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CHAPTER 5

CHAPTER 5
CHAPTER 5
CHAPTER 5
CHAPTER 5
CHAPTER 5

MODELS OF CURRICULUM DEVELOPMENT

Models of Curriculum Development

Any significant change specifically in the

society’s system always requires a model.

Henson (2009) defines it as a set of logical relationships, either qualitative or quantitative,

that will link together the relevant features of

the reality. Functionally, models are used to represent events and events interactions in a

highly compact and illustrative manner.

Remember a model is not a reality, it is like a painting or a story, it is visual or written

description of someone’s perception of reality.

The most simple and clear model is the AIM. It starts with objectives and moves in

The most simple and clear model is the AIM. It starts with objectives and moves in the single direction shown by the arrows. It consists of both student activities and teacher activities, but no

foundation elements and no philosophy

statement.

Figure 5.1

Objectives

Figure 5.1 Content Materials Teacher Activities Student Activities Test Activities

Content

Figure 5.1 Content Materials Teacher Activities Student Activities Test Activities

Materials

Figure 5.1 Content Materials Teacher Activities Student Activities Test Activities

Teacher

Activities

Figure 5.1 Content Materials Teacher Activities Student Activities Test Activities

Student

Activities

Figure 5.1 Content Materials Teacher Activities Student Activities Test Activities

Test

Activities

Tyler’s End’s-Means Model

This ends-means model of tyler introduced a revolutionary idea to curriculum planning. According to Tyler, the curriculum developer should start by deciding

what purposes the curriculum is to have and then plan accordingly. Today, this approach seems embarrassingly simple, but it was revolutionary at the time, since no

curriculum developer had ever presented such model. He

suggested that several ends, which he called goals, educational objectives, and purposes, be identified by

examining five elements: the learners, life in the

community, subject matter, and psychology.

Figure 5.2 TYLER’S MODEL

Ends

Philosophy, Aims, Goals, and Objectives

Figure 5.2 TYLER’S MODEL Ends Philosophy, Aims, Goals, and Objectives Means Curriculum Content and Activities

Means

Curriculum

Content and

Activities

The Student as a Source

Tyler considered that a broad and comprehensive analysis of the student should be completed. The curriculum developer

should determine the learner’s needs and

wants, since that information can help

educators in motivating the student to learn. The students abilities must also be counted.

Society as a Source

Tyler explained that the process of

generating was central to all learning. Because the learner needs to understand the environment, interacting with others is

essential. This makes the local community

and the society at large the students’

learning laboratory. By studying the community and the society, the students

can find problems to solve and ways of

solving them.

Subject Matter as a Source

Tyler was seriously influenced by John Dewey, who emphasized learning by doing. He was also inspired by Jerome Bruner who wrote about the structure of knowledge. They said (and Tyler agreed) that, to master a subject, one must understand its underlying structure.

Philosophy as a Source

Tyler said, sound curriculum development begins with sound thinking, and sound thinking

begins by formulating a philosophy. He believed it is necessary to define a shool’s philosophy. In case Tyler were to guide others in curriculum

development, he would assert that teachers spell out both their own individual philosophies and

that of their school. In this respect, Tyler’s

model reflects the realization that to

understand others you must first understand yourself. To serve others you must understand

both the serving agency (the school) and

yourself.

Psychology as a Source

Tyler believed that effective curriculum requires

understanding the learners’ levels of development and

the nature of the learning process. This understanding

helps to refine the list of objectives. Curriculum workers should use philosophy and psychology as “screens,” filtering out objectives that are beyond students’ capacity to attain and those that run counter to the faculty’s philosophy (Oliva, 2009). Aligning content with expectations reflects the

constructivist philosophy. Tyler’s philosophy involved

beginning with what we want the students to know

and be able to do, and then designing the content and activities accordingly. Might we say that teachers should begin designing every lesson by examining

their own philosophies? Each of us can use our unique

philosophy and expectations to design goals, content, and activities.

THE SAYLOR AND ALEXANDER MODEL

Galen Saylor and William Alexander (1974)

introduced a model consisting of four steps (Figure

5.5). According to them, curriculum is “a plan for

providing sets of learning opportunities to achieve

broad educational goals and related specific

objectives for an identifiable population served by

single school centre” .

Figure 5.5 SAYLOR AND

ALEXANDER’S CURRICULUM

DEVELOPMENT MODEL

Figure 5.5 SAYLOR AND ALEXANDER’S CURRICULUM DEVELOPMENT MODEL
  • a. Goals, Objectives and Domains

The model indicates that curriculum planners start by

specifying the major educational goals and specific objectives they wish to accomplish. Every major goal represents a curriculum domain and they advocate four major goals or domains:

1. Personal development, 2. Human Relations, 3. Continued learning skills and 4. Specialization.

The goals, objectives and domains are chosen after careful consideration of several and external variables such as

findings from educational research, accreditation standards,

views of community groups and others.

