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PRODUCT PIPELINE OPERATIONS

Type of Pipelines

Product Pipeline
Dedicated
Multi products
Crude oil Pipeline
Gas Pipeline
Mineral Pipelines
Pipeline Profile and Hydraulic
Gradient
Pipeline Operation

Pipeline Profile:
It represents ground level of the pipeline
along the route, expressed in MSL

Hydraulic Gradient:
It represents pressure along the pipeline,
expressed in meter column of liquid
Pipeline Operation

GL
HYDRAULIC GRADIENT

MPPL

1400 854 22" OD x 0.281" WT, API 5L X52 GRADE


MAOP= 67.26 KG/SQ CM (771 MCL)
830
857
1200 850
1075

1000
553
HEAD (MCL)

800 680 608

600
50

400 50 50
BEAWAR
50
KOT 654 SANGANER 50
170 50
200 SIDHPUR ABU ROAD 835
506 REWARI PANIPAT
405
RADHANPUR 329 1014
50
STATION MUNDRA 249
0
CHAINAGE (KM)
0 0 100 200 300 400 500 600 700 800 900 1000 1100 1174
ALTITUDE (M) 3.6 27.0 137.8 260.6 315.3 455.5 356.4 245.7 238
Critical Operating Parameters
Pipeline Operation
Critical Operating Parameters:
Oil characteristics
Density
Viscosity
Pour point
Temperature
Maximum allowable operating pressure (MAOP)
Station discharge head (SDH)
Suction pressure
Back pressure
Positive pressure
Surge pressure
Pipeline Operation

Positive pressure in a pipeline

At any point in a pipeline, hydraulic


gradient above elevation profile is
termed as positive pressure in the
pipeline.
Pipeline Operation

Why positive pressure is required in a


pipeline?

To avoid vapor formation of the liquid

To avoid any physical damage to the


pipeline
Pipeline Operation

Surge Pressure in a Pipeline:

Surge pressure can be generated by


anything that causes the liquid velocity in
a line to change quickly (e.g., valve
closure, pump trip, ESD)

The surge pressure may be higher than


MAOP and thus danger to equipment,
pipeline and people
Pipeline Operation

How to relieve Surge Pressure?

Surge pressure can be relived by installing


a automated operating valve (e.g., Nitrogen
control valve or mechanical control valve).

The requirement of Surge Relief system


include the need for fast acting, high
capacity valve which can open very quickly
to remove surge from the line.
COMMON COMPATIBILITY MULTI-PRODUCT
PIPELINES

MS SKO
HSD SKO
ATF SKO
NAPHTHA SKO

SKO IS THE UNIVERSAL PLUG FOR ALL WHITE OILS


CRITICAL OPERATING PARAMETERS
SL.NO PROD CRITICAL PARAMETERS

01. MS Colour, Density, FBP, Sulphur, Octane No.


02. SK Colour, Density, FBP, Flash Pt., Smoke Pt.
03. HSD Colour, Density, Sulphur, Flash Pt. Cetane
number, lubricity
04. ATF Colour, Density, Silver Strip Corrosion,
Copper strip corrosion, Conductivity,
Freezing Pt.
05. MTO Colour, Density, FBP, Flash Pt.
06. SRN Colour, Density, FBP.

Products Parameters : 1) Appearance, 2) Colour, 3) Copper strip corrosion, 4)


Density at 150C, 5) FBP, 6) Flash Pt., 7) Smoke Pt., 8) Acidity, 9) Octane No.,
10) Centane No., 11) Silver strip corrosion, 12) Conductivity, 13) Freezing
Point, 14) Pour Pt.
Control Room Management

The Oil and Gas industry has its


own unique challenges, monitor
and control being the critical area.
OBJECTIVE

Identify CRM( Control Room Management )


enhancement areas to help assure and promote the
Controllers ability to succeed in maintaining pipeline
safety and integrity
Definitions

Control Room

Means an operations centre staffed by personnel

charged with the responsibility for remotely monitoring

and controlling entire or multiple sections of pipeline

systems
Incorporated by Reference

API Recommended Practice 1165


Recommended practice for Pipeline SCADA Displays (in
part)

