray putty placed thin plastic sheet spacer preliminary impression intraoral custom tray inject wash material .

Setting time : 23* C. – 11 min. .5 min.9 min. 37* C. – 8. 37* C. – 3. Working time : 23* C.Mixing time : 45 sec. – 2.3 min.

Die should be constructed shortly after the impression is removed. Advantages: Adequate working time and setting time Pleasant odor and no staining Adequate tear strength Better elastic properties on removal Less distortion of removal .Preparation of stone die: compatible with all gypsum products.

Disadvantages: If poured immediately then adequate accuracy Poor dimensional stability Potential for significant distortion Putty wash is technique sensitive Slightly more expensive Pour to adequate shelf life Disinfection: Immersion in antimicrobial solution for short period. less than 1 hour .

.Modifications : Change in their setting mechanism This change has bought a new family of impression material – THE ADDITION REACTION SILICONE.

Addition silicones Also called as polyvinyl siloxanes Better properties than condensation silicones. .

Vinyl polysiloxane or Poly vinylsiloxane Indications crown and bridge denture bite registration .

Composition Base paste: Poly methyl hydrogen siloxane Other siloxane prepolymers Fillers .

Composition Catalyst paste or accelerator paste (reactor paste) Divinyl polydimethyl siloxane and Other siloxane prepolymers Platinum salt Catalyst Filler Retarder Palladium .Scavenger Surfactants .

but moisture or residual hydrides of base polymers  secondary reaction  hydrogen gas  air bubbles in the stone models To avoid this palladium is added  Acts as scavenger . SETTING REACTION CH3 CH3 CH3 CH3 Pt salt Si-H + CH2=CH-Si Si-CH2-CH2-Si activator CH3 CH3 CH3 CH3 Vinyl + Silane Silicone siloxane siloxane rubber No by product.

Sulfur compounds retard the setting of silicones One source of sulfur contamination is from latex gloves Vinyl gloves should be used .

Addition Silicones Brand Names Aquasil (Dentsply) Mono. XLV. LV. Heavy Imprint (3M. ESPE) Extrude (Kerr) President (Coltene) GC (Fuji) .

Properties: Pleasant color and odour Excellent reproduction of surface details Setting time 4-6 mins. mixing time – 45 Secs Best dimensional stability Good tear strength Extremely hydrophobic Can be electroplated .

9 min. 230 C. – 5. – 8. Setting time: 230 C. Working time: 370 C.1 min. – 3. – 1.8 min. 370 C.9 min. .

Manipulation Tray adhesive: Mode of supply: Mixing system: Static mixing (auto mixing system) Dynamic mechanical mixing system .

Impression technique: Single or monophase viscosity technique Putty wash technique .

Preparation of stone die: Hydrophobic characteristics Difficult to wet surface Difficult to pour a bubble free from stone cast Hydrophilic – water contact angle 30 – 36* Hydrophobic – water contact angle 95* .

Use of surfactants sprays (hydro system manufactured by zhermack ) Reduction of surface tension Pooling of spray liquid Affect dimensional Stone surface soft and accuracy of impression porous .


Advantages: Shorter setting time Automatic mixing devices – easy to mix Adequate tear strength High accuracy Undetectable distortion on removal dimensionally stable even after a week Less distortion on removal .

Disadvantages : Bubbles on die Hydrogen gas evolution Palladium added to absorb Hydrophilic material needs careful handling and dry field Sulfur inhibits setting latex gloves .

15 minutes immersion in 10% Hypochlorite or 2% Glutharaldehyde solutions Disadvantage of longer immersion – leaching of surfactant molecule .Disinfection : 10 .

very stiff material. Polyether Rubber Impression Material Introduced in Germany in late 1960’s. Good mechanical properties and dimensional stability. . but short working time.

Indications Crown and bridge Bite registration Partial dentures Implants Over dentures Examples Impregum F (3M/ESPE) Permadyne (3M/ESPE) Pentamix (3M/ESPE) P2 (Heraeus Kulzer) Polygel (Dentsply Caulk) .

cross-linking Filler .colloidal silica or phthalate Plasticizer . Composition Base paste Catalyst paste Polyether polymer Aromatic sulfonate ester .glycolether Filler .glycolether Colouring agent or phthalate Colouring agent .colloidal silica agent Plasticizer .

