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Networking protocols

Unit objective:
Identify TCP/IP properties, and identify
common ports and protocols
Topic A
Topic A: TCP/IP
Topic B: Ports and protocols
Network protocols
TCP/IP
IPX/SPX
AppleTalk
Addressing
MAC address
IPv4 address
IPv6 address
Character-based names
MAC address
Also known as:
Physical address
Adapter address
Ethernet address
Unique value:
Expressed as 6 pairs of hexadecimal
numbers
Often separated by hyphens or colons

continued
MAC address, continued
Address contains:
Manufacturer ID
Unique number
MAC addresses dont change
Used only on local link
IPv4
Internet standard since 1981
Binary data: Two states: on (1); off (0)
Byte (octet): A string of 8 bits
IPv4 address: 32 bits divided into 4
octets
Two notations for IPv4
Binary:
11001010 00101101 11100001 00001111
Decimal: 202.45.225.15

continued
IPv4, continued
Can uniquely identify up to 232
addresses
IP addresses composed of two parts
Network ID
Host ID
No two computers on the same
network can have the same host ID
Two computers on different networks
can have the same host ID
Classful IPv4 addresses
Class Addresses Description
A 1.0.0.0 First octet: network ID
126.0.0.0 Last 3 octets: host ID
Default subnet mask: 255.0.0.0
B 128.0.0.0 First 2 octets: network ID
191.255.0.0 Last 2 octets: host ID
Default subnet mask: 255.255.0.0
C 192.0.0.0 First 3 octets: network ID
223.255.255.0 Last octet: host ID
Default subnet mask:
255.255.255.0
D 224.0.0.0 Multicasting addresses
239.0.0.0
E 240.0.0.0 Experimental use
255.0.0.0
APIPA
Automatic Private IP Addressing
169.254.0.0
Windows OSs and Windows Server
2000 forward autogenerate APIPA
addresses
Subnet masks
Used to identify network ID and
host ID portions of IP address
IP address Subnet mask Network ID Host ID

192.168.100.33 255.255.255.0 192.168.100.0 0.0.0.33

172.16.43.207 255.255.0.0 172.16.0.0 0.0.43.207


Network IDs
Always contiguous and start on the left
Valid subnet masks Invalid subnet masks
255.0.0.0 0.255.255.255
255.255.0.0 255.0.255.0

255.255.255.0 255.255.0.255
Default gateway
Term for TCP/IP router
Hosts use default gateway to deliver
packets to remote networks
Routing example
IPv6
Internet Protocol version 6
Uses 128-bit addresses
Provides 2128 addresses
Eight 16-bit fields
Write as 8 groups of 4 numbers in
hexadecimal notation, separated by colons
Replace group of all zeros with 2 colons
Only 1 :: can be used per address
Can drop leading zeros in a field
All fields require at least one number, except for
the :: notation
continued
IPv6, continued
Network portion indicated by a slash
followed by number of bits in address that
are assigned to network portion
/48
/64
Loopback address is a localhost address
IPv6 loopback address can be written
as ::1/128
fe80::/10 is equivalent to the IPv4
169.254.0.0
IPv6 address types
Link-local
IPv6 version of IPv4s APIPA
Self-assigned using Neighbor Discovery
process
Starts with fe80::
Site-local
IPv6 version of IPv4 private address
Begins with FE
C to F for the third hex digitFEC, FED,
FEE, or FEF
continued
IPv6 address types, continued
Global unicast
IPv6 version of an IPv4 public address
Identified for a single interface
Routable and reachable on IPv6 Internet
First 3 bits are 001 in binary
All global addresses start with the binary values
001 (2000::/3) through 111 (E000::/3)
Exception: FF00::/8, reserved for multicasts
Following 48 bits designate global routing prefix
Next 16 bits designate subnet ID
Last 64 bits identify individual network node

