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Sankar Dasiga
Why this course?
• KPIT is one of the reasons only!! (Opportunities exist in many Automotive OEMs,
tier 1 / 2 and service companies)
• It is a true domain of application of many courses / topics -
+ Controls
+ Signal Processing
+ Microcontrollers
+ Embedded Systems
+ Programming in C etc
• Use of Electronics in Automobiles is ever increasing so much so, the present day
Automobiles are equally electronic systems as being mechanical systems!!
 Electronics is used in the Engine Control (MPFI), Safety (Airbag System), Passenger
Comfort (Controlling the Air-conditioning), Passenger Entertainment (Multimedia
Player), Driver Assistance (Parking Assistance, Navigation, Google Maps) etc
 Now there is a push world over on advanced Automotive applications like Collision
Avoidance, Detection of Pedestrian crossing, Vehicle to Vehicle Communication,
Driverless Riding etc
 In addition Electronics is used in Diagnostics like – checking of level of Engine, Brake
etc oils / fluids etc
Why this course?
• Automotives are not cars alone .. Nowadays we have lot of
electronics in Two-wheelers, and Buses, and, more has to happen in
vehicles like Goods Transport Vehicles (Tempos, Trucks etc), JCB etc
• Electric vehicles is another area which is fast evolving
Meaning lot more still to come and more opportunities!!!
• It’s a demanding domain with several “Standards” / “Guidelines”
 Automotive Standards - for the Hardware
 Guidelines such as MISHRA for the Software
As such, if someone has the exposure to and experience of working
with the Automotive Standards / Guidelines, he / she can easily
work on the development of systems for the domains – military,
space, consumer etc
• Several tools are used at various stages of development of
Automotives Electronic Systems; as such knowing about and
understanding them is a significant advantage!!
Besides there are innumerable topic specific white papers and material
Books etc from the vendors / players in the domain available on the net.
Also available on the net are several youtube videos
1. William Ribbens, “Understanding Automotive Electronics”, 6th
Edition, Elsevier
2. Tom Denton: "Advanced Automotive Diagnosis”, 2nd Edition,
Elsevier, 2006
• References
1. Ronald K Jurgen: "Automotive Electronics Handbook, 2nd Edition, McGraw-Hill, 1999
2. James D Halderman: -Automotive electricity and Electronics", PHI Publication
3. Terence Rybak. Mark Stefika: Automotive Electromagnetic Compatibility (EMC), Springer. 2004
4. Allan Bonnick.: “Automotive Computer Controlled Systems” Diagnostic Tools and Techniques". Elsevier Science,
5. Uwe Kieneke and Lars Nielsen: Automotive Control Systems Engine, Driveline and Vehicle, 2nd Edition Springer
Verlag, 2005
6. David Alciatore, Michael Histand: "Introduction to Mechatronics and Measurement Systems (SIE) TMH, 2007
7. Iqbal Husain: "Electric and Hybrid Vehicles: Design fundamentals” CRC Press, 2003.
8. G. Meyer, J. Valldorf and W. Gessner: "Advanced Microsystems for Automotive Applications”, Springer. 2009
9. Tracy Martin: “How to Diagnose and Repair Automotive Electrical Systems" Motor Books/MBl Publishing
Company. 2005.
10. Mehrdad Ebsani. Ali Emadi, Yimin Gao: - “Modern electronic. Hybrid Electric and Fuel Cell Vehicles:
Fundamentals. Theory and Design". 2nd CRC Press. 2009
11. Marc Herniter: “Introduction to Model Based System Design – Rose Hulman Institute of Technology
Trends in Automotive
> 1891 mechanical system very low very high technical skills
> 1920 + pneumatic systems low high technical skills
+ hydraulic systems low driving skills
> 1950 + electric systems increasing good technical skills
increasing driving skills
> 1980 + electronic systems congestion low technical skills
+ optronic systems starts high driving skills
> 2010 + nanoelectronics congested very low technical skills
+ biotronic systems optimization decreasing driving skills
> 2040 + robotics maximal and no technical skills
+ nanotechnology optimized no driving skills
Unit 1
Major Players