API Recommended Practice 1168


Recommended practice Pipeline Control Room
Management(in part)
MONITORING FUNCTIONS
Status information:
Open & Close status of MOVs
Run & Stop status of pumps
On line/By-pass status of flow meters & stations
Tank level Normal/High
Centrifuge/Compressor Run/Stop
Engines running on crude/diesel etc.
Sump tank level Normal/High
Analog Information:
Station suction/Discharge pressures
Station temperatures
Flow Rates, Density, Tank Levels etc.
Engine speeds.
% opening of Control Valve
Flow Metering information:
Non-reset counter reading
Fuel take-off count

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MONITORING FUNCTIONS
Product Batch Information:
No. of Batches
Batch length
Position of the Batches
Interface length
Batch arrival time

Pig Tracking Information:


Pig Tracking
Pig Arrival

Leak Detect Information:


Detection of Pipeline Leak
Location of Leak
Approximate Size of the Leak
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Process parameters
Pressure
Indicators
Transmitters
Switches
Temperature
Indicators
Transmitters

Switches

TYPICAL SCHEMATIC FLOW DIAGRAM FOR


PIPELINE SYSTEM

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Process parameters
Density
Transducer
Flow
Thermally activated switches
Turbine Flow Meters

Mass Flowmeters

Ultrasonic Flowmeters

Level
Magnetic float switches
Radar Tank Gauges

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Definitions

Alarm: Part

Means an audible or visible means of indicating to the

controller an equipment or process is outside operator

defined safety-related parameters


Definitions
Controller,

Means a qualified individual whose function is to

remotely monitor and control the safety related

operations of entire or multiple sections of pipeline

systems via a SCADA system from a pipeline control

room

who has operational authority and accountability for the

daily remote operational functions of pipeline systems as

defined by the pipeline operator


TYPICAL ORIGINATING PUMP STN LINE DIAGRAM
(Pipeline Operations through SCADA)

STRAINER FLOW MASTER


BOOSTER SECTION
SECTION METER METER

TANKS
DENSITY
METER

MAINLINE
PUMPING SECTION

SUMP
PUMP &
TANK

MOV PRESSURE/TEMPERATURE
INSTRUMENTS SCRAPPER
LAUNCHING
NRV
BARRELTION

HOV
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TANK AND MANIFOLD INTERLOCKS LOGIC
TANK LINEUP CONDITIONS:
LS,
LT 1. Sufficient ullage in the tank ensured by LT.
2. Tank Valve will be opened when there is no
TANK
Low Alarm
3. System will allow only one tank valve at a
time.
TO BOOSTERS
4. During changeover 25% valve opening
gives command for the closure of other
tank valve.
6. Manifold valve operation is also similar.
MANIFOLD
7. Failure of above operation, sequence
incomplete condition will ensure
shutdown of equipments.

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PIPELINE OPERATIONS THROUGH SCADA
1 26
Factors contributing to pipeline losses
Causes of losses in transportation of petroleum
Evaporation loss
Spillage/leakage
Pilferage
Due to fire
Deteration /contamination
Accounting /
Temperature variation
Callibration/gauging
Measuring instrument
Testing method
Measures for preventing losses
Use of standard measuring instrument
Periodic Calibration of measuring instrument
Sampling procedure
Collection of top middle and bottom sample as per standard procedure.
Ensuring settling times of tanks
Taking measure for sludge production from the tank
Use of same testing method at the receiving and delivery end
Provision of floating roof tank in place fixed roof tank.
Positive isolation
Conversion of HOV to MOV
Use of Auto Sampler for measuring BS&W
Radar based automatic tank level gauging system for high capacity tanks
Interface and Minimum Batch Length
in Product Pipelines
What is Interface in a Pipeline?
What is Interface in a Pipeline?

When different products are dispatched through


a Pipeline in continuous succession, with no
medium to separate them, there is always a
mixing at the boundary of two adjacent products
known as Interface or Transmix.

