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UNIT - 1


Process of communication:

• Introduction: communication
• Definitions of communication
• Process of communication
• Importance of communication

 Types of communication • Verbal communication  Written communication  Oral communication • Non-verbal communication  Body language  Others… .


opinions or emotions with other people. . COMMUNICATION  Communication is the process by which we exchange meaning. ideas.  It is essential condition of our existence and most important activity of ours. facts.

.  Everybody knows that most of the time. The word ‘communicate’ has been derived from the latin word communicare that means to share share‘ or ‘participate’. through speech or writing or any other media. we are sharing information with other human beings.


Definition In the words of Newman and summers. opinions or emotions by two or more persons” . “Communication is an exchange of facts. ideas.

It can be defined as the process by which people exchange meanings through the use of a common set of symbols .

According to Allen “The sum total of all the things one person does when he wants to create understanding in the mind of another.” .

It is a bridge of meaning It involves a systematic and continuous process of telling. listening and understanding .

Communication process/ Basic elements of communication .

.1…Sender: The person who intends to convey the message with the intention of passing information and ideas to others is known as sender or communicator.

Conversion of subject matter into these symbols is the process of encoding. actions or pictures etc.2…Encoding: Since the subject matter of communication is theoretical and intangible. its further passing requires use of certain symbols such as words. .

ideas etc. . This information is transmitted to the receiver through certain channels which may be either formal or informal.3…Media: The person who is interested in communicating has to choose the channel for sending the required information.

tries to convert the same in such a way so that he may extract its meaning to his complete understanding. .4…Decoding: The person who receives the message or symbol from the communicator.

It is the receiver who tries to understand the message in the best possible manner in achieving the desired objectives.5…Receiver: Receiver is the person who receives the message or for whom the message is meant for. .

.6…Feedback: Feedback is the process of ensuring that the receiver has received the message and understood in the same sense as sender meant it.

7…Noise: • In communication studies and information theory. and it can disrupt the communication process at any point. • Noise can be external (a physical sound) or internal (a mental disturbance). Also called interference. . noise refers to anything that interferes in the communication process between a speaker and an audience.


It means that the message that gets no response is not a communication. Importance of feedback: • Communication is not just transmission of a message from the source to the destination but eliciting a response from the receiver to the received message. . • Communication is effective only if the message received is understood in the sense intended by the sender.

the sender must wait for receiver’s response before deciding what to say next and how to say it. Communication will be incomplete and ineffective. . • Feedback is the check on how much successful one has been in transferring his message as originally intended. If there is no feedback.• Feedback is the essence of two-way communication. In two-way communication.

Some points highlighting the importance of feedback are mentioned below: .. there is no alternative to feedback.• Based on feedback. Thus. a sender may either alter the presentation of the message or cancel it entirely.

“The receiver’s feedback to the sender completes the communication process loop. sender can understand the attitude of the receiver. Why feedback is necessary for completion of communication process? • Completion of communication: Two-way communication requires feedback from the receiver.” . Through the feedback.

By means of feedback. sender can be sure that the receiver received the message and understood it in the proper way. Sender needs feedback in order to determine the success or failure of communication.• Measuring the effectiveness of communication: Feedback ensures the sender regarding the effectiveness of his communication. .

• Understanding the receiver’s view: Feedback helps to understand the receiver’s view and opinion about the sender’s message. sender can determine the next course of action. . With this understanding.

So proper understanding of the message by the receiver and his feedback proves that the sender has selected the right media.• Measuring the appropriateness of media: Message can be transmitted using various media. Improper media cannot convey the message to the receiver properly. .

Considering this opinion. . Information of the receiver can also improve the quality of decision. he must seek feedback. the communicator can take proper decision.• Making correct decision: Feedback communicates the receiver’s opinion to the sender. • Collection of information: One-way communication only sends information. If communicator wants to gather information.

In this case. organizational success depends on proper coordination of inter-departmental activities. Feedback helps top management to ensure proper coordination. .• Coordination of activities: Responsibility of performing organizational activities is assigned to various departments.

Action Silence Negative Oral Feed Positive Written back .

is a measure of the success of the message..• Feedback in Face to face communication • Feedback over the telephone • Feed back to written communication • Feedback increase accuracy & confidence • Good business communication is a two way process • Feedback.(positive or negative) • Customer’s satisfaction level • Required foe two-way process .


OBJECTIVES OF BUSINESS COMMUNICATION • Communication Gives Substance To Organization’s Existence • It Improves The Employee’s Motivation To Work • Facilitates leadership • Help public relation • Increase job satisfaction • Help managers performing their managerial roles • Reduces time & efforts .

• To exchange information • To develop & implement plans • to achieve organizational goal • To motivate employees • To improve labor-management is relationships .

verbal communication. Types of communication: Communication by using language is called verbal communication Communication through other symbols is called non. A…verbal communication B…Non-verbal communication .

Verbal Non-Verbal Communication Communication Oral Body language commu Sign Written language commu Para language .

