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Slide 9.

Transduction between oscillations of the tympanic membrane and


Figure 9.2
displacement of the basilar membrane
Source: Carlson (1994, Fig. 7.5, p.186). Reprinted by permission of Pearson Education, Inc.

Frederick Toates, Biological Psychology, 3rd Edition, Pearson Education Limited 2011
Slide 9.2

Frequency of sound as a function of the location on the basilar membrane


Figure 9.3
that is most responsive to that frequency
Frederick Toates, Biological Psychology, 3rd Edition, Pearson Education Limited 2011
Slide 9.3

Points of displacement of the basilar membrane caused by tones of


Figure 9.4
frequency (a) F1, (b) F2 and (c) F1 and F2 simultaneously
Frederick Toates, Biological Psychology, 3rd Edition, Pearson Education Limited 2011
Slide 9.4

Figure 9.7 Routes of auditory information


Source: based on Le Doux (1994)

Frederick Toates, Biological Psychology, 3rd Edition, Pearson Education Limited 2011
Slide 9.5

Relation between intensity and afferent signal (a) before and (b) after
Figure 9.9
modulation
Frederick Toates, Biological Psychology, 3rd Edition, Pearson Education Limited 2011
Slide 9.6

Figure 9.12 Receptive fields of some sensory neurons

Frederick Toates, Biological Psychology, 3rd Edition, Pearson Education Limited 2011
Slide 9.7

Variation in two-point threshold over the body surface. Increasing values


Figure 9.15
represent increasing distances between points before two points can be
discriminated
Source: Weinstein (1968) in The Skin Senses, edited by D.R. Kenshalo, Fig. 10.5, p. 203. Courtesy of Charles C. Thomas Publisher, Ltd, Springfi eld, Illinois

Frederick Toates, Biological Psychology, 3rd Edition, Pearson Education Limited 2011
Slide 9.8

Differences in size and overlap of neuron branches. (a) Small non-


Figure 9.16
overlapping branches. Distinct pattern of neural activity comparing two stimuli (left)
and one stimulus (right). (b) Large overlapping branches. Two stimuli trigger activity
that is indistinguishable from one stimulus
Source: Toates (1998c, Fig. 4.32, p. 128)

Frederick Toates, Biological Psychology, 3rd Edition, Pearson Education Limited 2011
Slide 9.9

Receptive field properties: (a) neural connections and (b) response of


Figure 9.17
neuron B. Upper trace: B is excited by activity in b (period T); middle trace:
excitation of a and c; lower trace: a, b and c are simultaneously activated.
Source: after Kandel and Jessell (1991) Principles of Neural Science, 3rd edition, p. 375. Reprinted with permission of The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.

Frederick Toates, Biological Psychology, 3rd Edition, Pearson Education Limited 2011
Slide 9.10

Two mechanical stimuli: (a) one that fills the excitatory region of receptive
Figure 9.18
field and (b) one that covers both excitatory and inhibitory areas. Also shown is the
excitation of a neuron such as B of Fig. 9.17 during application of the stimulus for
time T
Frederick Toates, Biological Psychology, 3rd Edition, Pearson Education Limited 2011
Slide 9.11

The somatosensory cortex: (a) the brain showing this region in relation to
Figure 9.19
other parts and (b) enlargement of a section through it
Source: Kandel and Jessell (1991) Principles of Neural Science, 3rd edition, p. 368. Reprinted with permission of The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.

Frederick Toates, Biological Psychology, 3rd Edition, Pearson Education Limited 2011
Slide 9.12

Figure 9.20 (a) and (b) Information processing in the primary somatosensory cortex
Source: Kandel and Jessell (1991) Principles of Neural Science, 3rd edition, p. 378 reprinted with permission of The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.

Frederick Toates, Biological Psychology, 3rd Edition, Pearson Education Limited 2011
Slide 9.13

Figure 9.21 Relationship between vibrissae and neurons


Source: Bear et al. (1996, p. 334)

Frederick Toates, Biological Psychology, 3rd Edition, Pearson Education Limited 2011
Slide 9.14

Figure 9.22 Damage to neurons (X) would result from damage to vibrissa X
Source: after Whatson and Sterling (1998, Fig. 5.3, p. 146)

Frederick Toates, Biological Psychology, 3rd Edition, Pearson Education Limited 2011
Slide 9.15

Figure 9.23 Taste buds: (b) taste buds and (c) a single taste bud
Source: Copyright G.W. Willis/Visuals Unlimited

Frederick Toates, Biological Psychology, 3rd Edition, Pearson Education Limited 2011
Slide 9.16

Diagram showing regions of activation of selected brain regions by either


Figure 9.26
olfactory or gustatory (taste) stimuli
Source: Small and Prescott (2005, Fig. 1, p. 347). Courtesy of Dana Small

Frederick Toates, Biological Psychology, 3rd Edition, Pearson Education Limited 2011