Está en la página 1de 39

COMIMSA Module 8

Module 8
Welding Metallurgy for the
Welding Inspector
COMIMSA Module 8

1. Introduction

Metallurgy

Is the science that deals with the internal structure of metals and the
relationship between those structures and the properties exhibited by
metals.
COMIMSA Module 8

Basic Metal Structures


Solids vs Liquids

Solids Liquids

Energy (-) Energy (+)

Atoms in a fixed position Free to move

Each atom has a specific home


held in place by the attracting and
repelling forces

The atomic configuration determines


their physical, mechanical, and
electrical properties
COMIMSA Module 8
COMIMSA Module 8

Basic Metal Structures

The atoms are not however stationary in this positions. In reality they tend
to vibrate about an equilibrium position to maintain a balanced spacing.

Any attempt to force to force the atoms closer together will be counteracted
by repulsive forces which increase as the atoms are pushed closer
together.

Similary, any attempt to pull the atoms further apart will result in a
counteracting attractive force. These attractive forces, however, tend to
decrease as the atoms are pulled further apart
COMIMSA Module 8

Basic Metal Structures

The atoms exhibit a very specific spacing at given temperture.


The internal energy of a metal is increased when its temperature is raised.
The atoms to vibrate more which increases their interatomic spacing

The metal to expand,,, if heat is elevated the vibration and spacing


continue increase,, the solid metal then transforms into a liquid
COMIMSA Module 8

The portion heated expands and is restrained


by the portion no heated, the bar tend to bend

Begins to cool and shrink

Residual stresses
COMIMSA Module 8
Basic Metal Structures
Crystal Structures

The smallest number of atoms that can completely describe their orderly
arrangement is referred as a unit celd

When a metal solidifies, it always does so in a crystalline pattern. The most


common crystal structures, or phases are:

1) Body Centered Cubic (bcc) -


iron, carbon steels, Cr, Mo,
W
2) Face Centered Cubic (fcc) -
Al, Cu, Ni, austenitic SS.

3) Hexagonal close packed (hcp) -


Zn, Cd, Mg
COMIMSA Module 8

Basic Metal Structures

Solidification of metals
COMIMSA Module 8
COMIMSA Module 8

Basic Metal Structures

Alloying

The proprieties of metallic elements can be altered by the addition of other


elements, wich may be or not metallic

Example; metallic zinc + metal cooper = the alloy brass

Nonmetal carbon is one of the alloying elements added to iron to form the
alloy steel
COMIMSA Module 8

Basic Metal Structures

Alloying
COMIMSA Module 8

Basic Metal Structures


Microestructural Constituents
of Carbon Steel
COMIMSA Module 8

Basic Metal Structures


Microestructural Constituents of Carbon Steel

Welds Under the Microscope


Steel exist in several phases, typically Austenite, ferrite, perlite, bainite,
and martensite. See, Figures 7.5 7.7.
COMIMSA Module 8

Basic Metal Structures

Microestructural Constituents of Carbon Steel

Welds Under the Microscope

By altering the cooling rate

from the austenite range

we can affect the phases

of steel
COMIMSA Module 8
COMIMSA Module 8

Metallurgical Considerations for Welding

The critical cooling

rate is governed by the

carbon content, and

for alloy steels, by their

additional chemical

composition.
COMIMSA Module 8

Metallurgical Considerations for Welding

Heat treatments

Furnace Oil Water Brine


Normalize Quench Quench Quench
Anneal

(-) (+)
Cooling Rate from austenizing temperature

Quenching the steel results in a martensitic structure.

Slow cooling forms Ferrite and Perlite.

Faster cooling forms Bainite


COMIMSA Module 8

Metallurgical Considerations for Welding

Heat treatments
Steels quenched to form martensite usually require a tempering heat
treatment to lower their hardness and strength, and improve ductility and
toughness.
COMIMSA Module 8

Metallurgical Considerations for Welding

Heat treatments

Cooling Rate

Slow Fast

Hardness (+)

Strength (+)

Ductility (-)

Toughness (-)

Susceptibility (+)
to crack
COMIMSA Module 8

Metallurgical Considerations for Welding

Welding Chemistry of Specific Base Metals

When the carbon content increases, weldability decreases

0.15 to 0.30 %C - Easily Weldable

About above 0.30 %C - More difficult to weld and may require:

Weldability also decreases with alloying elements such as Cr, Mo, Ni,
may require the use of:

Preheat
Interpass temperature control
PWHT
COMIMSA Module 8

Metallurgical Considerations for Welding

Carbon Equivalent Calculations (CE)

CE= %C + %Mn + %Si + %Cr + %Mo + %Ni +%Cu


6 5 15

CE >0.40 Preheat 200 400 F (93 204 C)

Low Hydrogen Electrodes

CE >0.60 Preheat 400 700 F (204 - 370 C)

Low Hydrogen Electrodes

There are many different CE formulas


COMIMSA Module 8

Metallurgical Considerations for Welding

Heat Affected Zone (HAZ)

Factors that affect the HAZ properties:

Preheat (Figure 8.15)


Heat Input

Heat Input is the amount of energy supplied by the welding arc to heat the
base metal

Heat Input, Joules/in = Welding current x Welding Voltage x 60


travel speed, in/min

As the heat input increase the cooling rate decreases.