General Generics General Tools & Semicon’s

OEM’s Tier1’s Software Services
Top Automotive OEMs
• OEM: Original Equipment Manufacturer. Though
some in the automotive industry have taken to
referring to car companies themselves as OEMs,
the term relates to any company that
manufactures parts for use in new vehicles.
• Some of the Top Automotive OEMs are: Toyota,
Volkswagen, General Motors, Hyundai, Ford,
Nissan, Fiat / Chrysler, Honda, Suzuki, Peugoet
Automotive Supply Chain
Market Drivers for Auto Industry

Government International trade Suppliers

• TREAD Act • Exchange rate • Global presence
• Disposal/ •Trade acts/ tariff • Emerge of low
• reconciliation cost destination
•Safety and environmental • Increasing Tiers

OEM • Telematics
• Competing on
cost / features • Consolidation • Hybrid fuel
• Collaborative
• Globalized • Overcapacity design
• Distributed operation
• High FG inventory
•Trade union
Customer Market
• Technology • Sluggish growth
adoption differs • Weak economic outlook
• Variety • Globalization
Supply Chain Vs Value Chain
Supply Chain Vs Value Chain
Evolution of Automotive Electronics
• The dawn of automotive electronics came in the early 1970s, when the
only electronics in a car were the radio, the alternator (diodes) and the
voltage regulator that controlled the alternator. The last 30 years have
seen rapid technological innovations in automotive electronics, driven
primarily by advancement in semiconductors and related software that
controls the systems
1. 1970’s: Introduction of electronics for engine controls
2. 1980’s: Anti-lock braking introduced
3. Early 1990’s: Airbags become standard
4. Late 1990’s: Rapid expansion of body electronics – seat motors (body
computers), instrument panel lighting, auto locking systems and keyless
5. Early 2000’s to date: infotainment, including sophisticated audio and
video; signals sent via satellite (such as the OnStar System); GPS and
mapping capabilities; satellite radio
6. Late 2000’s : Steer-by-wire, wireless connectivity
7. Trends 2020 – Connected Cars and Autonomous vehicles
Automotive Electronics Today…
Exchangeability and Reuse – Supply Chain
Evolution of Safety Systems
Some Challenges in Automotive Electronics
1. Standardization – Hardware as well as Software
2. Availability of hardware components
• Automotive technology cycles exceeding those for semiconductor industry
• Redesign with new components requires extensive validation

3. Service personnel not qualified for electronics or

software based systems
4. Embedded systems with mostly hard real-time
• Drive train -> order of 100μs
• Chassis -> order of ms
• Body-> order of 10..100ms
Electronics controls used in various car
systems today
Factors influencing Automotive Electronic Systems
1. increasingly more product variations within a car family,
2. manufacturers offering full range of vehicle type spectrum
3. design cycle time and resources decreasing
4. leading manufacturers competing for technology leadership and
Mechatronic Systems:
1. innovative functionality realized through interaction of formerly
autonomous units resulting in highly complex distributed system
2. only few strong suppliers capable of designing future systems
3. personnel and financial project resources becoming scarce
4. sourcing decisions dominated by financial factors (cost)

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Vehicle Domains Body electronics: Central
vehicle functions such as
Infotainment: Functions for
access management systems
information, entertainment and
and anti-theft devices
communication - instrument
actuation of windows,
panel, audio system, antenna
tailgates, seats, and wipers,
tuner, video module, navigation
or cabin air management
system, telephone etc.), including
the central HMI (Human Machine Chassis and driver
Interface) assistance: Functions
enabling safe vehicle
Powertrain: All functions
dynamics, such as ABS
controlling the generation of
driving power and its conversion Passive safety: Functions for
into propulsion: Digital engine collision detection and
control, gear control, fuel pump, injury mitigation such as
onboard diagnostics seat belt pre-tensioners,
airbags, pyrotechnic roll-
over bars etc
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Why Systems Engineering Approach
unquestionably has its
roots in traditional
and the prevailing
culture in
development centers
is dominated by “car

