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EMERGENCY SHELTER

“A HUMANITARIAN RESPONSE THROUGH ARCHITECTURAL VOCABULARY”

Majid MD Ashikul
Noor Safwat Zarin

 Who is a refugee?
A refugee is someone who has been forced to flee his or her country because of
persecution, war, or violence.
 Causes:
War, ethnic tribal and religious violence are leading causes of refugees fleeing
their countries.
 What is refugee shelters?
Refugee shelters are structures ranging from the most temporary tent
accommodation through transitional shelter to building permanent houses and
settlements and include the most basic kind of ad hoc structure.
 What is UNHCR doing to help the Rohingya refugees?
UNHCR is leading the emergency response in the two camps, Kutupalong and
Nayapara, where they providing life-saving assistance and protection to the
Rohingya refugees, in close collaboration with partners and authorities.
They are providing emergency shelter in many forms and wherever available,
ranging from plastic sheeting to temporary bamboo sheds to common buildings,
such as schools, being used as temporary shelters.
Source: google search, UNHCR

Source: UNHCR

most Rohingya officials were replaced with Buddhist Arakanis who began to institute policies that many of the Muslim group considered unfair. established in the 1990s. • When Burma declared independence in 1948. British ruler divided the region into three countries Pakistan(west & east). which borders Bangladesh. India and Burma(Myanmar). • The Rohingya language is known as Rohingyalish and is linguistically similar to the Chittagonian language spoken in the southernmost area of Bangladesh bordering Burma. • 480. • The two existing refugee camps of Kutupalong and Nayapara. more than 200.Background: Who are the Rohingya? • The Rohingya are Muslims native to the northern Arakan region of Burma. Total Rohingya living in Bangladesh is 900. • By 1947. • From Arakan to Bangladesh in 1991 and 1992. rape and religious persecution at the hands of the Burmese army. when more than 250.000 Rohingya refugees fled forced labor.000 Rohingya had fled to Bangladesh: this. signified the Rohingya's illegal status in Burma. ethnic tensions have divided the two groups of people. • By May 1978. Since that time. Source: google search .000 till the date and still coming. the Burmese authorities claimed.000 Rohingya refugees estimated to have fled to Bangladesh since 25 August 2017.

5 m 2  1.) refugee population to another site. The Number of people per latrine 20 immediate priority must be to improve or reorganize the existing Distance to water-point 15 m site. Distance to latrine 30 m Distance between water-point and latrine 100 m  2. Some quantified norms for site planning1.2 The possibilities in regard to site planning depend largely on which of Area available per person 30 m2 the two refugee situations described will be encountered: Shelter space per person 3. The ideal but far less frequently encountered situation is that Firebreaks 75 m where site planning can be carried out before the arrival of (every 300 m) refugees on a new site. (min. In most cases refugees have already settled on a site and Number of people per water point 250 planners may well be faced with chaotic conditions.) Source: UNHCR . The most appropriate site layout may then Distance between two shelters 2m be worked out in advance and in accordance with guidelines. and in rare instances it may even be advisable to move the (max.

Minimum 4. eating.5m2 to 5. 2.and wind-loads) • Wind protection of walls.5m2 covered living space per person in cold climates.5m2 covered living space per person in tropical or warm climates. Minimum height of 2m at the highest point. doors and windows • Protected and heated kitchens and sanitary facilities • Provision for heating. including kitchen facilities as more time will be spent inside the shelter (cooking. The following should be considered: • Structural stability (to withstand snow. 2m ceilings to reduce the heated space. Minimum 3. excluding cooking facilities or kitchen (it is assumed that cooking will take place outside). and livelihoods). the aim should be to provide sufficient material to the refugees to allow them to construct their own shelter while meeting at least the minimum standards for floor space as follows: 1. Source: UNHCR . roofs.Two emergency standards: At the beginning of an emergency.

