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COMIMSA Module 9

Module 9

Weld and Base Metal


Discontinuities
COMIMSA Module 9

1. Introduction
Discontinuities are imperfection in welds or base metals.

Discontinuities and defect should be carefully distinguished by WI.

A discontinuity becomes a defect when it exceeds acceptable limits


imposed by acceptance standards.

The criteria used to discriminate between acceptable imperfections and


defects are described in the following terms:

Type of discontinuity
Size of discontinuity
Location of discontinuity
COMIMSA Module 9

2. Types of Discontinuities
Discontinuities have been categorized as listed below:

1) Porosity 14) Weld reinforcement


2) Inclusions, both metallic and no metallic 15) Spatter
3) Underfill 16) Dimensional
4) Incomplete fusion
5) Incomplete joint penetration
6) Overlap
7) Undercut
8) Lamination and delamination
9) Seams and laps
10) Lamellar tearing
11) Crack
12) Arc strike
13) Porosity
COMIMSA Module 9

2. Type of discontinuities

Cracks

Cracks can occur in the weld or base metal or both, when localized

stress exceed the strength of material. Cracking is associated with

discontinuities . Can be classified as either hot or cold cracks.

Cracks are the most severe discontinuity. They have a very sharp end

condition and are likely to propagate.

Most welding codes disallow cracks.


COMIMSA Module 9

2. Type of discontinuities

Cracks

Cracking is generally associated with discontinuities in welds and base

metals with notches, with high residual stresses, and often with hydrogen

embrittlement .
COMIMSA Module 9

2. Type of discontinuities

Cracks

Cracks include hot cracks and cold cracks


Longitudinal
Transverse
Crater
Throat
Toe
Root
Underbead and HAZ
COMIMSA Module 9

2. Type of discontinuities

Cracks

Hot Cracks

Develop at high temperatures

Commonly form on preferential solidification of alloys of the metal


near to the melting point

Propagate between the grains

Crater cracks, root cracks


COMIMSA Module 9

2. Type of discontinuities

Cracks

Cold Cracks

Develop after solidification is complete

Service related

Delayed cracks are commonly caused by the presence of hydrogen


in a crack susceptible microstructure that is subjected to some
applied stress.

Cold cracks may propagate either through or between the grains.

Toe cracks, underbead cracks


COMIMSA Module 9

2. Type of discontinuities

Cracks

Underbead cracks

Cold cracks that form in the HAZ of the base metal when three
simultaneous conditions are present:
1) Hydrogen

2) High Strength Material.

3) High residual stress.


COMIMSA Module 9

2. Type of discontinuities

Cracks
COMIMSA Module 9

2. Type of discontinuities

Cracks
COMIMSA Module 9

2. Type of discontinuities

Cracks
COMIMSA Module 9

2. Type of discontinuities

Incomplete fusion

Weld discontinuity in which fusion

did not occur between weld metal

and fusion faces or adjoining weld

beads. Is the failure of liquid weld

metal to fuse into the groove face of

the joint or to adjacent weld beads.

Is caused by insufficient application

of heat to all face of the joint and

presence of oxides
COMIMSA Module 9

2. Type of discontinuities

Incomplete fusion
COMIMSA Module 9

2. Type of discontinuities

Incomplete Joint penetration

Results when the weld metal fails

to extend completely through the

joint thickness. Depends upon the

accessibility of the heat source and

filler rod to the face area, can also

result from improper joint designs.


COMIMSA Module 9

2. Type of discontinuities

Incomplete Joint penetration


COMIMSA Module 9

2. Type of discontinuities

Inclusions

Results when solid materials are trapped in solidifying. Because

inclusions interrupt the continuity of the weld, the presence of inclusions

will result some loss of structural integrity.

