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- derived from Lesbos, a Greek island, home to a 6th-century BCE poet Sappho €1870 - "Lesbianism" was used to describe erotic relationships between women - Use of ´lesbian" in medical literature became prominent €1925 - The term was recorded as a noun to refer the female equivalent of a sodomite

Greece(776²480 BC): earliest known written references to same-sex love between women €Sappho - long been considered bisexual because she wrote love poems addressed to both women and men €Japan & Arabia

US 2.6% of the population
[National Opinion Research Center survey in 2000]

Australia 1.3% - 2.2% of the total population UK
[National Survey of Sexual Attitudes and Lifestyles (NATSAL) in 2000]

1.Ever had a sexual experience, not necessarily including genital contact, with a partner of the same sex? 9.7% 2.Ever had sex with a same sex partner, including genital contact? 5.7% 3.Have you had a same sex partner in the last five years? 2.6%

(A) Genetic factor ‡ in a heritability study of homosexual in women, - 48% for identical twins - 16% for non-identical twins - 6% for adoptive sisters

study based on the number of ridges on the index finger and thumb of the left hand : homosexuals ( 30% ) heterosexuals ( 14% ) - fingerprints are fully determined in a fetus by the end of 4th month of pregnancy study based on the size of the index finger relative to the ring finger - determined before birth - lesbians have shorter index fingers


(B) Hormonal factor ‡ congenital adrenal hyperplasia - adrenal glands secrete excess amount of androgen - masculinisation of genitals in women

mother·s hormonal changes during pregnancy ovaries or testes are developed starting from the 6th week of pregnancy - hormones might be produced off schedule resulting the brain·s neural networks to develop in a way that the child will exhibit homosexual indicators in early childhood


(C) Cognitive factor tendency to dress up like a male - more interested in boy·s toys and clothes during childhood

poor parenting style - child tends to seek love from another adult of the same sex gender when she cannot receive love from her parent of the same sex curiosity, experiment and addiction sexual molestation during childhood unhappy with previous marriage

(D) Environmental factor grown up in a family or surrounding which the members are lesbians


partner will exhibit male characteristics the other female characteristics. Living together seems to be more important to lesbian than gays. Can adopt children or go to sperm bank. Face discrimination Prone to substance abuse and suicide.

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Oral sex Likes touching and caressing. Tribadism ( Rubbing genitals against someone·s genital) Vaginal penetration with dildos is rare. Prefer overall stimulation than clitoris stimulation. Have less sex than normal couples.





Myth: Lesbians are masculine and physically strong. Fact: Her style and body type does not show her sexual orientation. Myth: Lesbians really want to be a man. Fact: She is happy with her own gender but wants to be with someone of the same-sex.

Jane Addams was a Nobel Peace Prize winner and a famous social worker from the US. She was also the lover of women and lived in a Boston Marriage with another woman. Jamie Babbit is a television & film director of Itty Bitty Titty Committee , But I·m a Cheerleader, Gilmore Girls, Nip/Tuck, Ugly Betty. She is also the board of the POWER UP, an organization to promote lesbians presence in Hollywood.
-Jamie Babbit & Andrea Sperling

Tammy Baldwin is the first non-incumbent, openly gay person to serve in Congress. She is the first woman to serve in the US House of Representatives from the State of Wisconsin. She is also an advocate for LGBT rights.

Ellen Degeneres & Portia de Rossi

Lindsay Lohan & Samantha Ronson

A higher number of female partners has been associated with increased risk of : 


herpes virus (HSV) 

Human Papilloma virus ( HPV )  Bacterial vaginosis ( BV )

Two of the family of six herpes viruses that can infect humans.  The two herpes viruses  HSV 1: - Usually causes cold sores, but can also infect the genital region  HSV2: - The main cause of genital herpes, but it can also cause cold sores on the face


caused by the human papillomavirus, or HPV. HPV has been linked to certain types of skin cancers as well as: 
Throat Cancer  Anal Cancer  Penile Cancer  Cervical Cancer

Recent data indicates that the UK-wide programme regarding vaccination girls against the sexual transmitted human papillomavirus (HPV) is giving positive results.HPV is the reason behind most case of cervical cancer which takes life of more than 1,000 women in the UK each year.

In a healthy women - lactobacilli.(useful bacteria) - make lactic acid and peroxide  Their byproducts help to keep the vagina at a slightly acidic pH 4 which protects against infection.  When a woman has BV, the lactobacilli are replaced by a mix of other bacteria.  These bacteria do not produce lactic acid, and so the vaginal pH increases to above 4.5.


³HEALTH´ is a holistic concept including physical, mental, emotional and social well-being

y Steroids advertise off-label for

pregnant women y Prevent homosexuality & masculine behavior in their daughters [outward signs of CAH in girls] y Endocrinology studied a condition known as congenital adrenal hyperplasia (CAH) overexposure to male hormones in the womb, resulting in developmental abnormalities


Presence of large clitorises appearing penis-like, although a perfectly ordinary vaginal opening and wombs are seen Dexamethasone has a small amount of evidence in preventing ambiguous genitals Not approved by FDA for treating CAH in utero This drug is also known as the ³dangerous steroid´ Prenatal dexamethasone therapy started long ago since 1978 SE for the baby are not significant Adverse effects on the mother¶s health´: Excessive weight gain Severe stretch marks Mood swings


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Dr. Nicolosi, the president of National Association for Research and Therapy of Homosexuality, NARTH believes that: Parents can prevent homosexuality from developing in their children by changing their parenting methods, starting early in their children¶s life Homosexuality is treatable in adulthood -reparative therapy -recovered memory therapy -multiple personality Disorder/Dissociative Identity Disorder Generally proved disastrous; broken families, ruined lives, suicides





Reasons being in making a heterosexual couple happy and satisfied in a relationship are the same in lesbian relationship Satisfaction is greater when both partners feel that they share in decision making (Kurdek & Schmitt, 1986); Lesbian couples emphasized the importance of equality in their relationships Perceiving rewards of the relationships are greater than the perceived cost ( Kurdek, 1991) Engaging couples in productive and positive methods of resolving conflicts and problems


A lesbian is a woman who is romantically & sexually attracted ONLY to other women. A lesbian relationship could be pleasurable, secretive, boring, long-lasting, funny, dramatic, short-termed, adventurous or exciting; just like any other relationship between lovers


all cultures and societies, heterosexuality is given the rights to exist because it is deemed ¶normal·. Society DOES NOT want to accept that a woman can also fall in love with another woman. In fact, lesbian relationships are as old as heterosexual relationships There are many stereotypes existing about lesbians and gays. Lesbians are of no extraordinary. They are not somebody with horns on their heads or with long noses.

"I seem to have run in a great circle, and met myself again on the starting line." - Jeanette Winterson (Oranges Are Not the Only Fruit)

"You had to be willing to fight in order for a love story to last a life time." =Cristina Marrero


Studies of the causes of homosexual orientation


Homosexuality & other sexual orientations Speculations into causes


Deliberations on the cause of homosexuality


Pregnant Women Take Drug To Prevent Lesbian or "Masculine" Daughters drug-taken-during-pregnancy-to-prevent-lesbiandaughters