  • b. Curriculum Designing

When the goals, objectives and domains have

been established,

planners move into the process of designing the

curriculum.

Here, decision is made on the appropriate learning opportunities for each domain and

how and when these opportunities will be

provided.

c. Curriculum Implementation

Once the designs have been developed, the next step

is implementation of the designs by teachers. Based on the design of the

curriculum plan, teachers would specify

instructional objectives and then select relevant teaching methods and strategies to

achieve the desired learning outcomes among students in the classroom.

d. Evaluation

Lastly, curriculum planners and teachers engage in evaluation. It

is proposed the evaluation should be comprehensive using a

variety of evaluation techniques. Evaluation should involve the total educational programme of the school and curriculum

plan, the effectiveness of instruction and the achievement of

students. Through the evaluation process, curriculum planners

and developers can determine whether or not the goals of the school and the objectives of instruction have been met.

THE OLIVA MODELS

1976 MODEL

Statement

of

Philosophy

Statement of Goals

Statement

of

Objectives

THE OLIVA MODELS 1976 MODEL Statement of Philosophy Statement of Goals Statement of Objectives Design of
THE OLIVA MODELS 1976 MODEL Statement of Philosophy Statement of Goals Statement of Objectives Design of

Design of Plan

THE OLIVA MODELS 1976 MODEL Statement of Philosophy Statement of Goals Statement of Objectives Design of

Implemen

-tation

Evaluation

THE OLIVA MODELS 1976 MODEL Statement of Philosophy Statement of Goals Statement of Objectives Design of
THE OLIVA MODELS 1976 MODEL Statement of Philosophy Statement of Goals Statement of Objectives Design of
Specify students need in general
Specify
students
need in
general
Specify society needs
Specify
society
needs

I IV and VI IX: Planning Phases V: Planning and Operational Phases X XII: Operational Phases

1992 EXPANDED MODEL

Specify curriculum objectives
Specify
curriculum
objectives
Specify students need in general Specify society needs I – IV and VI – IX: Planning
Organize and implement curriculum
Organize and
implement
curriculum
Specify students need in general Specify society needs I – IV and VI – IX: Planning
Specify instructional goals
Specify
instructional
goals
Specify instructional objectives
Specify
instructional
objectives
Specify educational aims/ philosophy and beliefs about learning
Specify
educational aims/
philosophy and
beliefs about
learning
Specify students need in general Specify society needs I – IV and VI – IX: Planning
Specify students need in general Specify society needs I – IV and VI – IX: Planning

Specify particular student needs

Specify students need in general Specify society needs I – IV and VI – IX: Planning
Specify particular community needs
Specify
particular
community
needs
Specify curriculum goals
Specify
curriculum
goals
Specify students need in general Specify society needs I – IV and VI – IX: Planning
Specify particular subject needs I II III Preliminary Select selection of strategies evaluation techniques VIII IXA
Specify
particular
subject needs
I
II
III
Preliminary
Select
selection of
strategies
evaluation
techniques
VIII
IXA
IV V VI VII Final selection Organize and implement curriculum of evaluation techniques Evaluation of instruction
IV
V
VI
VII
Final selection
Organize and
implement
curriculum
of evaluation
techniques
Evaluation of
instruction
Evaluation of
curriculum
X
IXB
XI
XII

USE OF THE MODEL

1.Offers a process for the complete development of a

school’s curriculum .

2.Faculty can focus on the curricular components of the

model to make pragmatic decisions.

3.Faculty can concentrate on the instructional

components

Macdonald perceived teaching as a

personality system (the teacher)

acting in a professional role and

learning as a personality system

(the student) performing task related

(learning) behaviors.

He defined the intersecting parts of the diagram as follow:

CURRICULUM I VII IX Teaching Learning X VIII II IV VI V Instruction II
CURRICULUM
I
VII
IX
Teaching
Learning
X
VIII
II
IV
VI
V
Instruction
II

V. Concomitant learning VI. Behavior modification through teacher feedback

VII. In-service experiences

VIII. Supervision experiences IX. Pupil-teacher planning experiences X. Pupil-teacher planning experiences

This artistic approach to curriculum planning by Eliot W. Eisner was

developed with combination of his

interests in art and education curriculum. It comprises seven

components which are follows:

  • The goals and their priorities.

  • The content of curriculum.