Nonmetallic (slag and oxides) inclusions

Metallic inclusions (Tungsten)


COMIMSA Module 9

2. Type of discontinuities

Inclusions
COMIMSA Module 9

2. Type of discontinuities

Inclusions
COMIMSA Module 9

2. Types of Discontinuities

Porosity

Results when gas is trapped in solidifying metal

The gas come from:

Released from chemical reactions

Faulty or dirty materials


COMIMSA Module 9

2. Types of Discontinuities

Porosity

Porosity forms:

Uniformly scattered faulty materials or poor technique

Cluster Improper termination or termination of the weld

Cylindrical, Piping porosity or wormholes

Aligned Contamination triggered a chemical reaction

Elongated
COMIMSA Module 9

2. Types of Discontinuities
Porosity

Proper welding technique avoids gas formation and entrapment.

The presence of porosity indicates that :

The welding process is not been properly controlled

That the base metal and welding fluxes are contaminated with gas
producing elements
COMIMSA Module 9

2. Type of discontinuities

Porosity
COMIMSA Module 9

2. Type of discontinuities

Porosity
COMIMSA Module 9

2. Type of discontinuities

Porosity
COMIMSA Module 9

2. Type of discontinuities
Undercut
Is a surface discontinuity that

results from melting of the base

metal at either the weld toe or

weld root. It takes the form of a

mechanical notch at these

locations. Undercut is caused by

the application of excessive heat

(excessive weld current) or

improper electrode manipulation,

and excessive travel speed


COMIMSA Module 9

2. Type of discontinuities

Underfill

Is a depression on the face

or root surface of the weld

below the surface plane of

the adjacent base metal. Is

fail of welder or welding.

On pipe.
COMIMSA Module 9

2. Type of discontinuities

Overlap
Is the protrusion of weld metal

beyond the toe or weld root of the

weld joint without fusion. This

discontinuity is similar to

incomplete fusion the difference

is the location where the fusion

failed to take place, Excessive

weld metal is referred to as

excess weld reinforcement


COMIMSA Module 9

2. Type of discontinuities

Convexity
This particular weld discontinuity

applies only to fillet welds.

Is the maximum distance from

the face of a convex fillet weld

perpendicular to a line joining the

weld toes. Occurs to welding

travel speed are to slow and too

little heat or incorrect

manipulation of the electrode.


COMIMSA Module 9

2. Type of discontinuities

Weld Reinforcement
Describes a condition which can

only be present in a groove weld.

As well as have two other terms:

Face reinforcement and root

reinforcement.
COMIMSA Module 9

2. Type of discontinuities

Arc Strike
Represent unintentional melting or heating outside the intended weld
deposit area. Caused by the welding arc or improperly secured work
connection during welding.

Caused by the welding arc or improperly secured work connection


during welding.

The result is a small, remelted area that can be source of


undercutting, hardening, or localized cracking, depending upon the
metal composition.

Arc strikes represent a dangerous condition that can result in


catastrophic failure of the weldments
COMIMSA Module 9

2. Type of discontinuities

Spatter
Metal particles expelled during

fusion welding that do not form a

part of the weld.

Large globules of spatter may

have a sufficient heat to cause a

localized heat-affected zone on

the base metal surface similar to

the affect of an arc strike


COMIMSA Module 9

2. Type of discontinuities

Lamination and delamination

Are flat, generally elongated, planar base metal discontinuities found near the

center of the products rolled.

Seam and laps

Differ from the lamination in that they always appear on the rolled surfaces.

Welding over seams and laps can cause cracking.


COMIMSA Module 9

2. Type of discontinuities

Lamination and delamination


COMIMSA Module 9

2. Type of discontinuities

Lamellar Tearing

Is a fracture separation in heavy weldments, found within or just beneath

the HAZ of thick plates that were not adequately refined by steel mill.

Massive welds that are poorly located, transmit weld shrinkage stresses

into the plate in its weakest direction. This create tears parallel to the

surface, which then are linked together by shear fractures to form steps

connected by risers perpendicular to surface. The phenomenon is called

lamellar tearing.
COMIMSA Module 9

2. Type of discontinuities

Lamellar Tearing
COMIMSA Module 9

2. Type of discontinuities

Lamellar Tearing
The engineer should change the joint design to bring the shrinkage

stresses more in line with the rolling direction


COMIMSA Module 9

2. Type of discontinuities

Discontinuities in Laser and Electron Beam Welding


These discontinuities are due to the narrow and deep weld profiles

produced by these process as well as the high travel speeds used.