OEMs introduced systems engineering as a sustainable approach

to developing reliable E/E systems as part of the PDP. The
International Council on Systems Engineering (INCOSE) defines
System Engineering as an interdisciplinary means to enable the
realization of successful systems by
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Classical V-Model of Development

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Example : Engine Control

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Automotive Systems
Systems of an Automobile
Systems of an Automobile
Rear Wheel Drive
Rear Wheel Drive
Front Wheel Drive
The Engine
Major Components of the Engine
Role of Electronics
Engine Block
Cylinder Head
The Piston
Piston Connection to Crank Shaft
Valve Operating Mechanism
Valve Operating Mechanism
4-stroke / cycle SI Engine
Intake Stroke
Compression Stroke
Power Stroke
Exhaust stroke
Power Pulse from a 4-cylinder Engine
Engine Control
Engine Control
Ignition System
Ignition System
Ignition System Circuits

• Primary Circuit • Secondary Circuit

– (Low Voltage) – (High Voltage)
• Ignition Switch • Coil Secondary
• Resistor Winding
• Coil Primary • Coil Wire
Winding • Distributor Cap &
• Ignition Module Rotor
• Pick-up Assembly • Plug Wires
• Spark Plugs
Ignition Circuit
Ignition Timing
• Ignition is timed
– So it occurs just before piston reaches top of
compression stroke
• Ignition timing variation
– Computer determines best ignition timing
• Advanced or retarded in response to engine speed
and load changes, altitude, and engine
– Intake manifold vacuum senses engine load
Ignition Timing (cont'd.)
• Computer systems continuously adjust spark
timing to optimize power and emissions
• Some functions were not possible with mechanical
– Throttle position sensor determines throttle position
– MAP sensor determines intake manifold pressure
– Primary trigger interprets engine speed
– Coolant temperature sensor allows adjustments for
changes in engine temperature
Automobile Drivertrain System
Suspension System
Suspension System
Shock Absorber
Shock Absorber Assembly
Shock Absorber Assembly
Disk Brake System
Disk Brake System
Disk Brake System
Steering System
Steering System
Steering System
Steering Mechanism
Automotive Steering System
Power Steering System
Power Steering System
Power Steering System
Electric Steering: an Example
Electric Propulsion
• An alternative to the Internal Combustion (IC) engine as an automotive
power plant is electric propulsion
• The necessary electric energy required was supplied by storage batteries.
• Issue; the energy density (i.e., the energy per unit weight) of storage cells
has been and continues to be significantly less than gasoline or diesel fuel
• On the other hand, the exhaust emissions coming from an electrically
powered car are (theoretically) zero, making this type of car very
• The efficiency of electric propulsion is improved by raising the operating
voltage from the present-day 14-volt systems (i.e., using 12-volt-rated
batteries) to 42-volt systems
– there will be two separate electrical buses, one at 14 volts and the other
at 42 volts. The 14-volt bus will be tied to a single 12-volt (nominal)
battery. The 42-volt electrical bus will be tied to three 12-volt batteries
connected in series
– The 14-volt bus will supply power to those components and subsystems
that are found in present-day vehicles including, for example, all lighting
systems and electronic control systems. The 42-volt bus will be associated
with the electric drive system
Hybrid Vehicle System
• An attractive option for electrically powered cars is a
combination of a gasoline-fueled engine with an electric
propulsion system
• The hybrid vehicle is capable of operation in three modes in
which power comes from: (a) the engine only; (b) the electric
motor only; and (c) the combined engine and electric motor
• To achieve these modes of operation, the engine and electric
motor must be coupled to the drivetrain
• The electric motor in this configuration is the generator /
alternator for electric power as well as the motor for the electric
propulsion. Under mode (a), the motor rotates freely and neither
produces nor absorbs any power. In modes (b) and (c), the motor
receives electric power from an electronic control system and
delivers the required power to the drivetrain.
• Although many electric motor types have the potential to
provide the mechanical power in a hybrid vehicle, the brushless
d-c motor is preferred
Hybrid Vehicle System
• The engine and motor are coupled to the
drivetrain via a power-splitting device capable of
controlling the power split between IC engine and
electric motor.
• The relative power from the IC engine and the
electric motor is adjusted to give optimum
performance during normal driving
Note: A transaxle performs both the
gear-changing function of
a transmission and the power-
splitting ability of an axle differential
in one integrated unit
Electronic Control Unit (ECU)
• In automotive electronics, ECU is a generic term for
any system or subsystems in a motor vehicle
embedded system that controls one or more of the
electrical systems