This Interface or Transmix, a contaminated


product gradually increases in length as it moves
towards receiving point.
Interface in a Pipeline

Product-A Interface Product-B

L
Length (L) increases as interface moves
towards receiving point
Interface Management

HSD SKO/PCK MS SKO/PCK ATF SKO


Impact of Interface in Pipeline Transportation

Product quality
Generation of contaminated products
Restriction in Batch size
Quality Give Away (QGA)
INTERFACE CALCULATIONS

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INTERFACE GENERATION
The pipeline can not be operated precisely unless the length or the
volume of the interface and its location can be known at any given
time, once the length of interface is determined, it is easy to
calculate its volume from line fill.
The volume of interface can also be calculated by the formula :

V= 2 CD x L 1/2
Where V =Volume of interface ( M )
C= Co-efficient of sensitivity of measuring instrument
(Here it is considered =1)
D= Internal diameter of pipe in Meter
L= Length of Pipeline Meters
EXAMPLE
D= 0.3 M
L= 268000 mts
V =2 CD x L 1/2
OD(INCH) IWT(INCH) ID(INCH) ID(MTR) SQ ID 2XSQ LENGTH IN METERS
(MTRS) MTRS ID 50000 100000 150000 200000
SQUARE ROOT OF LENGTH
224 316 387 447
I/F VOLUME IN KLS
10.75 0.219 10.31 0.262 0.0686 0.1372 31 43 53 61
12.75 0.25 12.25 0.311 0.0968 0.1936 43 61 75 87
14 0.281 13.44 0.341 0.1165 0.2330 52 74 90 104
16 0.281 15.44 0.392 0.1538 0.3075 69 97 119 138
18 0.281 17.44 0.443 0.1962 0.3924 88 124 152 175
18 0.25 17.50 0.445 0.1976 0.3952 88 125 153 177
18 0.312 17.38 0.441 0.1948 0.3896 87 123 151 174
20 0.25 19.50 0.495 0.2453 0.4906 110 155 190 219
24 0.281 23.44 0.595 0.3544 0.7088 158 224 275 317
28 0.281 27.44 0.697 0.4857 0.9714 217 307 376 434
LENGTH OF INTERFACE
The pipeline can not be operated precisely unless the
length or the volume of the interface and its location
can be known at any given time, once the length of
interface is determined, it is easy to calculate its
volume from line fill.
The length of interface is given by the following
formula.
V = 2*C*(D-2t)^2 * SQRT(L) where,
V = Volume of interface in kls
D = Outside diameter (mtrs
t = Thickness of pipe
L = Length of pipeline (in mtrs)
C = Constant depending upon the type of 50:50
mixture of product.
.)..\..\2010\10.06.2010.xls
1 44
Interface Length

The length of interface is given by the


following formula.
C = 11.75(D)0.5 (L)0.5 (Re)-0.1
where, C = length of interface (ft.)
D = Inside diameter (ft.)
L = distance of travel (ft.)
Re = Reynolds number of 50/50
mixture
Factors affecting Interface generation
in a Pipeline

Un-controllable factors
Difference in densities of the products
Viscosity of interface
Ground profile
Length of the Pipeline
Pipe friction
Diameter of the Pipeline
Factors affecting Interface generation
in a Pipeline

Controllable factors

Product change over time at starting point


Flow in the pipeline
Change in flow
Interruptions in flow
Start-up /Shut-down of the Pipeline
Minimizing the Interface generation

Using mechanical separator between two


products
Use of quick closing valves
Avoiding frequent shut downs
Following correct shutdown/start-up procedure
Accuracy in cutting the interface
Avoid laminar /below the minimum flow
Reduce the absorption percentage of
interface

Adopting pumping in larger batch size


Tankage at receiving point having larger
ullage
Storing interface in a separate tank and
subsequent distribution in total batch
Other options

