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Chapter 9

WASTE MANAGEMENT
BOADO.CENIZA.DELROSARIO.PANGANIBAN.SULTE.VILLEGAS
Environmental Situationer
MMDA vs Concerned Residents of
Manila Bay
In January 1999, respondents filed a
complaint before the Cavite RTC against
several government agencies for the cleanup,
rehabilitation and protection of Manila Bay.

Respondents alleged that the continued


neglect of the agencies consituted a violation
of several laws.
Respondents prayed that the petitioners be
ordered to clean up the Manila Bay and to
submit a concerted concrete plan of action for
such purpose..
The wastes in Manila Bay are not there at one
particular in time but are continuously
produced from their sources.
Continuing Mandamus
The Court, under extraordinary circumstances,
may issue directives with the end in view of
ensuring that its decision would not be met
with inaction or indifference by the
government agency concerned.
The right to a balanced and healthful ecology
is as much a right as our civil and political
rights, that they exist from mankinds
inception and is an issue of transcendental
importance with intergenerational
implications.
Legal Analysis:
Special Analysis and Legal Mandates
RA 7924
Creating the Metro Manila Development
Authority
Section 3, Paragraph C mandates the MMDA
to formulate and implement policies for solid
waste disposal management and shall likewise
include the establishment and operation of
other alternative programs intended to
reduce, reuse and recycle solid waste.
RA 9275
Clean Water Act
Mandates the DENR to a) prepare a national
water quality statues report within twenty-
four months from the effectivity of this act; b)
prepare an Integrated Water Quality
Management Framework; c) prepare a ten
year Water Quality Management Area Action
Plan
RA 9003
Ecological Solid Waste Management Act of
2000
Prohibits acts that would be harmful to the
environment: littering and dumping of waste
matters, open burning of solid waste, open
dumping, etc.
Special Laws and Legal Mandate
PD 601 (Revised Coast Guard Law of
1974)
Mandates the Philippine Coast Guard to
apprehend violators who:
Discharge, dump harmful substances
Throw, discharge or deposit, or cause, suffer or
procure to be thrown any refuse matter of any
kind or description
Deposit material of any kind
Special Laws and Legal Mandate
PD 1152 (Environment Code)
Mandates the DENR to perform the
following duties
Upgrading of water quality
Clean-up operatiions
Special Laws and Legal Mandate
The Supreme Court ordered the government
agencies concerned with the clean-up,
rehabilitation and protection of the Manila
Bay.
Restore and maintain its waters to SB level
(Class B sea waters per Water Classification
Tables under DENR AO# 34 s. 1990)
To make Manila Bay fit for swimming, skin
diving, and other forms of contact recreation.
Special Laws and Legal Mandate
DENR
Primary agency responsible for the conservation,
management, development, and proper use of the
countrys environment and natural resources.
Primary agency responsible for the enforcement
and implementation of its Operational Plan for the
Manila Bay Coastal Strategy.
Regular coordination meetings with concerned
government departments and agencies.
Special Laws and Legal Mandate
DILG
Exercise the Presidents power of general
supervision and its duty to promulgate guidelines
in establishing waste management programs
Direct concerned LGUs to inspect all factories,
commercial establishments, and private homes
along the banks of the major/ minor river systems
and waterways.
Special Laws and Legal Mandate
DILG
Determine whether there are wastewater
treatment facilities or hygienic septic tanks as
prescribed by laws, ordinances, and rules and
regulations.
To require non-complying sectors to set-up
facilities or septic tanks to prevent industrial
wastes, sewage water and human wastes from
flowing into the rivers, waterways and esteros.
Special Laws and Legal Mandate
MWSS
Provide, install, operate, and maintain the
necessary adequate waste water treatment
facilities.
LWUA
Provide, install, operate, and maintain sewerage
and sanitation facilities and the efficient and safe
collection, treatment, and disposal of sewage in
coordination with the DENR.
Special Laws and Legal Mandate
DA through BFAR
Improve and restore marine life in Manila Bay
Assist LGUs in developing the fisheries and aquatic
resources using recognized methods
PCG and PNP Maritime Group
Apprehend violators of laws and regulations
PPA
Adopt measures to prevent discharge and dmping
of solid/liquid wastes.
Special Laws and Legal Mandate
MMDA
Lead agency and implementor of programs and
projects for flood control and drainage services
Coordinate with concerned sectors to dismantle
and remove all structures. Constructions, and
other encroachments established or built in
violation of RA 7279 and other applicable laws
Establish, operate, and maintain a sanitary landfill
as prescribed by RA 9003
Special Laws and Legal Mandate
DOH
Determine if all licensed septic and sludge
companies have the proper facilities for the
treatment and disposal of fecal sludge and sewage
from septic tanks.
DepEd
Integrate lessons on pollution prevention, waste
management, environmental protection and the
like subjects in the school curricula of all levels
Special Laws and Legal Mandate
DBM
Incorporate adequate budget in the GAA to cover
the expenses to attain economic growth in a
manner consistent with the protection,
preservation, and revival of our marine waters.
Heads of Agencies
Submit to the court a quarterly progressive report
in line with the principle of continuing
mandamus
9.3 Policy Analysis
Compliance with Supreme Court Order
- Almost impossible to comply with SC order
Reason:
Government agencies lack the capacity as well as the
facility to enforce legal mandates and court orders
a. In order to eradicate point-source pollutants, a highly-
sophisticated form of technology is required
b. By the nature of nonpoint-source pollutants,
regulation of the same is as impossible as it is
daunting. Preventing and controlling the same is
primarily accomplished through regulation under
special laws and voluntary watershed protection
efforts
Way to solve problem of water population
from industrial sources
Through the application of effluent standards
Limiting and restricting discharge of physical, chemical
or biological wastes into bodies of water
Through the application of ambient standards
Regulating allowable amount of materials, as a
concentration of pollutants, in water
Problem with the application of ambient
standards:
How long the bay can recover and be brought
to its original state
How long can they comply with the SC order
How Culture Affects the Environment