availability (are necessary resources available? are they available under pressure/time? who will provide them?) 3. quality (what is it made of? does it protect from the environment?) 6. noise 13. if so can it be fixed?) 7. kitchen? wash space? sleep space?) 8. extreme heat. distance to work/ school/ religious services/ washroom.Design Considerations: When considering emergency. winds. security (does the house have a lock? are there windows? is it surrounded by other emergency shelters? can belongings be left safely?) 9. extreme cold. durability (how long is it meant to last? can it easily be damaged. Source: wikipedia . size (number of persons per room. housing the following revolve around the success of such shelter and relief efforts: 1. transport time (how long to require necessary materials?) 4. design / look (color? aesthetics? is it culturally sensitive? religious space? is it near nature?) 11. privacy (separate rooms? locks on doors?) 12. temporary. weather proof (protection from environmental conditions. cleanliness 14. setup time (how long does it take to set up? how many people does it require? what if pieces are missing?) 5. cost (how much per shelter? cost of resources? cost of living?) 2. rains) 10.

1937. he practiced architecture in Iran. • During the summer months. m. the United Nations and HUD (US Department of Housing and Urban Development). for his work in lunar-base-building technology. and has since dedicated himself to research into building with earth. .) with five rooms formed by a dome with four large apses. Also wooden framed window and door/pipes were also used as windows. • This is an example of a small house (34 sq. From 1970 to 1975. • The materials are sand bags and barbed wire. “Emergency shelters should be temporary. for ‘Shelter for the Homeless’. Iran) trained as an architect in Iran. but they need long-lasting engineering” Sandbag Shelter Prototypes (SuperAdobe) by Iranian Architect Nader Khalili: • Nader Khalili (b. and the American Society of Civil Engineers (Aerospace Division). • He has received awards from organizations such as the California chapter of the American Institute of Architects. for ‘Excellence in Technology’. Turkey and the United States. • The sandbags can be filled and layed by one person. the temperature inside Sandbag Shelters was on average 18C cooler and in the winter up to 18C warmer than in shelters built with cement blocks at the same site.

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Hexayurt in Haiti: .

discussed later). it takes about 8 hours to prepare at home and 0. • The Hexayurt can be made from about $300 of materials from Home Depot. • At five dollars per plywood sheet. . It's also for "recreational refugees" like Black Rock City residents. Depending on the construction technique. a plywood Hexayurt should last up to three years.Hexayurt with plywood by Vinay Gupta: • A hexayurt is a shelter designed for refugees and other people with a small housing budget. plus about $100-150 of mail-ordered tape (or a new method using vinyl. • Vinay Gupta invented the basic shape for classic hexayurts and a number of variations. Painted. and placed it in the Public Domain. if built with rigid insulation. and much worse. and Gupta says it’s sturdy enough to survive the Haitian rainy season. $100 will cover the cost of the basic building materials.5-4 hours of assembly at any destination.

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music. and will have an artistic programme running from Tuesday to Saturday each week. many of whom were refugees. • A team of 200 people. erected the dome-shaped temporary theatre in the French capital's Porte d’Aubervilliers neighborhood. dance and acting lessons. • The metal geodesic dome structure covered with polystyrene textile provides a space where people can attend writing workshops.Good Chance Theatre at Calais refugee camp: • Two British playwrights founded Good Chance Theatre as a way to provide a space within the camp where people who fled war-torn and poverty-stricken countries can come together. • The dome is already being used for classes. such as carpentry. .

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Comparison among the case studies: Project name: Superadobe Hexayurt Good chance theatre Building time 8hours 4hours 16hours Costing 400USD 150USD 800USD Skills needed Medium Low High No. of labour 4 2 15 Durability 7-9yrs 2-3yrs 5-6yrs Availability of Highly Moderately Rarely material .

• Moreover all components and system can be easily dismantled and reused separately in an entire new building on a more durable term. typical house of southeast asia. • The ‘shelter’ is naturally ventilated and doesn’t require a level surface to be built upon. • The ‘living shelter’ is an affordable.9% of natural disasters occur.A LIVING SHELTER -SOLUTION FOR DISASTER RELIEF by WY-TO: • WY-TO architects put their expertise to the test to create a shelter solution for the Asian pacific region. • The mobile unit is adapted specifically for tropical climates. • The ‘shelter’ is based on the “Kampung house”. collapsible unit that’s easy to ship and can be assembled by small teams without tools. . • Its exhibited in Venice architecture biennale 2016. where a staggering 42.

7m 2.2.50m 2.84m 1.8m .

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Thank You! .