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LAYOUT PLANNING

Arman Valjee (60005140112)


Rushikesh Yadav (60005140119)
Aditya Yeole (60005140120)
Ankit Jain (60005158004)
Facility Layout
Planning

Introduction.
Objectives of Plant Layout.
Factors affecting Plant Layout.
Types of Plant Layout.
Plant Layout for a Service business.
Plant Layout for a Warehouse.
Facility Layout Planning

Introduction
Objectives
Factors Affecting Layout Selection and
Design
Types of Plant Layout
Product Layout
Process Layout
Cell Layout
Layout for Services
Introduction
Plant layout planning includes decisions regarding the physical
allocation of the economic activity centers in a facility.
An economic activity center is any entity occupying space.
The objective of plant layout planning is a more effective
work flow at the facility, allowing workers and equipment
being more productive.
Facility layout techniques apply to the case where several physical
means have to be located in a certain area, either industrial
processes or services.
The objective of the chapter is not only Plant layout but re-layout also
(most common situation for a company).
To carry out an appropriate plant layout, its important to take into
account the business strategic and tactical objectives
Example: space requirements/cost per m2 in Malls;
accessibility/privacy in offices.
Introduction
To make a decision about layout planning, 4 different
questions must have an answer:
Which centers do we have to consider?
How much space and capacity is required for each center?
If there is not enough space, productivity may be reduced.
Too much space is expensive and may also reduce productivity.
How must the space be configured at each center?
Space quantity, shape and the elements of the work center are
related to each other.
Where should each center be located at within the facility?
The allocation of the different centers may affect productivity.
Introduction
The plant layout process starts at an aggregate level, taking into
account the different departments. As soon as we get into the details,
the different issues arise, and the original configuration may be
changed through a feedback process.
Most (if not all of them) layouts are designed properly for the initial
conditions of the business, although as long as the company grows
and has to be adapted to internal and external changes, a re-layout is
GRADO DE DETALLE SEGN
necessary.
AVANCE DEL PROYECTO

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Distribucin Detallada

DETALLE Fase I
Localizacin
Fase IV
Instalacin
Fase II
Distribucin General

TIEMPO
Introduction
Symptoms that allow us to detect the need for a re-layout:
Congestion and bad utilization of space.
Excessive stock in process at the facility.
Long distances in the work flow process.
Simultaneous bottle necks and workstations with idle time.
Qualified workers carrying out too many simple operations.
Labor anxiety and discomfort. Accidents at the facility.
Difficulty in controlling operations and personnel.
Facility Layout Definition
A facility layout is an arrangement of everything
needed for production of goods or delivery of
services. A facility is an entity that facilitates the
performance of any job. It may be a machine tool, a
work centre, a manufacturing cell, a machine shop,
a department, a warehouse, etc. (Heragu, 1997).
The layout design generally
depends on the products variety
and the production volumes. Four Quantity Product
Layouts
types of organization are referred Fixed
to, namely fixed product layout, Position
Layouts
Mixed Layouts Process Layouts
Number of Different Products
process layout, product layout and
cellular layout (Dilworth, 1996).
Objectives of Plant Layout
The main objective consists of organizing equipment
and working areas in the most efficient way, and at
the same time satisfactory and safe for the personnel
doing the work.
Sense of Unity
The feeling of being a unit pursuing the same objective.
Minimum Movement of people, material and
resources.
Safety
In the movement of materials and personnel work flow.
Flexibility
In designing the plant layout taking into account the changes
over short and medium terms in the production process and
manufacturing volumes.
Objectives of Plant Layout
These main objectives are reached through the attainment of the
following facts:
Congestion reduction.

Elimination of unnecessary occupied areas.

Reduction of administrative and indirect work.

Improvement on control and supervision.

Better adjustment to changing conditions.

Better utilization of the workforce, equipment and services.

Reduction of material handling activities and stock in process.

Reduction on parts and quality risks.

Reduction on health risks and increase on workers safety.

Moral and workers satisfaction increase.