Splitting the interface and segregating into


MS and HSD

Transporting back to Refinery for


reprocessing

Using special product as buffer between


HSD and MS batches
Interface Management
Detection of Interface

Density difference
Online density meter
Manual measurement using hydro
meter

Visual Colour of the product

Sulphur difference
Online sulphur analyzer

Volume assessment
Allowable intermix of interface in various base products
(As per IQCM)
Product tank to Interface Quantity
The interface of Accommodate (Front + Rear)
Interface Acceptable (%) **
MS BS II & SRN/MRN MS BS II 1.0
MS BS III & SRN/MRN MS BS III 0.5
MS BS II & SRN/MRN MRN 3.0
MS BS III & SRN/MRN MRN 3.0
SRN & SK MRN OR SRN 3.0
MRN & SK MRN 3.0
MS BS II / MS BS III & SK MS BS II 2.0
SK & ATF SK No limit
SK/ATF & HSD BS II / LSHF/HF HSD HSD BS II 3.0
SK/ATF & HSD BS III / LSHF/HF HSD HSD BS III 2.0
LSHF/HF HSD HF HSD No limit
HSD BS II & LSHF/HF HSD HSD BS II $

HSD BS III & LSHF/HF HSD HSD BS III $

HSD & LDO LDO 3.0


LDO & FO FO 5.0

** Allowable % is directional
Minimum Batch Length

Interface to be absorbed in a compatible


product

Available quality cushion in the product to


absorb the interface

Percentage of interface absorption


Elements of batch scheduling
Periodicity of review- daily - Ever dynamic
Type of Crudes/Products- Requirement vis-vis
availability/Mkt demand
Ref/Mktg safety stock/ minimum inventory norms
Refy Process rate & process cycle
ETAs of Tankers & Type of crude
Line fill content/ batch sizes
Rate of Pumping
Product/Crude Stock & Ullage Tank wise at all locations-
Refy, T-points, Mother stn
Elements of batch scheduling- contd
Pumping Capacity/ Engine availability & any shutdown
requirement
M/L allowable op. pr de-rating if required on M/L health
ground/ M/L maintenance
Minimizing T-Point booster running
Maximizing batch length to minimize no of interfaces
Minimize line shutdown by varying flow rate from minimum
to maximum
Maintaining purity of crude characteristics
Delivering on specification products
Any requirement of trial run by Ref for establishing crude
assy with new crude
Conveying crude mix to Refy before delivery
Objectives
1. Optimize pipeline operation by
planning.
2. Pipeline operation with the least energy
consumption during transportation.
3. Measurement method for crude and
products. Minimum hydrocarbon losses
during transportation.
4. Optimizing batch length. Minimum
Interface(I/F) generation and delivery
of quality products.
5. Maintaining health of pipeline.
Planning Forums:
1. BPO
2. IDCM
3. CO(OPT)
4. MOU/S TGT
5. Monthly meeting to plan pumping product /
crude in the pipeline.
7. CMC
PUMPING SEQUENCES IN A PIPELINE

HSD SKO MS SRN SKO ATF SKO HSD


Products Sequence of Pumping I/F between Base product in
which I/F is taken

SM, MS, SRN SK-MS-SK SK & MS MS


& MRN SK-SRN/ MRN-SK SK & SRN/ SRN / MRN
MRN
SK-SRN-MRN-MS-MRN- MRN & MS MS
SK
SK-SRN-MS-SK SRN & MS MS
SK & ATF SK ATF SK SK & ATF SK
HSD & MTO HSD MTO HSD HSD & MTO HSD
SK , HSD & SK HSD SK SK & HSD HSD
LDO HSD LDO HSD HSD & LDO LDO
AOX & HSD HSD AOX HSD AOX & HSD HSD
INTERFACE GENERATION
CRITICAL OPERATING PARAMETERS :

SL. PRODUCT CRITICAL PARAMETERS


NO.
01. MS Colour, Density, FBP, Sulphur, Octane No.
02. SK Colour, Density, FBP, Flash Pt., Smoke Pt.
03. HSD Colour, Density, Sulphur, Flash Pt.
04. ATF Colour, Density, Silver Strip Corrosion, Copper
strip corrosion, Conductivity, Freezing Pt.
05. MTO Colour, Density, FBP, Flash Pt.
06. SRN Colour, Density, FBP.