An electronic control unit

An ECU is made up of
(ECU) is a embedded
hardware and software
electronic device, basically
a digital computer

The most important of The software (firmware) is

The hardware is made up of these components is a a set of lower-level codes
various electronic microcontroller chip along that runs in the
components on a PCB with an EPROM or a Flash microcontroller
memory chip
Components of ECU
ECU Internal Blocks
ECUs and Vehicle Internal Systems
Customer/Supplier Relationships
V-Model of Development
Core Process for Electronic Systems
and Software Development
Analysis of User Requirements
• The objective of this process is to define the logical system
architecture based on the project-relevant user
• Logical system architecture includes
– definition of the function network
– the function interfaces
– the communication among the functions of
electronic systems and software
Analysis of the Logical System
• The logical system architecture is the basis for the
specification of the actual technical system architecture

• The analysis of technical implementation alternatives is

based on a unified logical system architecture and is
supported by a variety of methods of the participating
engineering disciplines

• The technical system architecture also includes a definition

of all functions or sub functions that will be implemented by
means of software

• This definition is also called software requirements

Analysis of Software Requirements
and Specification of Software
• The software requirements thus defined are
analyzed in the next step, and the software
architecture is specified

• That is, the software system boundaries and

interfaces are defined, with software components,
software layers, and operating modes
Specification of software
• This step is followed by the specification of
software components

• The procedure initially assumes an “ideal-world”


• This means that this step ignores any

implementation details, such as the
implementation in integer arithmetic
Design, Implementation, and Tests of
Software Components
• In the design phase, the previously ignored real-
world aspects are subject to scrutiny
• At this point, all details affecting the
implementation must be defined
• The resulting design decisions govern the
implementation of software components
• At the end of this step, software components are
Integration of Software
Components and Software
Integration Tests
• When the development of the software
components is completed—frequently done by
applying the principle of division of labor—and
components have passed the subsequent tests,
integration can begin

• After integration of the components into a

software system, a software integration test
concludes this step
Integration of System Components
and System Integration Tests
• In the next step, the software must be installed on the
ECU hardware to provide the respective ECU with
functional capabilities

• The ECUs then must be integrated with the other

electronic system components such as setpoint
generators, sensors, and actuators

• In a subsequent system integration test, the

interaction of all systems with the plant is evaluated
• The calibration of the ECU software functions
comprises their parameterization

• Parameter settings may be supplied by the

software in the form of characteristic values,
characteristic curves, and characteristic maps
System Test and Acceptance Test

• A system test focusing on the logical system

architecture can be performed, with an acceptance
test that concentrates on user requirements
Different Types of ECU
• ECM – Engine Control module
• EBCM – Electronic Brake control module
• PCM – Powertrain control module
• VCM – Vehicle control module
• BCM – Body control module
Other Electronic Control Systems
Key Design Considerations for ECUs
• Numerous interfaces with sensors and actuators are
located primarily on the engine or transmission
• ECUs are installed close to the components they
• The operating conditions for these ECUs tend to be
harsh in many cases
• ECUs are exposed to an extended temperature
range, humidity, and vibration
ECUs for various Automotive Systems
• Various Systems are discussed based on :
– User interfaces and setpoint generators
– Sensors and actuators
– Software functions
– Installation space
– Model variants and scalability
Airbag System
Electric Power Steering (EPS)
• Safety critical systems are built with fault tolerance- with
many of its essential information would be derived from
more than one sensor and, handled by more than the bare
necessity hardware (path as well as components)
• For Eg., a brake-by-wire system has three main types
of redundancy:
1. Redundant sensors in safety critical components such as the
brake pedal.
2. Redundant copies of some signals that are of particular safety
importance such as displacement and force measurements of
the brake pedal copied by multiple processors in the pedal
interface unit.
3. Redundant hardware to perform important processing tasks
such as multiple processors for the electronic control
unit (ECU)
• Another example of safety critical system is Steer-by-Wire
brake-by-wire system

