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ENGRANAJES

RUEDAS RECTAS

ENGRANAJE RECTO
Valores Caracteristicos:

Nmero de dientes, z
Mdulo, m en mm
Paso= m
NOMENCLATURA

DIMENSIONES: Dimetro medio: D= m z


Dimetro de cabeza: D= m (z+2)
Dimetro de fondo: D= m (z-2,5)
RUEDAS RECTAS

ENGRANAJE RECTO
Geometra de las
ruedas rectas
RUEDAS RECTAS

FUERZAS GENERADAS
Fuerza Tangencial:

Ft = Mt / R

Fuerza Radial:

Fr = Ft Tg

, ngulo de contacto.
Valor habitual, =20
RUEDAS HELICOIDALES

Valores Caracteristicos:

Nmero de dientes, z
Mdulo, m en mm
Paso= m
a, ngulo de hlice.
Valores habituales de 15
20

DIMENSIONES: Dimetro medio: D= ma z Mdulo aparente:


Dimetro de cabeza: D= ma (z+2) ma = m / cos a
Dimetro de fondo: D= ma (z-2,5)
RUEDAS HELICOIDALES

FUERZAS GENERADAS
Fuerza Tangencial:

Ft = Mt / Ra

Fuerza Radial:

Fr = Ft Tg a

Tg a = Tg / Cos a

Fuerza axial:

Fr = Ft Tg a
RUEDAS CONICAS

Valores Caracteristicos:

Nmero de dientes, z
Mdulo, m medio en mm
Paso= m
1 - 2, ngulos de paso.

Ejes perpendiculares:

1 + 2 = 90

DIMENSIONES: Dimetro medio: D= m z


Dimetro de cabeza: D= m (z+2)
Dimetro de fondo: D= m (z-2,5)
RUEDAS CONICAS

FUERZAS GENERADAS
Fuerza Tangencial:

Ft = Mt / Rmedio

Fuerza Radial:

Fr = Ft Tg Cos

Fuerza axial:

Fr = Ft Tg Sen
Aplicacin de los diferentes tipos de ruedas

En la figura se
muestra una batidora
industrial, en la que
podemos ver los
diferentes tipos de
engranajes.
Engranaje, tornillo sin fn

a.) de dientes cilndricos b.) doble envolvente.


Pasos diametrales preferidos

Clase Paso diametral,


pd, in.-1
Basto 1/2, 1, 2, 4, 6, 8, 10
Medio basto 12, 14, 16, 18
Fino 20, 24, 32, 48, 64,
72, 80, 96, 120, 128
Ultrafino 150, 180, 200

Pasos diametrales preferidos para cuatro clases de dientes


Pasos diametrales

Pasos diametrales estndares comparados con el tamao del diente.


Se supone un tamao real
Addendum, Dedendum and Clearance

Parameter S ymbol Coarse Pitch Fine pitch Metric module


(pd<20in-1) (pd 20in-1) system
Addendum a 1/ pd 1/ pd 1.00 m
Dedendum b 1.25/ pd 1.200/ pd+0.002 1.25 m
Clearance c 0.25/ pd 0.200/ pd+0.002 0.25 m

Table 14.2 Formulas for addendum, dedendum, and clearance


(pressure angle 20, full-depth involute.)

Text Reference: Table 14.2, page 623


Pitch and Base Circles

Figure 14.8 Pitch and base


circles for pinion and gear
as well as line of action and
pressure angle.

Text Reference: Figure 14.8, page 624


Involute Curve

Figure 14.9 Construction of involute curve.

Text Reference: Figure 14.9, page 625


Contact Ratio

Figure 14.10 Illustration of parameters important in


defining contact ratio.

Text Reference: Figure 14.10, page 629


Line of Action

Figure 14.11 Details of line of


action, showing angles of
approach and recess for both
pinion and gear.

Text Reference: Figure 14.11, page 629


Backlash

Figure 14.12 Illustration of backlash in gears.

Text Reference: Figure 14.12, page 632


Recommended Minimum Backlash
Diametral Center distance, cd , in.
pitch
pd , in. -1
2 4 8 16 32
Backlash, bl , in.

18 0.005 0.006 - - -
12 0.006 0.007 0.009 - -
8 0.007 0.008 0.010 0.014 -
5 - 0.010 0.012 0.016 -
3 - 0.014 0.016 0.020 0.028
2 - - 0.021 0.025 0.033
1.25 - - - 0.034 0.042

Table 14.3 Recommended minimum backlash for coarse-pitch gears.

