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Reaching Goals and


Goal Setting

The Bullfight

The Bullfight
 In five words or less, describe the
outcome of a bullfight.

The Bullfight
 Who is stronger, the matador or the bull?
 The Bull!
 Who is faster, the matador or the bull?
 The Bull!
 Who is deadlier, the matador or the bull?
 The Bull!

The Bullfight  It is a matter of goal orientation. .

go after the guy in the funny pants” .The Bullfight  “Forget the cape.

The Bullfight .

Goal Setting  Specific  Meaningful  Accepted  Realistic  Time – Framed .

Specific Goals Are More Effective Than “Do Your Best” Goals .

Meaningful to Those Who Must Achieve the Goal .

Accepted By Those Who Must Achieve the Goal .

Realistic. Yet Challenging .

Most Effective Probability of Achievement: Between 50% & 70% .

Time – Frame Deadline For Achievement .

What are Your goals? .

 It lays the foundation for carrying out other management functions.Planning  Planning is the management function of setting goals and determining how to meet them. .  It is the first step of thinking ahead about what needs to be done to meet the organization’s or work unit’s objectives.

. • defining goals and objectives. Planning involves • gathering information. and • implementing the plan. • thinking through the steps to accomplish the objectives.

Formal and Informal Planning  Planning can be formal or informal. . • Strategic planning is very formal. • An example of informal planning is making plans to meet someone for lunch.

Project Planning  The project planning process consists of the following: • Setting the project start date • Setting the project completion date • Selecting the project methodology or project life cycle to be used • Determining the scope of the project in terms of the phases of the selected project methodology or project life cycle • Identifying or selecting the project review methods to be used .

• Listing tasks.• Identifying any pre-determined interim milestone or other critical dates which must be met. • Estimating the personnel necessary to accomplish each task • Estimating the personnel available to accomplish each task • Determining skill level necessary to perform each task . in the order in which they might be accomplished. by project phase.

• Determining task dependencies .Which tasks can be done in parallel .Which tasks require the completion of other tasks before they can start • Project control or review points • Performing project cost estimation and cost-benefit analysis .

. They are generally broad in scope and represent the purpose to be achieved by the organization or the work unit.Goals  Goals are what is to be achieved.

 If the purpose of the organization is to sell food prepared into tasty meals for local customers. • Another goal may be to increase customer satisfaction by providing excellent service. . • then a goal may be to increase the number of meals sold or increase market share.

” .Objectives  Objectives are similar to goals.  The dictionary defines objectives as “having to do with a material object as distinguished from a mental concept. but they are more specific.

. • measurable. Objectives should be • written. • specific. and • challenging but achievable. • clear.

.Implementation  Implementation of an action plan should be monitored and evaluated against an objective.

 Goals and objectives are very broad. .  Strategic planning is usually a function of top management.  Strategic plans are used as a guide to develop operational plans.Strategic Planning  The creation of long-term goals for the organization as a whole.

. departments.  Operational planning is usually done by middle managers and supervisors. and work groups will support organizational goals.Operational Planning  The development of objectives that specify how divisions.

Policies  Broad guidelines for how to act.  The policy will act as a filter of what will be considered acceptable or not for the organization and its members .  The origin of policies is philosophical and/or ethical.

• products.  Procedures help maintain consistency of • practices. and • services. .Procedures  The steps that must be completed in order to achieve a specific purpose.

 Clearly written procedures give employees a standard map to guide action. .  They also help an organization maintain its knowledge base.

Rules  Statements of specifically what to do or not to do in a given situation.  Rules may be published in employee handbooks or posted on a bulletin board. .

. action plans are a map that tells you how to get there.  If objectives are statements of where you want to go.Action Plan  The plan to achieve an objective.

 It increases the likelihood of achieving the objectives. .  It describes specific tasks and who is responsible to see that the task is accomplished and includes a timetable or schedule. Writing an action plan will add more detail to the overall plan or the objectives.

 All too often there can be agreement that something has to be done and an outcome altered. . no one may take the action required to make the change. but without an action plan.

.Contingency Plan  Planning what to do if the original plans don’t work out.

 Then their performance is measured against those objectives. .Management by Objectives  A formal system for planning in which managers and employees at all levels set objectives for what they are to accomplish.

 Budgets provide written targets for utilizing financial resources. .Budget  A plan for spending money.

.Scheduling  Setting a precise timetable for the work to be done.  A schedule is a plan for the time needed to achieve an objective.

. including its starting and ending dates.Gantt Chart  Scheduling tool that lists the activities to be completed and uses horizontal bars to graph how long each activity will take.


PERT Charts  Scheduling tool that identifies the relationship of tasks as well as how long each activity will take. Certo). . (P. 161.

Controlling  The management function of making sure that work goes according to plan. and on specific products and services. department level. .  Planning and controlling can be on the organizational level. the controlling function monitors performance.  The planning function sets the goals.

.Standards  Measures of what is expected.  Performance or outcomes can be measured against these standards to determine it expectations are being met.  Products and services are based upon some standard that meets the organizational goals or customer expectations.

.  A standard usually has a preferred target.Variance  The size of the difference between actual performance and a performance standard.  In some cases there is a tolerance added to indicate a range of acceptance to the standard.

 This is called meaningful variance for control purposes in the text. . Variance may fall within the accepted range of a standard.

Exception Principle  The control principle stating that a supervisor should take action only when a variance is meaningful. .  It is important to investigate and act on exceptions on the positive side as well as on the negative side of the expected target.

• When employees exceed the standards the supervisor should let them know by recognition. and other means available to him or her. • The supervisor should be aware of performance standards and actual performance. .Reinforcement  Encouragement of behavior by associating it with a reward. praise.

.• This will let employees know you appreciate their contribution and they are likely to keep up the good work.

if the goal is to reach a specific level of quality. • For example.Problem  A factor in the organization that is a barrier to improvement. . • A problem can also be viewed as something that keeps an organization or department from achieving its goals. productivity. it is a problem if the goal cannot be attained. or costs.

• Beware of treating the symptom as the problem. • For example. .Symptom  An indication of an underlying problem. • This may be a symptom of the problem of inadequately trained employees. the symptom may be low productivity.

or • develop new rewards for good performance • train employees • improve communications with employees • counsel and /or discipline poor performance • ask employees what barriers are interfering with their performance • the standard itself . • the behavior of an individual employee. Fixing the problem may entail • adjusting a process.

Types of Controls  The three types of control are • feedback • concurrent • precontrol .

• Reports on completed tasks or spending such as • productivity • shipping • accumulated costs .Feedback Control  Control that focuses on past performance.

Concurrent Control  Control that occurs while the work takes place (real time control). .

• Examples of precontrol are • planning • training • preventative maintenance .Precontrol  Efforts aimed at preventing behavior that may lead to undesirable results.

Personal Observation  Management by wondering around. .