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Assignment Problems

The best person for the job is an apt description of the assignment
model.

The objective of the model is to determine the optimum assignment of


workers to jobs so as to minimize the overall cost

To assign n jobs ( i =1,2,3,.,n) to n machines(j=1,2,.,n) in such


a way that each job can be assigned to one and only one machine.
Mathematical formulation
Let xij be a variable defined by
xij = 0,if ith job is not assigned to jth m/c
=1 ,if ith job is assigned to jth m/c
Since only one job is to be assigned to each m/c we have
n

x
n

i 1
ij 1, j 1,2,....., n x
j1
ij 1, i 1,2,....., n

Also, if cij = cost incurred if ith job is done by jth machine, then the total
assignment cost is n n
Z cijx ij
j1 i 1
Thus, determine xij 0 so as to
n n
Min Z cijx ij
j1 i 1
n
st x
i 1
ij 1, j 1,2,....., n
n

x
j1
ij 1, i 1,2,....., n

with xij = 0 or 1.
Hungarian Method

Joe Klynes three children John, Karen, and Terri want to earn
some money to take care of personal expenses during a school trip to
a local zoo. Mr. Klyne has chosen three chores for his children:
mowing the lawn, painting the garage, and washing the family cars. To
avoid anticipated sibling competition, he asked them to submit(secret)
bids for what they feel was a fair pay for each of the three chores. The
understanding then was that all the three children will abide by their
fathers decision as to who gets which chore. Table below summarizes
the bids received. Mow Paint Wash
John $15 $10 $9
Karen $9 $15 $10
Terri $10 $12 $8
Based on this information, how should Mr. Klyne assign the chores?
For the original cost matrix, identify each rows minimum, and subtract it
from all the entries of the row.
From the matrix resulting from above, identify each columns minimum,
and subtract it from all the entries of the column.

Mow Paint Wash Mow Paint Wash


John 6 1 0 John 6 0 0
Karen 0 6 1 Karen 0 5 1
Terri 2 4 0 Terri 2 3 0
Mow Paint Wash Mow Paint Wash
John 6 0 0 John 0 0
Karen 0 5 1 Karen 0
Terri 2 3 0 Terri 0

Thus, the optimal solution is :


John gets to paint the garage.
Karen mow the lawn.
Terri gets to wash the family cars. Z = 10 + 9 + 8 = $27
This amount always equal = ( 9 + 9 + 8) + (0+1+0)=$27.
Draw the minimum number of horizontal and vertical lines(not the
diagonal ones) that are required to cover all the zero elements.

If number of lines = order of the matrix then the optimal assignment


reached.

If number of lines < order then select the smallest uncovered cost
element, subtract it from every uncovered element including itself and
add it to each element at the intersection of two lines.The cost
element through which only one line passes remains unaltered.
Obtained the optimal solution, the job assignments are made on the basis
of zeros allocations.
Locate a row which contains only one zero element. Assign the job
corresponding to this element to its person. Cross out the zeros, if
any, in the column corresponding to the element, which indicates
that the particular job and person are no more available.
Repeat the procedure for each of such rows which contain only one
zero., Similarly perform the same operations w.r.t each column.
If there is no column or row with a single zero element, select them
arbitrarily choose one of the jobs(or person) and make the
assignment.
Repeat until all assignments are made.
Determine the total cost with reference to the original cost table.
The situation gets extended to four children and four chores.Table
below summarizes the cost elements of the problem.
Chore Chore
1 2 3 4 1 2 3 4
1 1 4 6 3 1 0 3 5 2
2 9 7 10 9 2 2 0 3 2
3 4 5 11 7 3 0 1 7 3
4 8 7 8 5 4 3 2 4 0
Chore Chore
1 2 3 4 1 2 3 4
1 0 3 2 2 1 0 3 2 2
2 2 0 0 2 2 2 0 0 2
3 0 1 4 3 3 0 1 4 3
4 3 2 1 0 4 3 2 1 0
Chore Chore
1 2 3 4 1 2 3 4
1 0 2 1 1 1 0
2 3 0 0 2 2 0 0
3 0 0 3 2 3 0 0
4 4 2 1 0 4 0
The optimum solution is:
1-1
2-3
3-2
4-4
The optimal cost is : 1 + 10 + 5 + 5 = $21
Maximization

