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HEAT
TRANSFER
Consider a hot object that is placed in
an evacuated chamber whose walls are
at room temperature.
Conduction and Convection could
not happen, since those two
mechanisms cannot occur in a
vacuum.
Therefore, heat transfer occurred
through another mechanism that
involves the mechanism of the
sensible internal energy of the
object.
FACTS
oDoes not require the presence of
a material medium to take place.
In fact, energy transfer by
radiation is fastest (at the speed
of light).

## oRadiation transfer occurs in Solid

as well as liquid and gases.
between two bodies separated by a
medium colder than both bodies.

Examples:
Solar
surfaces
the earth
inside after passing
a greenhouse through
reach high
extremely cold
temperatures airwhen
even layersits
atplastic
high
oraltitudes.
glass cover remains relatively
cool.
o The theoretical foundation of
radiation was established in 1864 by
physicist James Clerk Maxwell.
o Where he postulated that accelerated
charges or changing electric currents
give rise to electric and magnetic
fields.
o In 1887, Heinrich Hertz
experimentally demonstrated the
existence of such waves
ELECTRO MAGNETIC WAVES or
waves, gamma rays, and X-rays, in which electric
and magnetic fields vary simultaneously.
o They represent the energy emitted by matter as a
result of the changes in the electronic
configurations of the atoms or molecules.
o All electromagnetic waves travel at the speed of
light, noted as; frequency and wavelength .
Frequency and wavelength in a medium are
related by
=c/
where : c= speed of light in that medium.

## In a vacuum, c = c = 2.998 x 10 m/s.

The speed of light in a medium is related to the
speed of light in a vacuum by c=c/n.
*where: n= index of refraction of that medium.
*The index of refraction is essentially a dimensionless
number that describes how light propagates through that
medium. The refractive index determines how much light is bent,
or refracted, when entering a material.
For example, the refractive index of water is 1.333, meaning that
light travels 1.333 times faster in a vacuum than it does in water.

## *Unlike the wavelength and the speed of propagation, the

frequency of an electromagnetic wave depends only on the
source and is independent of the medium through which the
wave travels.
FREQUENCY
Number of oscillations per second
PHOTONS OR QUANTA
Discrete packets of energy
Each Photon of frequency is
considered to have an energy of
e =h = h c/
where: h=6.625 x 10 Js (Plancks constant)
THE ELECTRO MAGNETIC WAVE
SPECTRUM
oType of electromagnetic radiation that is
pertinent to heat transfer.
oIt is emitted as a result of vibrational
and rotational motions of molecules,
atoms and electrons of a substance.
by all matter whose temperature is above
absolute zero.
Everything around us constantly emits
Where is this thermal radiation in the
spectrum?
LIGHT
The visible portion of the electromagnetic
spectrum that lies between 0.40 to 0.76 m.
THE WAVELENGTH RANGES OF
DIFFERENT COLORS

When a plane goes faster than the speed of sound, those around
it hear a resounding crack that's called a sonic boom. When
particles go faster than the speed of light, those around them see
a special glow. This is called Cherenkov Radiation. And it's a lot
prettier than a sonic boom.

It's known that nothing can go higher than the speed of light -
but the silent addendum to that is "in a vacuum. It is possible
for a particle to travel faster than light in certain media, such as
water. Because it is refracted with the various atoms it comes
into contact with. The photon is still going at light speed, but
it's trip through the medium as the refractive index of the
medium.
The
So to amount
maximum energyamount
emitted
of
from
a surface
emittedat bya given
bodieswavelength,
at certain
depends
temperatures;
on theamaterial
standardof has
the body
to beand
set
the
against
conditions
of it surface
properties
and itsof
surface
real
temperature.
surfaces may be compared.
So
differentthis,
bodies,
requires
emitthe
different
definition
amount
of an
of
idealized
body,
at a called
given temperature.
a Blackbody
oA Blackbody perfect emitter and absorber
of wavelength and direction.
oEmits radiation energy uniformly in all
directions. That is, a diffuse (independent
direction) emitter.
STEFAN-BOLTZMANN LAW
Radiation energy emitted by a blackbody per
unit time per unit surface area was determined
experimentally by Joseph Stefan in 1879 and is
expressed as:

Eb=T (W/m)
where:
=5.67 x 10 W/mK (Stefan-Boltzmann constant)
T= absolute temperature of the surface in K.
Eb= blackbody emissive power
Large Cavity with a Small Opening
Type of body that closely resembles a blackbody.
PLANCKS DISTRIBUTION LAW
Relation for the spectral blackbody emissive
power Eb, developed by Max Planck.

Eb= c1 (W/mm)
[exp(c2/ T)-1]
where:
c1= 2hc = 3.742 x 10 W m/m
c2=hc/k= 1.439 x 10 m x K
T= absolute temperature of the surface
k= 1.3805 x 10 J/K (Boltzmann constant)
*This relation is valid for vacuum or a gas. For other mediums, c1=
c1/n, where n=index of refraction of the medium.
*Spectral indicates dependence on wavelength
The variation of the blackbody emissive
power with wavelength for several
temperatures.
1. The emitted radiation is a continuous function
of wavelength. At any specified temperature, it
increases with wavelength, reaches a peak, and
then decreases with increasing wavelength.
2. At any wavelength, the amount of emitted
temperature.
3. As temperature increases, the curves get
steeper and shift to the left to the shorter-
wavelength region. Consequently, a larger
fraction of the radiation is emitted at shorter
wavelengths at high temperature.
4. The radiation emitted by the sun, which is
considered to be a blackbody at 5762 K (or
roughly at 5800K), reaches its peak at the visible
region of the spectrum. Therefore the sun is in
tune with our eyes. On the other hand, surfaces
at T 800 K emit almost entirely in the infrared
region and thus are not visible to the eye unless
they reflect light coming from other sources.
WIENS DISPLACEMENT LAW

## Wavelength at which the peak occurs for a

specified temperature, developed by Willy Wein
in 1894.

## (T)max power = 2897.8 m K

The color of an object is not due to
emission. Instead, the color depends on
the absorption and reflection
characteristics of the surface and is due to
selective absorption and reflection of the
incident visible radiation coming from a
light source such as the sun or an
incandescent light bulb.