  • The types of learning opportunities.

The organization of learning opportunities. The organization of content areas.

The mode of presentation and the mode of response.

The types of evaluation procedure.

This model involves five stages. According to Robert Diamond,

  • Assessment

  • Goals

  • Design of Curriculum

  • Implementation

  • Revision

Diamond mentioned several benefits of his model. According to him:

  • The model is easy to use, sequential and cost-

effective.

  • It can be used for the design of redesign of courses, curricula, workshops and seminars in every subject area.

  • The programs developed will meet demands for clear statement for learning outcomes with an associated quality student assessment process. It is politically sensitive.

  • It also ensures that all important questions are

asked and all option are explored before key decisions are made. (Diamond, 2007)

This model used the deliberative

approach in curriculum planning. Walker begun studying what people

actually do when planning curricula.

Walker’s Naturalistic Model is a descriptive

model. Let us discuss his step.

  • The first phase of the model is called the

platform.

  • The second phase is the deliberation.

  • The final stage ii the design phase is the creation of the planned curriculum

Walker’s model provides guidelines to

follow in the planning curriculum. However, there are more criticism about this model.

First, Walker studied only large-scale curriculum planning. Secondly, the deliberative approach is directed only to the

planning of the curriculum. After the

curriculum is designed, there is no description about implementation,

evaluation and possible revision of the

curriculum. (Marsh, 2007)

PARTICIPANTS IN

CURRICULUM DEVELOPMENT and PLANNING

Participants in Curriculum Development and

Planning

Teachers Students Principals Parents Curriculum Specialists

Participants in Curriculum Development and

Planning

Teachers

Teachers

Teacher must fill the main position in curriculum decision which parts of the curriculum, newly developed or on- going to implement or stress in a particular class. Teacher determine how much time to spend in developing basic or critical thinking skills.

Teacher must also be involved in every level of curriculum development. As Michael Fullan and his colleagues have stated, teachers can function not only as co-designers of expert curricular and instructional system but also co-

researchers into the effectiveness of implement

curricula. Many schools are starting to allow teachers to choose or develop the program for which they are responsible.

Participants in Curriculum Development and

Planning

Teachers Students

Students

Students too must have a voice in curriculum development. Their input is significant in its own right, accepting them to participate in

curriculum development also inspires them and

encourages them to take responsibility for matters that concern them.

Participants in Curriculum Development and

Planning

Teachers Students Principals

Principals

For a successful curriculum planning in a school system, the principal(s) must be involved. Yet, many principals are solely lacking in curriculum and instructional expertise. When principals give attention to curricular activities, they often do so from a largely managerial perspective. Recently, most college programs that teach and train

principals devoted little time to curriculum. Mostly

their were stressed on personnel matters, education law, school budget, and organizational models, to the detriment of curriculum and instruction.

Participants in Curriculum Development and

Planning

Teachers Students Principals Parents

Parents

On the other hand, the parents support and influence the implementation of the curriculum by means of financial resources, an example is by their contribution for the public

schools while in private schools is by means of payment of school fees. Moreover, the parents may help in monitoring

and evaluating the implementation of the curriculum by

keeping a close check at the lessons learnt in school and

monitoring their children’s school task(homework). Hence,

the parent ,ay stand in the gap between the student and school administration by providing the student with resources

that may help teacher to monitor the behavior and social

development of the students especially for students with

special education needs. The parents can get consistent information on curriculum development by asking from their children or by asking from the teachers or school administrators.

Participants in Curriculum Development and

Planning

Teachers Students Principals Parents Curriculum Specialists

Curriculum Specialists

The curriculum specialists play a major role in curriculum development and development and implementation while curriculum coordinators or directors usually are known as curriculum generalist have same function. These people

have a broad knowledge of curriculum and are experts in creating and

implementing curricula. They usually do not have a major in specific content.

In school curriculum, other generalists are known as department heads or chairs of elementary or secondary education. They have some background in curriculum, but they posses a major in a content discipline and are often more concerned with supervising instruction.

These specialists are responsible for ensuring that programs are

conceptualized, designed, and implement. They are also expected to have considerable understanding of curriculum and skill in managing people. Curriculum specialists need to know how to design and develop curriculum and how to supervise and evaluate instruction.

