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Basic Concept of 3G Network

3G rel99 Architecture (UMTS)


- 3G Radios
2G MS (voice only)
CN

BSS

E PSTN
Abis
A
PSTN
B
BSC C
MSC GMSC
Gb D
BTS VLR
Gs
SS7
H
2G+ MS (voice & data)
IuCS
RNS
Gr HLR
AuC
ATM Gc
Iub
IuPS
Gn Gi
PSDN
RNC IP
SGSN GGSN
Node B
3G UE (voice & data)
BSS Base Station System CN Core Network SGSN Serving GPRS Support Node
BTS Base Transceiver Station MSC Mobile-service Switching Controller GGSN Gateway GPRS Support Node
BSC Base Station Controller VLR Visitor Location Register
HLR Home Location Register
RNS Radio Network System AuC Authentication Server
RNC Radio Network Controller GMSC Gateway MSC
WCDMA Specification
Spreading process in WCDMA
3,840 Kcps
S
Coding
&
Interleaving

Channelization Scrambling
Code Code

• 1st Step: Channelization


 Variable Rate Spreading ( According to user data rate)
• 2nd Step: Scrambling Code
 Fixed Rate Spreading (3,840 Kchips)

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 Downlink (NodeB to UE )

 Scrambling Code: Identifies cell (sector).


 Channelization Code: Identifies user channels in cell (Sector).

Scrambling Code A

Scrambling Code B
Channelization
Code 2 Channelization
Channelization
Code 3
Code 1
Channelization
Code 1 Channelization
Code 2
Channelization
Code 1 Channelization
Code 2 Scrambling Code C
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 Up Link (UE to NodeB )

Scrambling Code: Identifies user terminal.

Channelization Code: Identifies channels in user terminal.

Channelization
Code 2 Scrambling Code A
Scrambling Code B
Channelization
Channelization
Code 1
Code 1

Channelization
Code 1

Scrambling Code C

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• Orthogonal Variable Spreading Factor [OVSF] codes are the channelization codes used for
signal spreading in the uplink and downlink

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• The code used for scrambling of the uplink Channels may be of either long
or short type, There are 224 long and 224 short uplink scrambling codes.
Uplink scrambling codes are assigned by higher layers.
• For downlink physical channels, a total of 218-1 = 262,143 scrambling
codes can be generated. Only scrambling codes k = 0, 1, …, 8191 are used.
• In the downlink direction 512 of scrambling codes are used to identify the
cells in the downlink so downlink planning is required

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Different Handover in 3G
1. Intra-system handovers
 MS handover within one cell between different sectors: Softer handover
 MS handover between different BS:
 Soft handover
 Hard handover
2. Inter-frequency handovers
 Hard handover
3. Inter-system handovers
• Handover between WCDMA <--> GSM900/1800: Hard handover
• Handover between WCDMA/FDD <--> TDD: Hard handover
Intra-system handovers
1. Intra-system handovers
I. Softer handover
II. Soft handover
III. Hard handover
Softer Handover
• Softer handover refers to handover between cells with same frequency
and in same nodeB.
As we can say HO between Cell A to Cell B of SITE0001 at f1 or f2
Soft Handover
• Soft handover refers to adding a new serving cell and deleting the old one
after stabilization. Services continue in the handover without any
interruption. It’s also known by term make before break.
Hard Handover
• Hard handover refers to deleting the old serving cell and then adding a
new serving cell. Services break off during the handover. It’s also known by
term break before make.
Events in 3G
Event Description

Quality of target cell improves, entering a report range of relatively


Event 1A
activating set quality

Event 1B Quality of target cell decreases, depart from a report range of relatively
activating set quality

Event 1C
The quality of a non-activated set cell is better than that of a certain activated
set cell

Event 1D Best cell generates change

Event 1E Quality of target cell improves, better than an absolute threshold

Event 1F Quality of target cell decreases, worse than an absolute threshold

Event correlative to soft handover


Events in 3G
Event Description

Event 2A Best band generates change

Event 2B Quality of currently-used band is worse than an absolute threshold and


that of non-used band is better than an absolute threshold

Event 2C Quality of non-used band is better than an absolute threshold

Event 2D Quality of currently-used band is worse than an absolute threshold

Event 2E Quality of non-used band is worse than an absolute threshold

Event 2F Quality of currently-used band is better than an absolute threshold

Event correlative to hard handover


Events in 3G
Event Description

Quality of currently-used UTRAN operator is worse than an absolute


Event 3A threshold and quality of other radio systems is better than an absolute
threshold

Event 3B Quality of other radio systems is worse than an absolute threshold

Event 3C Quality of other radio systems is better than an absolute threshold

Event 3D Best cell in other systems generates change

Event correlative to handover between systems


Common Pilot Channel (CPICH)
• The CPICH is a fixed rate (30 kbps, SF=256) downlink physical channel that carries a pre-defined bit
sequence.
• There are two types of Common pilot channels, the Primary and Secondary CPICH. They
differ in their use and the limitations placed on their physical features
 Primary CPICH
 Secondary CPICH
Primary CPICH
• An important area for the primary common pilot channel is the measurements for the
handover and cell selection/reselection. The use of CPICH reception level at the terminal for
handover measurements has the consequence that, by adjusting the CPICH power level, the
cell load can be balanced between different cells. Reducing the CPICH power causes part of
the terminals to hand over to other cells, while increasing it invites more terminals to hand
over to the cell, as well as to make their initial access to the network in that cell.
• The Primary Common Pilot Channel (P-CPICH) has the following
characteristics:
 The same channelization code is always used for the P-CPICH.
 The P-CPICH is scrambled by the primary scrambling code.
 There is one and only one P-CPICH per cell.
 The P-CPICH is broadcast over the entire cell.
Secondary CPICH
• Secondary CPICH may be phase reference for the secondary CCPCH.
• A Secondary Common Pilot Channel (S-CPICH) has the following
characteristics:
 An arbitrary channelization code of SF=256 is used for the S-CPICH.
 A S-CPICH is scrambled by either the primary or a secondary scrambling code.
 There may be zero, one, or several S-CPICH per cell.
 A S-CPICH may be transmitted over the entire cell or only over a part of the cell.
WCDMA Cell Coverage
Factors affecting cell size include:

Frequency band - 2000MHz much


higher than GSM networks.
Voice and
Traffic types - WCDMA user data Slow Data
rates drop off as the user moves Users
further away from the Node B

User levels - Demand for mobile


services will increase, leading to Fast Data
much greater user densities Users

Area type Dense Urban Suburb Rural


Urban
Speech 92 93 95 95 %
144 kb/s NRT 85 85 85 85 %
GSM1800 speech 85 85 85 85 %
Cell range 1 1.6 2.3 5.2 km
average projected coverage