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TSL3043 Curriculum Studies


Ee Ker Shyn
Lynster Ong Hui Yi
Roger Toh Chu Lin
Tharshanath A/L Kunakai
In one/two sentence(s), define the term
Curriculum :
Curriculum is a set of courses of studies in an area of
specialization that involves philosophy of the programme,
courses, instructional method, mastery learning skills and etc.
that in line with the country's educational policy.


Curriculum is a plan that involves the use of predetermined

Roger syllabus, programs and courses to achieve goal which is
parallel to our National Philosophy of Education.

- Differentiate the types of curricula.
- Explanation of the characteristics of each types
of curriculum.
Types of Curricula

Types Definition

Overt, explicit, Formal instruction of schooling experience.

planned curriculum Open discussed, consciously planned, usually
written down, presented through instructional
Referring to curriculum documents, textbooks,
films, lesson plans and teaching materials.

Covert, hidden Transmission of norms, values and beliefs in the

curriculum classrom and social environment through
unintended learning experiences.
Kinds of learnings children derive from the very
nature and organizational design of the public
Example: behaviors and attitudes of teachers
and administrators
Types Definition

Null curriculum Content that we do not teach hence giving

pupils message that it is not important in
educational experiences.

Enacted Content that actually delivered during

curriculum instruction and learned by pupils
Taught based on intended/ planned

Concomitant What is taught, or emphasized at home

curriculum Part of a familys experiences, or related
experiences sanctioned by the family.
Types Definition
Electronic curriculum Lessons learned through searching the
Internet for information.
Can be either formal or informal, and lessons
may be overt or covert, good or bad, correct
or incorrect depending on ones views.
Can be meant for recreational purposes or
research for information.

Societal curriculum Massive, ongoing, informal curriculum from

family, peer groups, neighbourhoods,
organisations, mass media that educate
throughout our lives.
Transformed to powerful effects of social
media such as Youtube, Facebook, Twitter
Identify the core curriculum at your school.
Identify the core curriculum in your school:

Overt Curriculum
Follow structure provided in standard document

Covert Curriculum
4S (senyum, sapa, salam, sayang)
Programs during festivals to inculcate moral values
Examples: kind, helpful, patriotisme
Curriculum approaches can be viewed from scientific or
nonscientific perspective. However, some teachers
viewed education as an art, not science.
Discuss to what extent do you agree with the view.
Is teaching a science or an art?
Education is quite scientific and technical as it provides a
structured curriculum with the same syllabus to all the
children in school.
different teachers have different ways or styles of teaching
and connecting to the children
different classes of pupils have different learning styles
able to guide our pupils to think out of the box

The aim of science is to get job done to prove that their

teaching is a success through the results of their pupils.
Viewing education as art, our ultimate goal is to produce a
masterpiece, to help our pupil to achieve their optimum
potentials through formal and hidden curriculum.
Is teaching a science or an art?
Education is a science. This is because an educator has the need to know
the formula for education. Educators need to take knowledge of
curriculum, behavior, philosophy, psychology and other areas.
Educators have meetings to discuss curriculum, common code, standards,
much more. We meet with other educational scientists and debate the
methods being used in school districts far and wide to judge our students
against those throughout the world. When we see that our students are
not meeting the same rigors that other students are meeting, we up the
experiment by providing standardized testing.
The science of teaching is essential knowledge of subject matter,
learning theories and instructional strategies that form the foundation of
teaching it is the mastery of the art of teaching that defines truly
effective teachers.
Even the proponent of the scientific method in education, John Dewey, did
not consider teaching itself to be a science, but a combination of art and
science. He once said If there were an opposition between science and
art, I should be compelled to side with those that assert that education is
an art (Makedon).
Test scores, graduate degrees, and certifications
as much as they appear related to teaching
prowessturn out to be about as useful in
predicting success as having a quarterback throw
footballs into a bunch of garbage cans (Gladwell).

In conclusion, to be an effective teacher, one must

not only stay abreast of the latest research and
findings in the field of education, but must also
continually practice the art of applying this
information, assessing what works and refining
their approach in order to create an effective
learning environment.
Wilson, L.O. (2017). Types of curriculum. The Second Principle.
Retrieved June 14, from
Is teaching an Art or a Science? (2016, April 13). Retrieved June 19,
2017, from
Is Teaching an Art or a Science? (n.d.). Retrieved June 19, 2017,