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GENDER QUOTA and

WOMEN-ONLY ADDITIONAL
SEATS (WOAS)
DR WONG CHIN HUAT, PENANG INSTITUTE
“WOMEN & INCLUSIVE POLITICS FORUM : STATE ASSEMBLIES &
ADDITIONAL SEATS FOR WOMEN” FORUM
MARCH 31, 2017 – JEN HOTEL, PENANG

5% 10.0% 5.0% Federal Ministers & Deputy Ministers Senators Local Councillors (2014) .0% 15.8% 11.6% 10.9% 20.0% 13.0% 13.0% 0.WOMEN IN POLITICAL LEADERSHIP IN MALAYSIA 25.0% 21.

GENDER QUOTA RESISTANCE TO GENDER FORMS & KEY RESISTANCE QUOTA FACTOR • Candidate Quota • Seats in a Constituency: 1 or • Perceived as “Zero-Sum Game” between Genders >1? • Not benefiting parties and politicians • Reserved Seats • Blocking-off Existing Seats or Adding New Seats? .

REMEDY 1: Minimum 30% WOMEN QUOTA IN FPTP women Percentage: Not guaranteed First-Past-The-Post ELECTED VOTES SEATS REPRESENTATIVE VOTERS S CANDIDATES CANDIDATE QUOTA: 30 % of candidates must be women PARTIES .

AMENDMENT TO FEDERAL CONSTITUTION REQUIRED REMEDY 2: 1/3 IN PARTY LIST UNDER MMP Minimum Mixed Member Proportional women Percentage: ≈1/3 x L% Constituen FPTP cy Constituency SEATS (1- VOTE CANDIDATES L%) ELECTED REPRESENTATIVE VOTERS S Party Party list Party VOTE CANDIDATES List SEATS (L CANDIDATE %) QUOTA: 1 out of 3 Party List candidates must be women PARTIES .

AMENDMENT TO FEDERAL CONSTITUTION NOT REQUIRED FOR STATES REMEDY 3: WOMEN-ONLY ADDITIONAL SEATS Minimum Women-Only Additional Seats women Percentage: 15% Constituen FPTP ELECTED MEMBERS cy Constituency SEATS VOTERS VOTE CANDIDATES (85%) LEGISLATURE Constituen Party list Party NOMINATED MEMBERS cy CANDIDATES List VOTE % SEATS (15%) CANDIDATE QUOTA: 100% Women NOMINATED MEMBERS PARTIES ELECTED MEMBERS .

FEDERAL CONSTITUTION – SILENCE ON NOMINATED MEMBERS .

“NOMINATED MEMBERS” IN SABAH ASSEMBLY .

PENANG CONSTITUTION – ADDING “NOMINATED MEMBERS” Amendment to have 15% “nominated members” may be as simple as The Legislative Assembly shall consist of forty members elected in accordance with the provisions of the Federal Constitution and seven nominated members appointed in manner as the Legislative Assembly may by law provide. .

SELANGOR CONSTITUTION – ADDING “NOMINATED MEMBERS” Amendment to have “nominated members” may be as simple as (1) The Legislative Assembly shall consist of such number of elected members and nominated members as the Legislature may by law provide. . (2) The total number of elected members and nominated members of the Legislative Assembly shall be the same as or a multiple of the number of the Federal Constituencies into which the state is divided under Article 116 of the Federal Constitution.

00% 27.PENANG: 15% WOMEN-ONLY ADDITIONAL SEATS Current Addition New Total Total FPTP constituency Seats 40 40 Women-only 7 7 non-constituency seats Total 40 7 47 Women ADUNs 6 7 13 Women % 15.66% (Imagining A Replay of GE14) Pakatan Rakyat/Harapan (67%) 30 5 35 Barisan Nasional (32%) 10 2 12 .

SELANGOR: 15% WOMEN-ONLY ADDITIONAL SEATS Current Total Addition New Total FPTP constituency Seats 56 56 Women-only 9 9 non-constituency seats Total 56 9 65 Women ADUNs 14 9 23 Women % 25.00% 35.38% (Imagining A Replay of GE14) Pakatan Rakyat/Harapan 44 5 49 (60% V) Barisan Nasional (39% V) 12 4 16 .