A marketing manager has 5 salesmen and 5 sales district. Considering


the capabilities of the salesmen and the nature of the district, the
marketing manager estimates that sales per month(in hundred rupees)
for each salesman in each district would be as follows:
Districts
A B C D E
1 32 38 40 28 40
2 40 24 28 21 36
Salesmen

3 41 27 33 30 37
4 22 38 41 36 36
5 29 33 40 35 39

Find the assignment of salesmen to district that will result in maximum sales.
Since Max Z = - Min( - Z ), therefore we first convert this problem into
minimization problem.
A B C D E
1 32 38 40 28 40
2 40 24 28 21 36
3 41 27 33 30 37
4 22 38 41 36 36
A B C D E
5 29 33 40 35 39
1 8 2 0 12 0
2 0 16 12 19 4
3 0 14 8 11 4
4 19 3 0 5 5
5 11 7 0 5 1
A B C D E A B C D E
1 8 0 0 7 0 1 12 0 0 7 0
2 0 14 12 14 4 2 0 10 8 10 0
3 0 12 8 6 4 3 0 8 4 2 0
4 19 1 0 0 5 4 23 1 0 0 5
5 11 5 0 0 1 5 15 5 0 0 1
A B C D E
1 0 0 0
2 0 0 1-B 2-E 3-A 4-C 5-D
3 0 0
Z = 191
4 0 0
5 0 0
Non-linear Programming
Problem

A manufacturing company produces two products: Radios and TV sets.


Sales-price relationships for these two products are given below:

Product Quantity demanded Unit Price


Radios 1500-5p1 p1
TV sets 3800-10p2 p2

The total cost functions for these two products are given by 200x1 + 0.1x12
and 300x2 + 0.1x22 respectively. The production takes place on two
assembly lines. Radio sets are assembled on Assembly line I and TV sets
are assembled on Assembly Line II. Because of the limitations of the
assembly-line capacities, the daily production is limited to no more than 80
radio sets and 60 TV sets. The production of both types of products requires
electronic components. The production of each of these sets requires
five units and six units of electronic equipment components respectively.
The electronic components are supplied by another manufacturer, and
the supply is limited to 600 units per day. The company has 160
employees, I.e, the labour supply amounts to 160 man-days. The
production of one unit of radio set requires 1 man-day of labour,
whereas 2 man-days of labour are required for a TV set. How many
units of radio and TV sets should the company produce in order to
maximize the total profit? Formulate the problem as non-linear
programming problem.Assume that whatever is produced is sold in the
market.
Let x1 and x2 be the quantities of radio sets and TV sets respectively,
manufactured by the firm. Then we are given that
x1 = 1500-5p1 x2 = 3800-10p2
p1 = 300 0.2x1 p2 = 380 0.1x2
The revenue on radio sets is p1x1 and on TV sets is p2x2. Thus the total
revenue R is
R = p1x1 + p2x2 = (300 0.2x1)x1 + (380 0.1x2)x2
= 300x1 0.2x12 + 380x2 0.1x22

C1 = 200x1 + 0.1x12 and C2 = 300x2 + 0.1x22 where C1 and C2 are the


total cost functions of radio sets and TV sets respectively.
The total profit Z is the difference between the total revenue R and the total
cost C = C1 + C2. Thus
Z = R C1 C2 = 100x1 0.3x12 + 80x2 0.2x22
Constraints:
Since no more than 80 radio sets can be assembled on assembly line I and
60 sets on assembly line II per day, x1 80, x2 60.
5x1 + 6x2 600 ( constraint in the daily requirement of the electronic
components.)
Since the number of available employees is limited to 160 man-days
x1 + 2x2 160.
Max Z = 100x1 0.3x12 + 80x2 0.2x22
st x1 80
x2 60
5x1 + 6x2 600
x1 + 2x2 160.
x1, x2 0