Reaction is between aziridine rings. The main chain is a copolymer of ethylene oxide and tetrahydrofuran. Cross linking is by aromatic sulfonic ester .

CH +  Crosslinked rubber N N CH2-CH2 CH2-CH2 Polyether + Sulfonic ester  Cross linked rubber Exothermic reaction  4-50 C . SETTING REACTION: H O O H CH3 – C .CH2 – C .CH2 – C – O – R – O – C .

Mode of supply: Low viscosity Medium viscosity Heavy body viscosity Two paste system – base paste and catalyst paste. .

the static mixing tip and optional syringe tip for direct injection. A cartridge showing separate tubes of catalyst and base. Catalyst and base in large foil bags with in the mixer .The assembled cartridges and static mixing tip in the holder.

Mixing system : Hand mixing Static mixing ( auto mixing system ) Dynamic mechanical mixing system .

0 min.Working time : 23* C. – 3. 37* C. – 9. 37* C. – 2. Setting time : 23* C.3 min. .3 min.3 min. – 8.

Preparation of stone die: Stiffness of polyether makes it difficult to remove the stone cast from impression A weak stone may fracture during removal .

Advantages: Fast setting time and working time Proven accuracy Adequate tear strength Less hydrophobic – so better wetting Less distortion on removal Long shelf life Good dimensional stability Multiple casts .

Disadvantages: Adequate accuracy if poured immediately Poor dimensional stability Clean but tastes bad Stiffness requires blocking undercuts .

Modifications: Reduction of the stiffness and producing polyethers with low and high viscosities. .Disinfection: Cl compounds or iodophors Undergo dimensional changes if immersion time is longer than 10 min. Low viscosity is supplied with an automatic mixing device . because of the hydrophilic nature.

Physical and Mechanical Properties of Elastomeric Impression Materials .

Comparison of Properties Working time longest to shortest agar > polysulphides > silicones > alginate > polyether Setting time shortest to longest alginate < polyether < agar < silicones < polysulphides .

Dimensional stability Polymerization shrinkage Loss of byproduct Thermal contraction from oral to room temperature Imbibition Incomplete recovery of deformation because of viscoelastic behavior best to poor addition silicone > polyether > polysulphides > condensation silicone > hydrocolloid .

polyether and polysulphides ELASTIC RECOVERY Addition silicone > Condensation silicone > Polyether > Polysulphides . condensation silicone. ELASTICITY Elastic properties of elastomeric impression materials improve with an increase in curing time in the mouth Permanent deformation following strain in compression increases in following order .addition silicone.

Tear strength Measures the resistance to fracture of elastomeric material subjected to a tensile force acting perpendicular to a surface flaw greatest to least polysulphides > addition silicone > polyether > condensation silicone >> hydrocolloids .

highest cell toxicity .lowest cell death count Polyether . Biocompatibility Polysulphides .

Mixing systems Hand mixing Dynamic mechanical Static mixing mixing Two paste system Paste and liquid system Two putty system Putty and liquid system .

. Initial mixing and final mixing Paste and liquid system Polysulphides. condensation silicones. polyether all are available for mixing in this fashion. addition silicones. Hand mixing Two paste system Mixing accomplished in 45 sec.

Two putty system Dispensing with scoops Kneading with fingers Condensation and addition silicones Putty and liquid system .

Static mixing (auto mixing system) Plastic cartridge Cylinders Base and catalyst paste Mixing gun with two plungers Static mixing tip with internal spirals Intraoral delivery tips .

Dynamic mechanical mixing Dynamic mechanical mixer Base and catalyst paste supplied in large plastic bags Cartridge Plastic mixing tip Internal spirals are motor driven. .


Impression techniques .

Dual viscosity or multiple mix technique Simultaneous mixing of Application of tray adhesive light bodied and heavy bodied Syringe material Injected Low viscosity material into critical areas loaded ( syringe ) .

High viscosity material Bond & set together to ( impression tray ) produce single and highly accurate impression Also called as WASH TECHINQUE .

.Single or monophase viscosity technique Medium viscosity impression material ( of choice ) Shear Syringe material thinning Tray material (viscosity forces ( viscous decreases when enough to forced through reside in the syringe ) Pseudoplastic tray ) material Viscosity decreases Addition silicones and polyethers.

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