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• Dobereiner observes

similarities in
elements. Proposes
Law of Triads-Middle
element in the triad
had atomic weight that
was the average of the
other two members.
Johann Dobereiner is a German scientist who first
attempted to classify elements into sets of three.

He observed similarities in elements. The Middle element


in the triad had the atomic weight that was the average of
the other two members

*during his year in 1800s, there were only 30 elements


known
Chlorine-Bromine-Iodine Triad

Element Average Atomic Density (g/L)


Mass (amu)
Cl 35.5 1.56

Br 79.9 3.12

I 126.9 4.95
Johann Newlands arranged the
elements according to their
increasing atomic mass in which
the elements can be divided into
eight groups, similar to a
musical scale.

*during his year in 1864, there


were 62 elements known
Then in 1869, Russian chemist
Dmitri Mendeleev (1834-1907)
proposed arranging elements by
increasing atomic mass and
properties
(Lothar Meyer independently
reached similar conclusion but
published results after
Mendeleev).
Mendeleev is given credit for the
development of the first periodic
table due to the following reasons:
• 1. He occasionally broke the pattern of increasing
atomic masses to keep elements with similar
properties in the same columns.
• 2. He also placed gaps in his periodic table to predict
the existence of unknown elements during his time.
More Mendeleev
• Mendeleev's periodic table
of 1869 contained 17
columns with two partial
periods of seven elements
each (Li-F & Na-Cl)
followed by two nearly
complete periods (K-Br &
Rb-I).
Mendeleev Periodic Table
He was able to develop the
concept of the atomic number.

He stated that, the periodic trend


in the properties of elements is
not related to the atomic mass
but the atomic number.
“when elements are arranged in order of
increasing atomic number, their physical and
chemical properties show a periodic pattern”
Mosley’s Periodic Table
•When the elements were arranged by increasing
•atomic number, the discrepancies in
•Mendeleev’s table disappeared.

• Moseley’s work led to both the modern


definition of atomic number, and showed
that atomic number, not atomic mass, is the
basis for the organization of the periodic
table.
Last Major Change
• Gene Seaborg
• Starting with plutonium in 1940, Seaborg
discovered transuranium elements 94 to 102 and
reconfigured the periodic table by placing the
lanthanide/actinide series at the bottom of the
table. In 1951 Seaborg was awarded the Nobel
Prize in chemistry and element 106 was later
named seaborgium (Sg) in his honor.
Kansas Board Approved Periodic
Table
4 Main Blocks
More Periodic Table

• Period - rows of elements with the same


energy level
• Groups - elements in the same column
with the same electron configuration
• Metals- left of metalloids
• Nonmetals- right of metalloids
Majority of elements are metals
Special names for
Some Main Groups
• Four groups within the main-group elements have
special names. These groups are:
• alkali metals (Group 1)
• alkaline-earth metals (Group 2)
• halogens (Group 17)
• noble gases (Group 18)
Elements in Group 1 are called alkali
metals.
lithium, sodium, potassium, rubidium,
cesium, and francium
• Alkali metals are so named because they are metals
that react with water to make alkaline solutions.
• Because the alkali metals have a single valence
electron, they are very reactive.
• In losing its one valence electron, potassium
achieves a stable electron configuration.
• Alkali metals are never found in nature as pure
elements but are found as compounds.
Group 2 elements are called
alkaline-earth metals.

• The alkaline-earth metals are slightly less reactive


than the alkali metals.
• They are usually found as compounds.
• The alkaline-earth metals have two valence electrons
and must lose both their valence electrons to get to a
stable electron configuration.
• It takes more energy to lose two electrons than it takes to
lose just the one electron that the alkali metals must give
up to become stable.
Elements in Group 17 of the periodic
table are called the halogens.

• The halogens are the most reactive group of


nonmetal elements.
• When halogens react, they often gain the one
electron needed to have eight valence electrons, a
filled outer energy level.
• Because the alkali metals have one valence electron,
they are ideally suited to react with the halogens.
• The halogens react with most metals to produce
salts.
Group 18 elements are called the
noble gases.

• The noble gas atoms have a full set of electrons in


their outermost energy level.
• The low reactivity of noble gases leads to some
special uses.
• The noble gases were once called inert gases
because they were thought to be completely
unreactive.
• In 1962, chemists were able to get xenon to react,
making the compound XePtF6.
• In 1979, chemists were able to form the first
xenon-carbon bonds.
Hydrogen
• Hydrogen is in a class by itself in the periodic table

• It is placed in group 1 because it has a 1+ charge


and a 1s1 electron configuration

• It can also be placed in Group 17 because of its


behavior as well
Periodicity

• With increasing atomic number, the


electron configuration of the atoms display
a periodic variation.
• Which leads us to Trends
Trends

• Atomic radii
– One-half the diameter of the distance
between two like nuclei
– Increases down a group
– Decreases across a period
Different Atomic Radii
Ionic Radii

Radius of the ion after it has lost or gained an electron

- increases across the chart

- increases down the chart


Ionization Energy
• Amount of energy required to remove an electron
from an atom

– Increases across the chart


– Decrease down the chart
Electron Affinity
• The energy emitted upon the addition of an
electron to an atom or group of atoms in a
gas phase

– Generally become more negative as you go


across the chart\
– No clear trend
Other trends
• Increase in Atomic Number and Mass
• Melting and Boiling Points
-metals increase L-R then decrease to nonmetals
• Electronegtivity
– Energy required by an element in a compound to attract
an electron
- increase from L-R
- decrease top to bottom
Trends in Melting Point