A…verbal communication • The word ‘verbal’ means ‘connected with words and the use of words’. That is why it is observed that all serious or formal communication is in words. And the words may be spoken or written. . • Words are the most accurate & powerful sets of symbol.

. verbal communication • written • Oral communication communication – Memorandum – Face-to-face – Notice – speech – Telegram – Telephone – telex The most obvious difference between the oral method and the written method is the time factor.

1…Written Communication  While oral communication is more natural and spontaneous.  It involves transmission of information through letters. written communication requires conscious effort. . memos.. reports. notices. circulars.

• Immediate feedback is not possible • Continuous exchange of ideas or information is not possible • Words chosen must be clear & precise. Characteristics of written communication: • It is a creative activity that requires imagination & efforts to arrive at the finished product. .

Occasions for written communication: Memorandum Notice Telegram Telex .

. It is a written message by employees in the conduct of their work. 1. • Most large companies use standard memo templates or printed memo • Most memos are direct because they concern work information & such information rarely requires preliminary explanation & justification. Memorandum • It is a form letter written inside the business.

Police commmissioner’s office Shahibaugh Ahmedabad Memo To: From: Cc: Date: Re: .Jamnadas & Co. madhavpura market Opp. C-18. C.

Notice • The drafting of notice is even more important • Extra care must be taken while drafting of notices. 2. so that they can be easily understood even by those with the lowest intelligence among workers. .

3. Telegram
• Urgency to communicate a matter , may
arise due to many exigencies, personal as
well as official.

• It is used for external communication, for
contacting customers, suppliers,

• It gets immediate response & It is to be
written by using as few words as possible.

4. Telex
• It is a device in which message is typed
on a word processor & is directly sent
through telegraph line to the recipient

• A telex message operates more on code
numbers than does a telegram

• Telex message are to be paid on the basis
of the time taken & not on the basis of the
number of words used.

Advantages of written
1. Wide Area
2. Precise & accurate
3. Repetition
4. Permanent record
5. Legal evidence
6. Fixed responsibility
7. Suitable for lengthy message

Costly 3. Rigidity 5. Limitations written communication 1. Lack of secrecy 4. Impersonal 6. Delayed feedback . Time consuming 2.

.2…Oral Communication Oral communication means spoken communication or communication through speech.

It includes. • Telephone • Face-to-face communication • Presentation • Radio • Tape recorder • Speeches • interview ..

Advantages 1. Immediate feedback 2. Economical / Less expensive 4. Group communication . Time saving 3. Secrecy 7. Flexibility 6. Personal touch 5.

Not suitable for Lengthy messages 6. Limitations 1. misunderstanding 5. Lack of responsibility . No records 3. Poor retention 2.

drawings.. sounds are often used to convey messages.B.Non-Verbal Communication  Human beings communicate in many ways other than words.  Therefore.  All these means used in communication are known as non-verbal commu…  Action speaks louder than words. Words often fail to convey the exact meaning. . pictures.


Non-verbal communication includes • Body language • Space language • Time • Paralanguage • silence • dress & grooming • Visual communication • Colour • Charts. maps & Graphs .

. Body Language (kinesics) • Human body and its various parts play an important role in communication • The study of message conveyed by body movements is known as body language. 1.. .

• Body movements of a person are guided by his thoughts and feelings. waving of hands. shrugging of shoulders etc are all expression of human thoughts and feelings . blinking of eyes. • The nodding of the head.

Different parts of body which plays important role in communication • Head • Face • Eyes • Gestures • Postures .

and self confidence  A head bent low shows modesty. politeness. and guilt  A stiff head indicates pride and confidence too. . self respect.Head  It is the sign of honor.

the eyebrows. Face  Every facial muscle is an instrument of face to face communication  The lines of forehead. the eyes all speak louder than words.  A great amount of regular practice is required to control feelings and adopt positive attitudes in all situation .

• So eye contact is of great importance in face to face communication • Eyes adopt different positions in different situations .Eyes • It communicates our deepest feelings.

.• Fixed eyes show concentration and interest. • Raised eyes indicate surprise or fear • Smiling eyes show happiness • Evasive eyes indicate lack of interest or nervousness.

hands. torso etc…  Arms spread out convey the meaning of wide. shuffling legs indicate nervousness. legs.Gestures  It refers to the movements of our arms. an erect torso reflects intensity .

stretching or bending sideways all convey meanings A person can make positive or negative impression of himself or others through his body posture . leaning forward or back word.Postures Standing or sitting erect.

meetings and informal interactions . so we should make efforts to ensure that our body does not send out wrong signals in interviews.

each of us has spaces that we feel are of own our. more square feet of floor space they have in their offices.. . • In offices. the higher up the position in an organization.. 2.Space language (Proxemics) • First of all we must examine our attitude to the space in which our movement takes place. space is usually directly related to status.

5’-4’) Intimate space (0”-1.5’) . Public space (12’+) Social space (4’-12’) Personal space (1.

think about how you manage your daily schedule? do you arrive early for most appointment ? Do you prepare agendas foe meeting ? ... To illustrate.Time • That is how we give meaning to time communicates to other. 3.

