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Psych 11: Abnormal Psychology

Atty. Charlotte F. Gallego


INSTITUTIONAL VISION

To be a leading world class


educational institution in the
Philippines and in the Asia Pacific
Region.
INSTITUTIONAL MISSION
The Jose Maria College, a private non-
sectarian and non-profit educational
institution, shall endeavor to establish
the culture of
excellence that will
harness the potentials of the youths
based on the principles of spirituality,
righteousness, peace and harmony,

productivity, patriotism and ecological


integrity through academic and non-
academic programs in the spirit of
genuine sharing, fellowship, and trust
in the Divine Providence.
Grading System
Criteria for each Grading Period:

Long Examinations -50%


Participation -10%
Performance -10%
Quizzes -20%
Assignments/Projects - 10%
100%

Learning Resources (e.g.


Textbooks and References)

Hoeksema, S. (2014) Abnormal


psychology 6th ed. McGraw-Hill
Education
Diagnostic Statistical Manual of Mental
Disorders (DSM-V), APA
Hoeksema, S. (2004) Abnormal
Psychology Hoeksema, S.,
International Edition
Policies/Expectations

Students are expected to take


responsibility for their success in class.
You are encouraged to be active
participate in the education process by
asking questions and keeping up with
the course materials and deadlines.
If you have any concerns related to
this class, you are encouraged to
speak with your instructor in a timely
manner.
As a general rule, you should raise any
issues within less than one week of
receiving a grade or completing a
given project.
The Self in Social World
The Disclaimer

Please do not start diagnosing yourself,


your family, friends,
boyfriends/girlfriends, neighbors,
classmates, professors or anyone else you
can think of
This chapter will not make you a
psychologist!
Sensitivity, please

It is important to remember-people are


not just their disorders!

People are not schizophrenics,


alcoholics, autistics, phobics or
bipolars- but rather people with
schizophrenia, alcoholism, autismetc.
Abnormal Psychology

The scientific study of abnormal


behaviour, with the objective to
Describe
Explain
Predict
Control

So what are abnormal behaviours?


The Movies
What is Abnormal Behaviour?

Abnormal behaviour departs from


some norm and harms the affected
individual or others
Conceptual Definitions
Practical Definitions
Surgeon General & DSM-V Definitions
Conceptual Definitions

Criteria for abnormal


behavior include
statistical infrequency,
dysfunction, personal
distress, and violation of
norms.
Practical Definitions

The 4 Ds
Discomfort
Deviance
Dysfunction
Danger
DSM-V

Today, the most widely accepted definition


of mental disorder, from the Diagnostic
and Statistical Manual for Mental
Disorders, 5th ed. (DSM-5), is as follows:
A mental disorder is a syndrome
characterized by clinically significant
disturbance in an individual's cognition,
emotion regulation, or behavior that
reflects a dysfunction in the psychological,
biological, or developmental processes
underlying mental functioning. Mental
disorders are usually associated with
significant distress in social,
occupational, or other important
activities.
History of Abnormal
Psychology

Societal conceptualizations have,


thoughout history, influenced how
people explained, viewed, and treated
mental disorders. By studying how
these ideas have changed over time,
we gain a greater appreciation for how
mental disorders are viewed in today's
society.
Abnormal Psychology throughout
history
Ancient Beliefs
Demonology
Exorcism
Trephining

Naturalistic Explanations
Hippocrates
Four Humours

Return to the Supernatural


Mass Madness
Tarantism
Witchcraft
Reforms

Humanism
People are sick; not possessed
Need to be treated with dignity
Reform Movements
Moral Treatment
Shift from prison to hospital
Biological View
Organic explanation for abnormal behaviour
Drug revolution
Theories and Treatment of
Abnormality

The brain is divided into 3 main


regions: the hindbrain, midbrain, and
forebrain. The hindbrain sits on top of
the spinal cord and is crucial for basic
life functions such as creating,
reflexes, sleep, arousal and
coordination.
The midbrain contains structures that relay
sensory information, control movement, and
regulates responses. The forebrain is very
developed compared to other organisms.
Structures of the forebrain regulate eating,
drinking, directs incoming information, sexual
behavior, basic emotions, pain and pleasure
sensations, and the pituitary gland. Brain
dysfunction can result from injury or from
diseases that cause deterioration.
Many chemicals are required to make the
brain function properly. These chemicals
include neurotransmitters and hormones.
Neurotransmitters are biochemicals that
act as messengers carrying impulses
from one neuron or nerve cell to another
in the brain and in other parts of the
nervous system.
The endocrine system is a system of
glands that produce chemical called
hormones which are released directly into
the blood. A hormone carries messages
throughout the body, potentially affecting a
person's moods, levels of energy, and
reaction to stress. The functioning of
neurotransmitters and the endocrine
system requires delicate balance and
many forces can upset the balance.
How are Psychological Disorders
Diagnosed?
The American Psychiatric
Association (APA) has
devised a system for
diagnosing maladjusted
behavior
The Diagnostic and Statistical
Manual of Mental Disorders
Why do we need a system to
diagnose psychiatric disorders?

To provide a system for diagnosing


disorders
To improve the reliability of diagnoses
To make diagnoses consistent with
research evidence and clinical experiences.
Assessment

Observation
Self-Report Inventories
Biological Measures
Psychophysiological Measures
Neuroimaging Techniques
Projective Tests
Rorschach Ink Blots
Thematic Apperception Test (TAT)
Rorschach Ink Blots
Scoring

Look at the following factors


Location
Determinants
Popularity of response
Content
Form
Generate hypotheses based on patterns of
responses, recurrent themes, and
interrelationships among scoring categories
The Research Endeavor

The Scientific Method

the process to obtain and evaluate


information relevant to a problem in a
systematic way.
Thematic Apperception Test - TAT