Text Reference: Table 14.3, page 633


Externally Meshing Spur Gears

Figure 14.13 Externally meshing spur gears.

Text Reference: Figure 14.13, page 635


Internally Meshing Spur Gears

Figure 14.14 Internally


meshing spur gears.

Text Reference: Figure 14.14, page 635


Simple Gear Train

Figure 14.15 Simple gear train.

Text Reference: Figure 14.15, page 636


Compound Gear Train

Figure 14.16 Compound gear train.

Text Reference: Figure 14.16, page 636


Example 14.7

Figure 14.17 Gear train used in


Example 14.7.

Text Reference: Figure 14.17, page 637


Allowable Bending Stress vs. Brinell Hardness

Figure 14.18 Effect of Brinell hardness on allowable bending stress for


two grades of through-hardened steel [ANSI/AGMA Standard 1012-
F90, Gear Nomenclature, Definition of Terms with Symbols, American
Gear Manufacturing Association, 1990.]

Text Reference: Figure 14.18, page 638


Contact Stress vs. Brinell Hardness

Figure 14.19 Effect of Brinell Hardness on allowable contact stress for two grades of
through-hardened steel. [ANSI/AGMA Standard 1012-F90, Gear Nomenclature,
Definition of Terms with Symbols, American Gear Manufacturing Association, 1990.]

Text Reference: Figure 14.19, page 639


Forces on Gear Tooth

Figure 14.20 Forces acting


on individual gear tooth.

Text Reference: Figure 14.20, page 640


Bending Stresses

Figure 14.21 Forces and length dimensions used in determining bending


tooth stresses. (a) Tooth; (b) cantilevered beam.

Text Reference: Figure 14.20, page 641


Lewis Form Factors
Number of Lewis form Number of Lewis form
Teetch Factor Teeth factor
10 0.176 34 0.325
11 0.192 36 0.329
12 0.210 38 0.332
13 0.223 40 0.336
14 0.236 45 0.340
15 0.245 50 0.346
16 0.256 55 0.352
17 0.264 60 0.355
18 0.270 65 0.358
19 0.277 70 0.360
20 0.283 75 0.361
22 0.292 80 0.363
24 0.302 90 0.366
26 0.308 100 0.368
28 0.314 150 0.375
30 0.318 200 0.378
32 0.322 300 0.382

Table 14.4 Lewis form factors for various numbers of teeth (pressure
angle 20, full depth involute).

Text Reference: Table 14.4, page 642


Spur Gear Geometry Factors

Figure 14.22 Spur gear geometry factors for pressure angle of 20 and full-
depth involute. [ANSI/AGMA Standard 1012-F90, Gear Nomenclature,
Definition of Terms with Symbols, American Gear Manufacturing
Association, 1990.]
Text Reference: Figure 14.21, page 643
Application Factor

Driven Machines

Power Source Uniform Light shock Moderate shock Heavy shock


Application factor, Ka
Uniform 1.00 1.25 1.50 1.75
Light shock 1.20 1.40 1.75 2.25
Moderate shock 1.30 1.70 2.00 2.75

Table 14.5 Application factor as a function of driving power source and driven
machine.

Text Reference: Table 14.5, page 643


Size Factor

Diametral pitch pd, Module, m, Size factor, Ks


in.-1 mm
5 5 1.00
4 6 1.05
3 8 1.15
3 12 1.25
1.25 20 1.40

Table 14.6 Size factor as a function of diametral pitch or module.

Text Reference: Table 14.6, page 644


Load Distribution Factor

Figure 14.23 Load distribution factor as function of face width


and ratio of face width to pitch diameters. Commercial quality
gears assumed. [From Mott (1992).]

Text Reference: Figure 14.23, page 645


Dynamic Factor

Figure 14.24 Dynamic factor as function of pitch-line velocity and


transmission accuracy level number.

Text Reference: Figure 14.24, page 645


Helical Gear

Figure 14.25 Helical gear. (a) Front view; (b) side view.

Text Reference: Figure 14.25, page 651


Pitches of Helical Gears

Figure 14.26 Pitches of helical gears. (a) Circular; (b) axial.

Text Reference: Figure 14.26, page 652


Motor Torque and Speed

Figure 14.28 Torque and speed of motor as function of current for


industrial mixer used in case study.
Text Reference: Figure 14.28, page 655