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Unit 1. Health , Safety and welfare in
construction and the Built Environment
The Health and Safety at Work Act 1974

Specific responsibilities are listed in the HASAWA under the

general duties to employees and are as follows:
1. To ensure the health and safety of all employees.
2. To provide safe systems of work, safe handling, storage and
transport, information training and supervision, a safe place of
work access and a safe environment.
3. To provide a health and safety policy if there are five or more
4. To observe the regulations on union appointed safety
5. To consult and cooperate with employees on safety measures.
6. To observe the regulations on safety committees.
7. Not to charge for anything provided for safety.
The Health and Safety at Work Act 1974

Health & Safety Executive

The Health & Safety Executive (HSE) was set up to
regulate and control health and safety .
HSE has many divisions that cover industries from
nuclear power, agriculture, railways, construction etc.
HSE has a wide role to play in controlling health and
safety in construction. Its responsibilities are:
to advise
to inspect
to enforce.
Health & Safety Executive is a body set up
by the Health and Safety Commission acting
under the Health and Safety at Work Act.
The Health and Safety at Work Act 1974
HSE is empowered to inspect any construction site that has been notified to it
under the notification rules associated with the F10 .

An official form that is completed by the contractor and sent to the HSE to advise it that works are about to commence. It contains:
Work description, site location, duration and who will be working on it.

The HSE can enforce health and safety legislation in two ways:
By an improvement notice

It tells the receiver that an incident has been found during an inspection that requires correcting within a certain time
as it has the potential to cause harm (although is not currently serious enough to cause immediate injury).

Prohibition notice.
Is served when there is a serious and imminent danger to persons who might be harmed. Work or activity is stopped
immediately and cannot be restarted until the defect is corrected.

The HSE offers and promotes health and safety information.

The HSE also carries out extensive inspections and investigations following an
accident, especially fatal accidents.
Construction (Design and Management) Regulation (CDM) 2015
It explains the duties of individuals; what they should do to comply with the law. Any
actions taken should always be proportionate to the risks in the construction project.
CDM duty holders:

The client

The person who will ultimately own the constructed building / project and who
pays for the work.

The client have to make suitable arrangements for managing a project which
includes the appointment of duty holders , allocation of sufficient time and

The client have make sure that:

relevant information is prepared and provided to other duty holders.
Make sure that the principal designer and principal contractor carry out their duties.
Welfare facilities are provided.

Reference paragraphs 2352.

Construction (Design and Management) Regulation (CDM) 2015

Domestic clients

People who have construction work carried out at their own

house or at the house of a family member that is not done as
part of a business, whether for profit or not.

Their duties as clients are normally transferred to:

a) the contractor on a single contractor project
b) the principal contractor on a project involving more than one
)The domestic client can choose to have a written agreement
with the principal designer to carry out the client duties.
Ref: paragraphs 5356
Construction (Design and Management) Regulation (CDM) 2015


Is referred to those who as part of a business ;prepare or modify designs for

a building, product or system relating to construction work.

When preparing or modifying designs, to eliminate, reduce or control

foreseeable risks that may arise during:
maintenance and use of a building once it is built.

Provide information to other members of the project team to help

them fulfill their duties.
Ref paragraphs 7293
Construction (Design and Management) Regulation (CDM) 2015
Principal designers

Designers appointed by the client in projects involving more than one contractor.
They can be an organization / individual with sufficient knowledge, experience
and ability to carry out the role.

Plan, manage, monitor and coordinate health and safety in the

pre-construction phase of a project which includes:
identifying, eliminating or controlling foreseeable risks
ensuring designers carry out their duties.
Prepare and provide relevant information to other duty holders.
Provide relevant information to the principal contractor to help
them plan, manage, monitor and coordinate health and safety
in the construction phase.
Ref. paragraphs 94115
Construction (Design and Management) Regulation (CDM) 2015

Principal contractors

The are main contractors appointed by the client to coordinate the

construction phase of a project where it involves more than one contractor.

Plan, manage, monitor and coordinate health and safety in the construction phase of a
project. This includes:
liaising with the client and principal designer;
preparing the construction phase plan;
organizing cooperation between contractors and coordinating their work.

suitable site inductions are provided;
reasonable steps are taken to prevent unauthorized access;
workers are consulted and engaged in securing their health and safety; and
welfare facilities are provided.

Ref. paragraphs 110146

Construction (Design and Management) Regulation (CDM) 2015


Those who do the actual construction work and can be either an individual
or a company.

Plan, manage and monitor construction work under their control so

that it is carried out without risks to health and safety.

For projects involving more than one contractor, coordinate their

activities with others in the project team in particular, comply with
directions given to them by the principal designer or principal contractor.

