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Dianna Rose Belen, RN, LPT

1. Classify different cell types (plant/animal

tissue) and specify the functions of each.

2. Describe some cell modifications that lead to

adaptation to carry out specialized functions
(eg. Microvilli, root hair)
The atom is the smallest and most
fundamental unit of matter. The bonding of
at least two atoms or more form _________?
The simplest level of organization for living
things is a single organelle, which is
composed of aggregates of macromolecules.
The highest level of organization for living
things is the biosphere; it encompasses all
other levels.
The biological levels of organization of living
things arranged from the simplest to
most complex are:
organ systems
An emergent property is a characteristic an
entity gains when it becomes part of a bigger
system. Emergent properties help living
organisms better adapt to their environments
and increase their chances of survival.
Organs do not take on just any form on an
organism's body.
The fins of a fish, whale, porpoise, tadpole all
look similar because they help propel the
organism through the water.
The feet of frogs, lizards, birds, and humans
contain the same basic form to help support and
move them on a terrestrial environment.
The heart is a muscular pump, varying in the
number of chambers, functioning in the
movement of blood or fluid through the body.
It make no difference what organism it is in, the
form of the organ will resemble the others with
the same basic function.
1. Epithelial Tissue- is a sheet of cells that
covers a body surface or lines a body cavity.
Two forms occur in the human body:
Covering and lining epithelium forms the
outer layer of the skin; lines open cavities of
the digestive and respiratory systems; covers
the walls of organs of the closed ventral body
Glandular epithelium surrounds glands
within the body.
Epithelium has two names. The first name
indicates the number of cell layers, the second
describes the shape of its cell. Based on the
number of cell layers, epithelia can either be
simple or stratified.
Simple epithelia consist of a single cell layer
(found where absorption, secretion, and filtration
Stratified epithelia are composed of two or
more cell layers stacked on top of each other
(typically found in high abrasion areas where
protection is needed).
All epithelial cells have six sides but they vary
in height. For this reason, there are three
ways to describe the shape and height of
epithelial cells.
Squamous cells are flat and scale-like.
Cuboidal cells are box-like (same height and
Columnar cells are tall (column shaped).
Simple squamous epithelium are close fitting
and flattened laterally. Theyre found where
filtration occurs (kidneys, lungs) and they
resemble the look of a fried egg.
Based on location, simple squamous epithelium
can be classified:
1. Endothelium provides a friction-reducing ling in
lymphatic vessels and all hollow organs of the
cardiovascular system (heart, blood vessels, capillaries).
2. Mesothelium is the epithelium found in serous
membranes (membranes lining the ventral body cavity
and covering the organs within it).
Simple cuboidal epithelium consists of a
single layer of cells with the same height and
width. Functions include secretion and
absorption (located in small ducts of glands
and kidney tubules).
Simple columnar epithelium is a single
layer of tall, closely packed cells that line the
digestive tract from the stomach to the
Functions include absorption and secretion.
They contain dense microvilli on their apical
surface . Additionally, some simple columnar
epithelia may display cilia on their free
surface also.
Pseudostratified columnar epithelium vary in
height. All of their cells rest on the basement
membrane and only the tallest reach the apical
When viewing pseudostratified epithelium it may
look like there are several layers of cells, but this
is not the case. (because the cells have different
heights, it gives the illusion of multiple cell
Most pseudostratified epithelia contain cilia on
their apical surface and line the respiratory tract.
Stratified squamous epithelium is the most
widespread stratified epithelia. Its composed of
several layers and is perfect for its protective
Its apical surface cells are squamous and cells of
the deeper layer are either cuboidal or columnar.
Stratified squamous forms the external part of
the skin and extends into every body opening
thats continuous with the skin. The outer layer
of the skin (epidermis)
is keratinized (contains keratin, a protective
Other stratified squamous in the body is
Transitional epithelium is a stratified
epithelium in which the shape of the surface
cells changes (undergoes transitions)
depending on the degree of stretch.
When a transitional epithelium is not
stretched (for example in an empty bladder)
the cells of the surface layers are large and
As the name implies, connective tissue serves
a "connecting" function. It supports and
binds other tissues in the body.
Unlike epithelial tissue which has cells that
are closely packed together, connective tissue
typically has cells scattered throughout an
extracellular matrix of fibrous proteins and
glycoproteins attached to a basement
Connective Tissues are composed of the
Adipose tissue is a form of loose connective
tissue that stores fat.
Adipose lines organs and body cavities to
protect organs and insulate the body against
heat loss.
Adipose tissue also produces
endocrine hormones.
Cartilage is a form of fibrous connective tissue
that is composed of closely packed collagenous
fibers in a rubbery gelatinous substance called
Chondrocytes are the cells that secrete collagen
and chondrin.
The skeletons of sharks and human embryos are
composed of cartilage.
Cartilage also provides flexible support for
certain structures in adult humans including the
nose, trachea, and ears.
It functions as cushion between bones.
Bone is a type of mineralized connective
tissue that contains collagen and calcium
phosphate, a mineral crystal. Calcium
phosphate gives bone its firmness.
It is made by bone forming cells called
Interestingly enough, blood is considered to
be a type of connective tissue.
Even though it has a different function in
comparison to other connective tissues it
does have an extracellular matrix.
The matrix consists of the plasma, while red
blood cells (erythrocytes), white blood cells
(Leukocytes), and platelets are suspended in
the plasma.
Lymph is another type of fluid connective
tissue. This clear fluid originates from blood
plasma that exits blood
vessels at capillary beds.
A component of the lymphatic system, lymph
contains immune system cells that protect
the body against pathogens.
Muscle tissue is made of "excitable" cells that
are capable of contraction. Of all of the
different tissue types
(muscle, epithelial, connective, and nervous),
muscle tissue is the most abundant in
most animals.
1. Cardiac Muscle
Cardiac muscle is so named because it is
found in the heart.
Cardiac muscle is branched, striated
muscle. The heart wall consists of three
layers: epicardium, myocardium, and
Myocardium is the middle muscular layer of
the heart. Myocardial muscle fibers carry
electrical impulses through the heart, which
power cardiac conduction.
Skeletal muscle, which is attached
to bones by tendons, is controlled by
the peripheral nervous system and associated
with the body's voluntary movements.
Skeletal muscle is striated muscle. Unlike
cardiac muscle, the cells are not branched.
Skeletal muscle cells are covered
by connective tissue, which protects and
supports muscle fiber bundles.
Visceral muscle is found in various parts of the
body including blood vessels, the bladder,
digestive tract, as well as in many other
hollow organs. Like cardiac muscle, most visceral
muscle is regulated by the autonomic nervous
system and is under involuntary control.
Visceral muscle is also called smooth muscle
because it doesn't have cross striations. Visceral
muscle contracts slower than skeletal muscle, but
the contraction can be sustained over a longer
period of time.
Nervous tissue consists of two main types of
cells: neurons and glial cells.
Nerve cells, or neurons (also written
"neurons") transmit nerve impulses that move
information around the body.
Neuroglia are also known simply as "glia" and
have various functions in support of nerve
cells but do not transmit nerve
impulses themselves.
Each neuron consists of an enlarged part
called the cell body (or "perikaryon") which
contains of nucleus of the cell and many
"processes" called dendrites that extend away
from the cell body and are important because
they receive the (electrical signals called)
nerve impulses.
Thank you STEM 2