But it is like verbal commu. 4…Para Language  The word ‘Para’ means ‘like’ & therefore. para language is like language.because it is related to the way words are spoken  Voice is a highly versatile tool for expresing various emotions & thoughts ..  It is non-verbal because it does not involves use of words.

Pitch variations 4. Speaking speed 3. Volume Variations 5. Voice 2. Pause 6. Intonation . A message can be conveyed more effectively through voice by bearing in mind the following points: 1.

5…Silence • The only and the best way of communication gifted by god is silence. . • Silence can be a great non-verbal factor of communication • People of different cultures will perceive this non-verbal factor differently.

. 6…Dress & grooming • Closely allied to body language is the way we cloth & decorum our bodies in order to send message about ourselves to all we meet. • When a knowledgeable person meets somebody for the first time in private life as well as in business. he or she tends to read off indicators from the other’s appearance.


cartoons.books contains maps and diagrams  Hotels. tour and travels agencies.7…Visual communication  Visual signals are used to convey messages for general information and education  such as posters. photographs . drawing. motor companies etc use color photographs .

Advantages 1. useful for informing and educating illiterate people . makes communication interesting 3. convey message easily and effectively 2.

Signs & Signals .

• It is thus a combination of verbal & non- verbal communication. • Posters are used most extensively in advertising. playcards. put up & displayed at strategic mints at public places to catch the public eye. • Posters consist of pictures or photographs along with a slogan.. .Posters. bill boards. They are in the form of hoarding.


It is used to give message. . Traffic signals red & green colours indicate danger & safety respectively & traffic jam controlled correctly & instantly by just colour signals.8…Colour • Colour is a very important & powerful means of communication.

read color for danger & white for peace & purity etc… .• Colour represents psychological status & different moods…black color stands for death & sorrow.

more quickly & easily than can hundred of words. . maps & Graphs • One simple diagram can convey more information. • The advantage of this visual media have been considerable as message can be transmitted more quickly & more accurately by using graphs & charts than by verbal explanations.9…Charts.

Charts are used to represent numeric & statistical information. Charts are of many kinds: Bar chart Pie chart .

It shows position & size of countries.Maps are mostly used for conveying space relationship between places. . Maps gives geographical information.

Graphs are useful for showing trends in continuous information over periods of time. . In a graph points are connected with a line in order to show increase or decrease.

• In fact it is now considered that the lack of effective communication is the root cause of most of our industrial or organizational unrest among people. How to achieve effective communication • It has been realized that all human activities personal. social business related are dependent on effective communication. .

The four stages of making communication effective: 1.Clear objectives / purpose or target 2.Impact 4.Method Other: • Timing • attitudes .Clear understanding 3.

. Importance of communication in business: • Organization consists of people & their interdependence. People working in an organization are interdependent because performance of an individual affects & affected by the performance of others. • This interdependence aspects of the functioning of an organization calls for co- ordination & co-ordination requires effective communication.

The effective communication in business organization has been considered important for the following reasons:  Business has grown in size  Business activity has become complex  Use of information technology  Dealing with government & other central bodies  Communication promotes spirit of understanding .

. the expenditure involved & the emotional & intellectual level of receivers. the time available. • The communicator has to be very careful in the choice of media or methods which will depend on various factors the urgency of message. Selecting methods of communication: • Communication is possible through a vast variety of media.

a notice may be put on the notice board or it may be circulated in circular from among them. he would most probably convene a meeting if certain information to be transmitted to all the employees.• If the managing director wants to consult all departmental heads. .

• It is necessary to understand its strength & weakness before choosing for communication purpose.• All methods. And encoded message is required to be sent through an appropriate medium. visual & electronic have their own necessary competence to carry messages. . verbal & non-verbal.

a business organization takes into account the seven factors. In arriving at the choice of method.• The ways in which we communication take many forms. . But the choice of the method to be used should be made only after assessing the precise requirements of the communication & the attributes of the methods available.

• Speed
• Accuracy
• Circumstances
• Confidence and safety
• Copy
• Expense
• Impression and feedback

How to make oral
communication effective
• Make a good set of notes you can follow at
a glance, and PRACTICE your presentation.
• Dress for the occasion and tidy yourself up
• Arrange the environment to suit your
presentation and get rid of distractions
• operation of audiovisual equipment before
your presentation
• Make sure your notes and other materials
are in proper order before you begin.

• Get rid of any gum or food you might
have in your mouth
• Stand or sit up straight with your weight
• Make eye contact before you start to
• Don't start with “um” or “OK.”
• Speak with appropriate loudness and
speed. Consider audience, place and
• Use your body expressively and

How to make written communication effective Get clear about your reader Get clear about your outcome Avoid jargon wherever possible Keep your language clear and simple Make it easy to read and scan Proof read your documents before distribution .

Ten commandments of effective communication • Be sure of what you wish to communicate • Think of and know your receiver • Choose the appropriate medium • Find and select your information • Be clear in the use of language • Keep it brief and concise • Get the proper tone • Conviction • Make sure everybody knows who needs to know • Feedback .