Reduction on delays and manufacturing time, as well as increase

in production capacity.
All these factors will not be reached simultaneosly, so the best
solution will be a balance among them.
Factors affecting Plant
Layout
The final solution for a Plant Layout has to take into account a
balance among the characteristics and considerations of all
factors affecting plant layout, in order to get the maximum
advantages.
The factors affecting plant layout can be grouped into 8
categories:
Materials
Machinery
Labor
Material Handling
Waiting Time
Auxiliary Services
The building
Future Changes
Types of Plant Layout
The production process normally determines the type
of plant layout to be applied to the facility:
Fixed position plant layout
Product stays and resources move to it.
Product oriented plant layout
Machinery and Materials are placed following the
product path.
Process oriented plant layout (Functional Layout).
Machinery is placed according to what they do and
materials go to them.
Cell Layout
Hybrid Layout that tries to take advantage of different
layouts types.
Types of Plant Layout
Product oriented plant layout
This type of plant layout is useful when the production
process is organized in a continuous or repetitive way.
Continuous flow: The correct operations flow is reached through
the layout design and the equipment and machinery
specifications.
Repetitive flow (assembly line): The correct operations flow will
be based in a line balancing exercise, in order to avoid
problems generated by bottle necks.
The plant layout will be based in allocating a machine as
close as possible to the next one in line, in the correct
sequence to manufacture the product.
Types of Plant Layout
Product oriented plant layout
Advantages:
Reduced material handling activities.
Work In Process almost eliminated.
Minimum manufacturing time.
Simplification of the production planning and control systems.
Tasks simplification.
Disadvantages:
No flexibility in the production process.
Low flexibility in the manufacturing times.
High capital investment.
Every workstation is critical to the process.- The lack of
personnel or shut down of a machine stops the whole process.
Monotonous work.
Types of Plant Layout
Process oriented plant layout (Functional Layout)
This type of plant layout is useful when the production
process is organized in batches.
Personnel and equipment to perform the same function are
allocated in the same area.
The different items have to move from one area to another
one, according to the sequence of operations previously
established.
The variety of products to produce will lead to a diversity of
flows through the facility.
The variations in the production volumes from one period to
the next one (short periods of time) may lead to modifications
in the manufactured quantities as well as the types of
products to be produced.
P-Q Analysis

Definition
Diagram activity relationships
Product
Flow

Chart relationship (flow, functional)

Establish space requirements Space Availability


Analysis

Diagram space relationships


Maintenance
Synthesis Practical Limitations Adjustment QC
Space Availability
Mat. Handling

Project Project Project


A B C
Evaluation

Evaluate alternative arrangements


Selection

Detail selected layout, install SLP Method


Muther (1973)
INSTALACION
Implementation
Cellular Layout
Process
Process(Functional)
(Functional) Group
Group(Cellular)
(Cellular)Layout
Layout
Layout
Layout
A cluster
or cell
T T T CG CG T T T
M
T T T SG SG M M T

D D M D
M M D D D
SG CG CG D

M M D D D SG

Similar resources placed Resources to produce similar


together products placed together
Types of Plant Layout
Work cells
Definition:
Group of equipment and workers that perform a sequence of
operations over multiple units of an item or family of items.
Looks for the advantages of product and process
layouts:
Product oriented layout: Efficiency
Process oriented layout: Flexibility
Group Technology
Grouping outputs with the same characteristics to families, and
assigning groups of machines and workers for the production of
each family.
Plant Layout for a Service
Business
Most of the concepts and techniques explained here

can be applied to any plant layout, including services.


Examples: Line Balancing for Restaurant self-services;
Process oriented layout for Hospitals.
Service Businesses have a more direct customer
focus:
Sometimes, the customer is required at the facility for the
company to be able to perform the service.
Frequently, the layout is focused on the customer satisfaction
than on the operation itself.
Some of the objectives include comfortability during the
performance of the service, as well as making attractive
those areas in direct contact with the customer.
Plant Layout for a Service
Business
Service Businesses have a more direct customer

focus:
The customer, with his/her presence, creates the work flow.
The workload forecast and the activities planning is not as
accurate as it is in a manufacturing environment.
Queues:
Seasonal and heterogeneous demand: execution time can be
variable.
Services are intangible: adjustment between demand and production
can not be done through inventory management.
Queues are formed by people: higher implications for the layout.
Plant Layout for a Warehouse
Objective: Optimal relationship between space and material handling costs.
Aspects to be considered: cubic space utilization, storing equipment and methods,
material protection, allocation of different parts, etc.
A warehouse layout is more complicated when:
The different customer orders take into account a high number of references.
There are frequent orders of low number of units for the same product.
In this cases, the material handling costs for each roundtrip move would be excessively
high.
Solutions for this problem: Aggregation Zones
of units for several orders, Control
Zones or establishment of
optimal routes for each order. station Shipping

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