Brake calipers squeeze the
brake pads against the
surface of the brake rotor
to slow or stop the vehicle.
Brake calipersare essential
to your car's ability to stop
and are arguably one of the
important automobile brak
e parts. Most carstoday
have disc brakes, at least
for the front wheels
Tools Used in Automotive System Development
• Several tools are used at different stages / phases in the development of
automotive systems – to handle complexities (Several Components /
Features / Versions, Multiple Teams / Functions / Sites, Variants, enforce
standards (automotive standards – for safety etc)
• Some of the examples
– Project Management (Eg., MS Project)
– Supply Chain Management (ERPs such as SAP)
– Requirements Management (Eg., Doors)
– System Modeling (tools for SysML)
– Modeling and Simulation (Eg., MatLab)
– Software Configuration Management (Eg., ClearCase)
– Software Development - IDEs such as Keil with plug-ins for i) enforcing coding
standards such as Mishra, ii) simulation and debugging, iii) emulation of the
– Test Benches, Test Cases and Tracking of Issues / Bugs (Eg., Jira, Bugzilla)
• Besides innumerable templates and word processing tools are used for
• Further, several templates are used for reviews (such as documents, code,
test results) are employed
Unit 2
System Approach
Electronic Systems
Transducer, Sensor and Actuator
• Transducer
A device that converts a signal from one physical
form to a corresponding signal having a different
physical form
– Physical form: mechanical, thermal, magnetic, electric, optical,
• Sensor: an input transducer (i.e., a
• Actuator: an output transducer (i.e., a
A System with Sensors and Actuators
• The process of comparing an unknown quantity
with a standard of the same quantity (measuring
length) or standards of two or more related
quantities (measuring velocity)
Types of Sensors
• Active vs. Passive
– Does sensor draw energy from the signal ?
• Digital vs. Analog
– Is the signal discrete or continuous?
– Digital sensors
• The signal produced or reflected by the sensor is binary
– Analog sensors
• The signal produced by the sensor is continuous and proportional to the
• Null and deflection methods
• The signal produces some physical (deflection) effect closely related to the
measured quantity
• Input – Output configuration
– The signal produced by the sensor is counteracted to minimize
the deflection
– That opposing effect necessary to maintain a zero deflection
should be proportional to the signal of the measurand
• A sensor or instrument is calibrated by applying a
number of KNOWN physical inputs and recording
the response of the system
Sensor Characteristics
• Static characteristics
The properties of the system after all transient effects have
settled to their final or steady state
– Accuracy
– Discrimination
– Precision
– Errors
– Drift
– Sensitivity
– Linearity
– Hysteresis (backslash)
• Dynamic Characteristics
The properties of the system transient response to an input
– Zero order systems
– First order systems
– Second order systems
Sensor Fundamentals
• Range
– Every sensor is designed to work over a specified range
– The design ranges are usually fixed, and if exceeded, result in
permanent damage to or destruction of a sensor
• Sensitivity
– Sensitivity of a sensor is defined as the change in output of the sensor
per unit change in the parameter being measured
– The factor may be constant over the range of the sensor (linear), or it
may vary (nonlinear).
• Resolution
– Resolution is defined as the smallest change that can be detected by a
• Response
– The time taken by a sensor to approach its true output when subjected
to a step input is sometimes referred to as its response time.
Sensor Fundamentals
• Linearity
– The most convenient sensor to use is one with a linear transfer function. That is an
output that is directly proportional to input over its entire range, so that the slope of a
graph of output versus input describes a straight line.
• Hysteresis
– Hysteresis refers to the characteristic that a transducer has in being unable to repeat
faithfully, in the opposite direction of operation, the data that have been recorded in
one direction
• Full Scale Output
– Full scale output (FSO) is the algebraic difference between the electrical output signals
measured with maximum input stimulus and the lowest input stimulus applied. This
must include all deviations from the ideal transfer function
• Accuracy
– A very important characteristic of a sensor is accuracy which really means inaccuracy.
Inaccuracy is measured as a ratio of the highest deviation of a value represented by the
sensor to the ideal value. It may be represented in terms of measured value
Accuracy and Errors
• Systematic errors
• Result from a variety of factors
• Interfering or modifying variables (i.e., temperature)
• Drift (i.e., changes in chemical structure or mechanical
• The measurement process changes the measurand (i.e.,
loading errors)
• The transmission process changes the signal (i.e.,
• Human observers (i.e., parallax errors)
• Systematic errors can be corrected with
COMPENSATION methods (i.e., feedback, filtering)
Accuracy and Errors
• Random errors
– Also called NOISE: a signal that carries no information
– True random errors (white noise) follow a Gaussian
– Sources of randomness:
– Repeatability of the measurand itself (i.e., height of a rough
– Environmental noise (i.e., background noise picked by a
– Transmission noise (i.e., 60Hz hum)
– Signal to noise ratio (SNR) should be >>1
– With knowledge of the signal characteristics it may be
possible to interpret a signal with a low SNR (i.e.,
understanding speech in a loud environment
Signal Conditioning
Signal conditioning means manipulating an
analog signal in such a way that it meets the
requirements of the next stage for further