Marawi City & Lake Lanao


Marawi City & Lake Lanao
Declared as one of the dirtiest and most
polluted cities in the Philippines
Waste is ast 68,400 kilos per day, 78%
biodegradable

Poor water quality, diminished aquatic


resources, increased health risks
Harmful algae blooms, discolorations on the water
Waste Management Efforts in Marawi
& Lake Lanao
Solid Waste Management orientation for the
Muslim religious sector
Al Khalifa (The Steward)
Delved into the religious consciousness of
Muslims in preaching that maintaining ecological
balance is a duty of each Muslim
Cleanliness as a fundamental belief of Islam
The Acceptability of Technology Fixes
Ecological Sanitation System Urine Diverting
Dry Toilet (UDDT) / Eco-San Bowls
The Acceptability of Technology Fixes
Waste Segregation
Garbage trucks
arrive at 4am

Recycle and
Production of Scavenger team
goods

Sort through
Junkshop baskets
collected
REGULATION
OF OPEN
DUMPSITES
RA 9003
ECOLOGICAL WASTE
MANAGEMENT ACT

ESTABLISHMENT OF MATERIALS CLOSURE AND REHABILITATION OF


RECOVERY FACILITY DUMPSITES
ECOWAS
TE
COALITIO
N
OPEN DUMPSITE

INDISCRIMINATE DISPOSAL OF
WASTE
LIMITED MEASURES TO
CONTROL OPERATIONS

COMMON PROBLEMS
PROBLEMS OF SHORTAGE OF
COVER
LACK OF LEACHATE COLLECTION
AND TREATMENT
INDEQUATE COMPACTION
POOR SITE DESIGN
MANY SCAVENGERS WORKING
AT THE SITE
SOLID
WASTE
MANAGEME
NT IS NOT A
MUNICIPAL
PRIORITY