COMIMSA Module 8

Carbono equivalente
COMIMSA Module 8

Metallurgical Considerations for Welding


Thermal Expansion

It is often necessary to remove these residual stresses by a PWHT


referred to as stress relief

There are three methods of removing weld stresses:

1) Thermal Treatment Approved by Code

2) Peening

3) Vibratory Stress Relief


COMIMSA Module 8

Metallurgical Considerations for Welding


Thermal Expansion

1) Thermal Stress Relief

The part is heated uniformly

Temperature below its transformation temperature

Held for a prescribed time period

Slow uniform cooling to room temperature

Relax residual stress because the materials strength is reduced


COMIMSA Module 8

Metallurgical Considerations for Welding


Thermal Expansion

2) Peening
Mechanical distortion of the weld
bead trough mechanical means

Usually when the metal is still


hot

Only on the intermediate layers

Should not be done on the root


pass (crack) nor final pass of a
weld (interfere with later VI)
COMIMSA Module 8

Metallurgical Considerations for Welding


Thermal Expansion

3) Vibratory Stress Relief

Imparts high vibratory vibrational energy into the part

Prevents the buildup of stresses in the weldment while welding or

Removes the stresses after welding


COMIMSA Module 8

Metallurgical Considerations for Welding


Thermal Expansion

Preheat
One technique that may be used to reduce the need for PWHT is preheat
Slows cooling rate

May eliminate the need for PWHT

More ductile structure with lower residual stresses

Reduce or eliminate hot cracking

Aids in removing moisture


Helps to remove Hydrogen

Retards the formation of Martensite


COMIMSA Module 8

Metallurgical Considerations for Welding

Diffusion
Under certain conditions, even atoms in the solid state can change
positions.These changes of atom position in the solid position in the solid
state are referred as diffusion.

Example Pb and Au

Example Hydrogen - underbead or delayed cracking


COMIMSA Module 8

Metallurgical Considerations for Welding


COMIMSA Module 8

Welding Metallurgy of Commonly Used Materials

Stainless Steel

In severe corrosion environments, many of the SS corrode at very high rates

SS are defined as having at least 12% Cr.

The four main classes of SS are:


Ferritic

Martensitic

Austenitic

Precipitation Hardening (PH)


COMIMSA Module 8

Welding Metallurgy of Commonly Used Materials

Stainless Steel

Austenitic Grades

Very Weldable with available filler metal composition.


Very Weldable with available filler metal composition.Can be subject to
short cracking which occurs when metal is very hot this problem is
solved by controlling the composition of the base and filler metal to
promote the formation of delta ferrite phase.

Typically cracking will be avoided by selecting filler metals with a delta


ferrite percent of 4 10%. This percentage is often referred as ferrite
number and can be measured using the magnetic gauge.
COMIMSA Module 8

Welding Metallurgy of Commonly Used Materials

Stainless Steel

Austenitic Grades

One of the common problems to be encountered when welding


austenitic grades is referred to as carbide precipitation, or
sensitization.

800 1600 F (427 870 C) form Chromium carbides.

Most severe temperature for their formation is about 1250 F (677 C)

This carbides are typically found along the grain boundaries of the
structure
COMIMSA Module 8

Welding Metallurgy of Commonly Used Materials

Stainless Steel

Austenitic Grades

Reduction of Chromium content within the grain Chromium depletion .

In certain corrosive enviroments, the edges of the grain corrode at a high


rate Intergranular attack .
COMIMSA Module 8

Welding Metallurgy of Commonly Used Materials

Stainless Steel

Austenitic Grades

Sensitization can be attacked by several methods:


Reheat Treating
Addition of stabilizers to the base and filler metals Ti (321) and Nb
(347).

Reduction of carbon content in the base and filler metals - L %C


as less as 0.03.
COMIMSA Module 8

Welding Metallurgy of Commonly Used Materials

Stainless Steel

Ferritic Grades

Weldable with the proper filler metals

Martensitic Grades

More difficult to weld and often require special preheating and PWHT.

PH Stainless Steels

Weldable, but attention must be given to the changes in mechanical


properties caused by welding.
COMIMSA Module 8

Welding Metallurgy of Commonly Used Materials

Welding Chemistry of Aluminum Alloys

Very tenacious oxide film on their surfaces protect against corrosion.

The same oxide interfere with the joining process.

Alternating current is used.

Reformation of oxide film is avoided by shielding with He, or Ar gas.


COMIMSA Module 8

Welding Metallurgy of Commonly Used Materials

Welding Chemistry of Cooper Alloys


Unlike steel, pure cooper and many of its alloys can not be hardened by
quench and temper by heat treatment.

Usually hardened by cold work

Welding softens the cold worked material

One of the major problems when welding cooper and its alloys is due to
their relative low melt point and very high metal conductivity.
Considerable heat must be applied to the metal to overcome its loss
through conductivity, and the relatively low melting point often results in
the metal melting earlier than expected and flowing out of the weld joint.