Key signal conditioning technologies provide

distinct enhancements to both the performance
and accuracy of data acquisition systems.
Signal Conditioning Techniques
• Amplification
– Amplifiers increase voltage level to better match the analog-to-digital
converter (ADC) range, thus increasing the measurement resolution and
sensitivity. In addition, using external signal conditioners located closer to the
signal source, or transducer, improves the measurement signal-to-noise ratio
by magnifying the voltage level before it is affected by environmental noise

• Attenuation
– Attenuation, the opposite of amplification, is necessary when voltages to be
digitized are beyond the ADC range. This form of signal conditioning
decreases the input signal amplitude so that the conditioned signal is within
ADC range. Attenuation is typically necessary when measuring voltages that
are more than 10 V

• Isolation
– Isolated signal conditioning devices pass the signal from its source to the
measurement device without a physical connection by using transformer,
optical, or capacitive coupling techniques. In addition to breaking ground
loops, isolation blocks high-voltage surges and rejects high common-mode
voltage and thus protects both the operators and expensive measurement
Signal Conditioning Techniques
• Filtering
– Filters reject unwanted noise within a certain frequency
range. Oftentimes, low pass filters are used to block out
high-frequency noise in electrical measurements, such as
60 Hz power. Another common use for filtering is to prevent
aliasing from high-frequency signals. This can be done by
using an antialiasing filter to attenuate signals above the
Nyquist frequency.

• Excitation
– Excitation is required for many types of transducers. For
example, strain gauges, accelerometers thermistors, and
resistance temperature detectors (RTDs) require external
voltage or current excitation
Signal Conditioning Techniques
• Linearization
– Linearization is necessary when sensors produce
voltage signals that are not linearly related to the
physical measurement. Linearization is the process of
interpreting the signal from the sensor and can be done
either with signal conditioning or through software.
Thermocouples are the classic example of a sensor that
requires linearization
Automotive Sensors & Actuators
• Automotive manufacturers are continuously
increasing the use of electronics systems to-
– improve vehicle performance
– Safety
– passenger comfort.
• Sensors and actuators integrated with automotive
control computers help optimize vehicle performance
while improving reliability and durability.