Products Parameters : 1) Appearance, 2) Colour, 3) Copper strip corrosion, 4)


Density at 150C, 5) FBP, 6) Flash Pt., 7) Smoke Pt., 8) Acidity, 9) Octane No.,
10) Centane No., 11) Silver strip corrosion, 12) Conductivity, 13) Freezing
Point, 14) Pour Pt.
Batching of Products

A typical products sequence in multi products pipeline

HSD SKO MS SKO ATF SKO


Sample : Scheduling for a month

DELIVERY PLAN AT
MATHURA KRN
MDP PRODUCT (Ex MR) DELHI MEERUT RWR PMC/PB TOPS TOTAL
TMTs TKLS TKLS TKLS TKLS TKLS TKLS TKLS
74.6 MS-III 104.0 88.5 6.5 9.0 104.0
MS-II
19.9 SKO 32.0 9.0 9.0 2.0 12.0 30.0
51.7 ATF 65.0 65.0 65.0
25.0 HSD-II 30.0 11.0 19.0 30.0
100.2 HSD-III 121.0 106.0 15.0 121.0
271.4 TOTAL 352.0 269 30.5 11.0 23.0 19.0 350.0

MDP; Marketing Distribution Plan

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Delivery to
Date Product Qnty Flow Time to DELHI MRT RWR KRN
Rate complete
1 MS-III 36
16 450 16
2 9
SKO 4 450 1
3 27
ATF 16 600 16
4 3
SKO 1.5 450 0.5
5 HSD-III 64
30 470 30
6 3
SKO 1.5 450 0.5
7 33
MS-III 20 600 20
8 9
SKO 4 450 1 3
9 27
ATF 16 600 16
10 3
SKO 1.5 450 0.5
11 35
HSD-II 16 460 5
12 64
HSD-III 30 470 30
13 3
SKO 1.5 450 0.5 1
14 40
MS-III 24 600 17.5 6.5
15 9
9/16/2017SKO 4 450 1 2
BATCH LENGTH & TANKAGE
CAPACITY REQUIREMENT
CALCULATION OF BATCH LENGTH
Depends on:-
Type of product
Destination of product
Expected qty of I/F
Tolerance limit of intermixing in mother product
These batches are able to absorb the I/F at delivery end
without affecting quality
Example:-
1.MS/SKO I/F generation say 100 KL => 50 SKO+50 MS

2.Tolerance limit of SKO in to MS= 1%(say)


3.Minimum batch length of MS say x

4.1% SKO means x*1/100=50 so, x=5000 KL.


5.If MS to be delivered at intermediate TOPs with I/F absorption at end
stn, then batch length of MS at source to be= 5000 Kl+ qty of MS
to be delivered to TOPs
BATCH LENGTH vs MINIMUM OPERABLE TANK CAPACITY

In order to avoid receiving and storing of I/F separately


for disposal and to ensure direct absorption of I/F in
batches minimum batch lengths are decided.
SAMPLE CALCULATION

Product I/F I/F Minimum Minimum operable #


generation absorption Batch length capacity of Tanks
required for
absorbing

MS 534 1% SK in 27000 Kls 2 x 14000 Kls


MS
HSD 584 1.5% SK in 10000 Kls 2 x 5000 Kls
HSD
SRN 540 2% SK in 14000 Kls 2 x 7000 Kls
SRN
Optimization of Pipeline Operation
Optimization of Pipeline Operation

Operating the station at minimum suction


pressure
Operating MLPU at maximum possible RPM

Flow regulation and MLPU selection as per


need avoid shut down

Maintaining minimum required back pressure

Use of Drag Reducing Additives (DRA)


DRA - Mechanism

Long chain polymers interact with fluid


molecules that reduces formation of
turbulent eddies

Reduces the amount of energy lost in


turbulent eddies thus reduction in Drag

Drag can be reduced up to 60 to 70%


Application of DRA

Increase in pipeline throughput


Maintaining the throughput during non-
availability of equipment
Maintaining the throughput in a de-rated
pipeline
Bye-passing a boosting station
Energy saving at normal throughput
Application of DRA

H-Q Curve
H (Head)

Drag Reduction

Q (Flow)