continued
IPv6 address types, continued
Multicast
Sends information or services to all interfaces
that are defined as members of multicast group
First 16 bits, ff00n = multicast address
Anycast
New, unique type of address in IPv6
Cross between unicast and multicast
Identifies a group of interfaces
Packets are delivered to nearest interface as
identified by routing protocols distance
measurement
IPv6 address scopes
Define regions
Also known as spans
Unique identifiers of an interface
Scopes include
Link-local
Site network
Global network
A device usually has a link-local address
and either a site-local or global address
Network address can be assigned to a
scope zone
Zone index suffix follows %
DHCP and DHCPv6
Dynamic Host Configuration Protocol
Automated mechanism to assign IP
addresses to clients
Two versions
Original DHCP used for IPv4 addressing
DHCPv6 used for IPv6 addressing
Can hand out IP addresses plus other
TCP/IP configuration parameters
Alternative is either stateless auto-
configuration (IPv6) or static configuration
Fully qualified domain names (FQDNs)
Hierarchical naming scheme:
Domain Name System (DNS)
Berkeley Internet Name Domain (BIND)
Three parts:
Host name
Domain name
Top-level domain name
Example:
www.microsoft.com
Subdomains allowed:
server1.corporate.microsoft.com
Domain Name System (DNS)
Server with database matching host
names to IP addresses
DNS name has three parts
Computer name
Domain name
Top-level domain name
Can also have subdomains to further
divide
Top-level domains
Name resolution
DNS servers
Server cache
Client cache
Topic B
Topic A: TCP/IP
Topic B: Ports and protocols
Network communication protocols
Establish the rules and formats that
are followed for communication
between networks and nodes
Format data into packets
Media access method sends packets
TCP
Standard protocol used to transmit
information across the Internet
Provides
Acknowledged, connection-oriented
communications
Guaranteed delivery
Proper sequencing
Data integrity checks
Internet Protocol (IP)
Unreliable connectionless protocol
Functions at the OSI Network layer
Sole function is to transmit TCP, UDP, and
other, higher-level-protocol packets
Responsible for logical addressing of each
outgoing packet
Verifies that incoming packets are
addressed to computer
Must have a Transport-layer service to work
with
UDP
User Datagram Protocol
Connectionless, unacknowledged
communications
Simply sends information
Not as commonly used as TCP
Operates at OSI Transport layer
Using IP, adds information about
source and destination socket
identifiers
Used for streaming audio and video
Protocols
FTP VoIP protocols
TFTP SSH
SFTP LDAP
DHCP SMB
DNS E-mail protocols:
HTTP SMTP, POP3, IMAP4
HTTPS SNMP
Telnet
Port addresses
16-bit integer, ranging from 0 to 65535
Three types:
Port type Description

Well-known Port numbers 0 to 1023 are reserved for privileged services.


ports

Registered These port numbers range from 1024 through 49151. Port 1024
ports is reserved for TCP and UDP and shouldnt be used. A list of
registered ports can be found on the IANA Web site:
www.iana.org/assignments/port-numbers

Dynamic ports A short-lived (dynamic) port is a Transport-protocol port for IP


communications. It is allocated automatically by the TCP/IP
stack software from the IANA-suggested range of 49152 to
65535. Dynamic ports are typically used by TCP, UDP, or the
Stream Control Transmission Protocol (SCTP).

IP address + port number = socket


Service port numbers
Service Ports Service Ports
FTP TCP 21, 20 HTTP TCP 80
SSH TCP 22 POP3 TCP 110
UDP 22
NNTP TCP 119
Telnet TCP 23
NTP UDP 123
SMTP TCP 25
IMAP TCP 143
DNS TCP 53
UDP 143
UDP 53
SNMP TCP 161
BOOTP and UDP 67, 68
UDP 161
DHCP
Secure TCP 443
Trivial FTP UDP 69
HTTP
(TFTP)
RDP TCP 3389
Unit summary
Identified TCP/IP properties, and
identified common ports and protocols