Sensor- Input Microcontroller Actuator- Output

A Generic (Automotive) DAS



Selection Criteria
• What is to be measured
• Magnitude, range, dynamics of
measured quantity
• Required resolution, accuracy
• Cost
• Environment
• Interface Requirements:
– Output quantity (voltage,
current, resistance,…)
– Sensitivity
– Signal conditioning
– A/D requirements (#bits,
data rate)
Typical Electronic Engine Control System

MAF - Mass (Air) Flow sensor

TPS – Throttle Position Sensor
EGO – Exhaust Gas Oxygen
EGR - exhaust gas recirculation
• Commonly used for temperature measurement on vehicles
• They are made out of semiconductor materials such as cobalt or
nickel oxides
• Change in temperature causes change in resistance of the
• Most of the thermistors are of the negative temperature
coefficient (NTC) type
• Resistance range – Several Kilo Ohms at 0oC to a few hundred
Ohms at 100o C. Thus it can be more sensitive.
• Important factors for
accurate measurements:
– Supply must be constant
– Current through the
thermistor should be
negligible ( I.e. No heating effect)

• These devices are commonly

used as sensors for-
– Air intake
– Battery
– Engine and transmission
– Air conditioning and
internal/external environmental
– Oil and gas temperatures.
Temperature Sensor
• Application Engine management
• Function Registration of temperature
of coolants, fuel and air
• Installation Engine block, coolant
circuit, air-intake tract
• Sensing principle NTC technology (hot
conductor, negative temperature
• Technical data
– Temperature range: -40°C...+150°C
– Time constant: 5 s...44 s (depending on type)
– Accuracy: ± 0.8 K at 100°C ±1.5 K at 20°C
• When two dissimilar metals are
joined together, the thermocouple
junction is formed
• Among the two junctions used, one
of the junctions is kept at a constant
known temperature where as the
other at the temperature to be
• Ex: 70% platinum & 30% rhodium
alloy known as B Type , Has a range
of 0 15000C
• Used for measuring Exhaust Gas and
turbocharger temperatures in a
Magnetic Sensors-Variable Reluctance
(VR) Sensors
• Used mainly for speed and position
measurements of rotating members.
(Ex: crank shaft speed and position sensing)
• The variable reluctance sensor is an electro-
magnetic device consisting of a permanent
magnet surrounded by a winding of wire
• The sensor is used in conjunction with a
ferrous target that either has notches or
• Rotation of the target wheel near the tip of
the sensor changes the magnetic flux,
creating an analog voltage signal in the
sensor coil
• Though the voltage may vary depending on
the speed of rotating member, the
frequency is used for measurement
Variable Reluctance (VR) Sensors
• A common method of
converting this signal
into a useful signal for
interfacing with other
digital circuit is by using
a Schmitt trigger circuit
• Another method is by
using a quenched
oscillator circuit as
shown in the figure.
This circuit has good
resistance to
Magnetic Reluctance Crankshaft Position
• One of the
engine sensor
that measures
directly (using
This sensor consists of a permanent magnet with a coil of wire wound
around it. A steel disk that is mounted on the crankshaft (usually in
front of the engine) has tabs that pass between the pole pieces of this
magnet. The passage of each tab can correspond to the position of a
cylinder on its power stroke. This sensor is of the magnetic reluctance
type and is based on the concept of a magnetic circuit. A magnetic
circuit is a closed path through a magnetic material (e.g., iron, cobalt,
Hall Effect Transducers
• If a certain type of crystal is
carrying a current in a
transverse magnetic field, then
a voltage will be produced at
right angles to the supply
• The magnitude of the voltage is
proportional to the supply
current and to the magnetic
field strength
• With proper design, the output
of this device is a square wave
• The principle is used in
distributors and also to detect
the current flowing on a cable
Hall Effect Transducers
• These sensors are mainly used for sensing larger change
in position
– Example: The throttle position sensor, which is a
• It is supplied with a stable 5 Volts DC
• The wiper is driven by the throttle shaft. Thus , the
voltage from the wiper contact will be proportional to the
throttle position
• In many cases,throttle potentiometer is used to indicate
the rate of change of throttle position. This information is
used in implementing acceleration enrichment or over-
run fuel cut-off
Where do we find electronics in a car