Participants in Curriculum Development and

Planning

Teachers Students Principals Parents Curriculum Specialists Superintendents

GOAL-BASED MODEL OF CURRICULUM PLANNING, THE PHILIPPINE EXPERIENCE

GOAL-BASED MODEL OF

CURRICULUM

PLANNING, THE PHILIPPINE

EXPERIENCE

Outcome Goals of the K to12 Basic Education Program

The K to 12 Basic Education Program seeks to realize the following:

Philippine education standards to be at par with international standards

More emotionally mature graduates equipped with technical and/or vocational skills who ae better prepared for work, middle level skills development and higher education

Significantly addressed shortages or gaps in educational inputs (teacher items, school head items, classroom, instructional materials)

Broadened and strengthened stakeholder’s

support in the improvement in the basic

education outcomes Improved internal efficiency

Improved system of governance in the Department

Improved quality of teachers

Process Goals of the K to 12 Basic Education Program

Decongest and reform the basic education curriculum in coordination with CHED, TESDA, and other educational stakeholders

Develop culture-sensitive, culture responsive and developmentally appropriate print/print online learning resources for K to 12

Conduct in service training for teachers relative to the implementation of the K to 12 curriculum

Focus on integrated instruction to equip learners with skills for future employment , critical and creative thinking in life skills

Universalize kindergarten by 2012

Institutionalize school-based management for school

empowerment

Institute reform in assessment framework and practice for a learner-centered basic education

Address basic input shortages in classrooms,

teachers, textbooks

Promote good education governance in the entire Department of Education

Pursue legislation to institutionalize K to 12 Basic Education Program

Formulate transition management plan for K to 12 implementation by including modeling

per region per specialization

Identify K to 12 model schools per region and per specialization tracks that will model senior

high school by SY 2012-2013

Determine the Focal Point of Planning Decision

The three most important sectors of society that give direct input to the improvement of the curriculum are the :

Academe (Institution) The industries (both public and private companies) And the government and its agencies

The Organizational Structures

The country’s educational structure for the primary education as clearly defined by the Republic Act 10533, stated that,

‘‘To achieve an effective enhanced basic education curriculum, the

DepEd shall undertake consultation with other national government

agencies and other stakeholders including, but not limited to, the

Department of Labor and Employment (DOLE), the Professional Regulation Commission (PRC), the private and public schools

associations, the national student organization, the national teacher

organizations, the parent-teachers associations and the chambers of

commerce on matters affecting the concerned stakeholder”

Furthermore, this law also described the role and function of the government agency which will implement the educational reform and it states that; ‘‘The DepEd shall adhere to the following standards and principles in developing the

enhanced basic education curriculum.

  • a) The curriculum shall be learner-cenetered,

inclusive and developmentally appropriate;

  • b) The curriculum shall relevant, responsive and research-base;

  • c) The curriculum shall be culture-sensitive;

  • d) The curriculum shall be contextualized and global;

  • f) The curriculum shall adhere to the principles and framework of Mother Tongue-Based Multilingual Education (MTB-MLE) which starts from where the learners are and from what they already knew proceeding from the known to the unknown;

instructional materials are capable teachers to

implement the MTB-MLE curriculum shall be available;

  • g) The curriculum shall use the spiral progression approach to ensure mastery of knowledge and skills after each level; and

    • h) The curriculum shall be flexible enough to enable and allow schools to localize, indigenize and enhance the same based on their respective educational and social contexts. The production and development of locally

produced teaching materials shall devolve to the

regional and division education units.

Rationale for The Curriculum Review and Planning Towards K to 12 Program

The Philippine, Basic education system is composed of 6 years of elementary and four years of secondary education- a total of ten years. Only two other countries have the same 10 year education system in the United Nations Educational Scientific and Cultural Oragnization’s (UNESCO) 155 member countries in the Asian region such as Brunei, Cambodia, China, India, Indonesia, Japan, Lao PDR,

Malaysia, Mongolia, South Korea, Thailand, Timor-Leste and Vietnam (which have 12 years of basic education), or Myanmar and Singapore (which have 11 years). Developed and developing

countries in Europe such as England have a 14 year basic

education; Scotland has 13, Russia has 11, and the United States of America also has 12.

Indeed, this enhance program is rooted on sound

educational principles and geared towards excellence. It is anticipated that graduates of K to

12 basic education program will be an

empowered individual. They are expected to have learned the foundations of learning throughout

life, the competence to engage in work and be

productive, the ability to co exist in fruitful harmony with local and global communities, the capability to engage in autonomous critical

thinking and the capacity to reconstruct others

and one’s self and others.

Implications

In curriculum development planning, it is important that we need to determine the focal point of planning decision.

The initial task of curriculum developers is identification of an educational vision or philosophy which will form basis of planning

Curriculum development starts with understanding of the major challenges involved

Those creating a master curriculum planning, designs, curriculum guides for a particular course of study, or lesson plan for a

particular year or even a day whether educational administrators or

educators, are essentially engaged in all stage discussed in this chapter