For single-contractor projects, prepare a construction phase plan.

Ref. paragraphs 147179

Construction (Design and Management) Regulation (CDM) 2015
Planning supervisor

Is an individual that is given specific roles and responsibilities on planning

the health and safety before, during and after the completion of the work.

To ensure that the HSE is notified of the project (F10).

F10 The official document that informs the HSE The clients and principal contractors names
that a company is undertaking a project. also appear on the form. Indeed, the latter
two have to sign it, which is then sent to the

To ensure that there is cooperation between designers if there is more

than one on the and that they comply with their duties, which are to:
make the client aware of their duties
assess the risks within the design
provide adequate information on the risks (assessments)
To make sure that the pre-tender health and safety plan is prepared.
To advise the client.
To check the health and safety file if is prepared and handed over to the
Construction (Design and Management) Regulation (CDM) 2015


People who work for or under the control of contractors on a construction site.

They must:
be consulted about matters which affect their health, safety and
take care of their own health and safety and others who may be
affected by their actions.
report anything they see which is likely to endanger either their own
or others health and safety.
cooperate with their employer, fellow workers, contractors and other
duty holders.
Construction (Design and Management) Regulation (CDM) 2015

Key elements to secure health and safety in construction.

a) managing the risks by applying the general principles of

b) appointing the right people/ organization.
c) making sure all duty holders have the information,
instruction, training and supervision that they need to
carry out their jobs in a way that secures health and safety.
d) duty holders cooperation and communication with each
other and coordinating their work.
e) consulting workers and engaging them in promotion
and developing of effective measures to secure health,
safety and welfare.
Work at Height Regulations 2015

Work at height means work in any place where, if

there were no precautions in place, a person could
fall a distance liable to cause personal injury.
E.g you are working at height if you:
are working on a ladder or a flat roof
could fall through a fragile surface
could fall into an opening in a floor or a hole in the ground.
Working at Height Act 2005
Employer`s duties
Plan, Supervise and Check
Before working at height you
must work through these
simple steps:
avoid work at height where it is
reasonably practicable to do so.
where work at height cannot be
avoided, prevent falls using either
an existing place of work that is
already safe or the right type of
minimize the distance and
consequences of a fall, by using
the right type of equipment where
the risk cannot be eliminated.
Working at Height Act 2005
Employee`s duties Designers & architecture`s duties
Management of Health, Safety and Welfare Regulations 1999

It was introduced to reinforce the message of risk

assessment through the five steps to risk assessment.
The index for the regulations covers:
health and safety arrangements, e.g. first aid provision.
the surveillance of employees health, e.g. hearing tests.
informing employees on safety aspects.
judging the capabilities of employees, e.g. work at height
risk assessment processes not to endanger employees.
the protection of people under 18 years of age.
provision for expectant mothers.
temporary workers.
Management of Health, Safety and Welfare Regulations 1999

Employees duties:
The employees duties under these regulations are to: use any plant or
machinery provided in accordance with any training in its use

To inform their employer of a work situation that poses a serious and

imminent danger to employees

To inform the employer on any safety protection measure or arrangement

that may be defective
Construction (Health, Safety and Welfare) Regulations 1996
This regulations were introduced in order minimize the high level of accidents that occurs year on year.
Employers duties

That they should ensure that construction The movement of traffic on construction
workplaces are safe. sites, both on and off, must be
Measures must be in place to prevent operatives
Emergency routes and procedures must
be temporarily put into place while the
Falling objects must be prevented from falling
by the use of toe boards, netting or a physical
building is incomplete.
barrier. Suitable welfare facilities must be
provided for workers.
The employer must undertake measures with
regard to excavations, their support and Suitable lighting and fresh air must be
prevention of people and plant from falling into the
provided to workplaces.

Working above water must have special To undertake some specific safety
measures in place to prevent an employee inspections, e.g. scaffolds and
drowning. excavations.
The Reporting of Injuries, Diseases and Dangerous Occurrences
Regulations 1995 (RIDDOR)
It imposes a legal duty on all employers, employees and
the self-employed.
Under this regulations you must report death at work,
major/minor injuries that result in three or more days
absence from work, work-related diseases and near
It is mandatory for all on-site workers to abide by these
The Control of Substance Hazards to Health regulations (COSHH ) 2002

It covers the risks to employees and other people from

exposure to harmful substances, in connection with any
work activity under employers control.
The main objective of the regulations is to reduce
occupational ill/poor health by setting out a simple
framework for controlling hazardous substances in the
Some examples of materials which come under thism
legislation are glues, turpentine, thinners and aerosols