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Slide 3.

Descartes model of action. The foot touches a hot object, a message is sent
Figure 3.3
to the brain and the person quickly withdraws the foot
Source: after Halliday (1998, Fig. 5.21)

Frederick Toates, Biological Psychology, 3rd Edition, Pearson Education Limited 2011
Slide 3.2

Figure 3.2 Two of the neurons that underlie a simple reflex


Source: after Halliday (1998, Fig. 5.22)

Frederick Toates, Biological Psychology, 3rd Edition, Pearson Education Limited 2011
Slide 3.3

(a) Human nervous system, with brain and spinal cord shown in red. (b) A
Figure 3.1
thin slice of the spinal cord with some of the neurons located there. (c) Graph
showing action potentials
Frederick Toates, Biological Psychology, 3rd Edition, Pearson Education Limited 2011
Slide 3.4

(a) Information on cold temperature is conveyed from periphery to the brain


Figure 3.4
via neurons 1 and then 2. (b) The reaction of neuron 1
Source: after Toates (1998c)

Frederick Toates, Biological Psychology, 3rd Edition, Pearson Education Limited 2011
Slide 3.5

Figure 3.5 A synapse

Frederick Toates, Biological Psychology, 3rd Edition, Pearson Education Limited 2011
Slide 3.6

Motor action by a finger triggered by a conscious decision in the brain. (In


Figure 3.6
the bubble, the synapse between neurons 1 and 2 is shown enlarged.)
Frederick Toates, Biological Psychology, 3rd Edition, Pearson Education Limited 2011
Slide 3.7

Distinction between somatic and autonomic nervous systems. Reflexes are


Figure 3.7
under the category of involuntary action on external world
Frederick Toates, Biological Psychology, 3rd Edition, Pearson Education Limited 2011
Slide 3.8

Part of the somatic nervous system (controlling a skeletal muscle in a leg)


Figure 3.8
and part of the ANS (influencing muscle of the heart)
Frederick Toates, Biological Psychology, 3rd Edition, Pearson Education Limited 2011
Slide 3.9

Activity in neurons: (a) no activity, (b) activity in neuron 1 excites 4,


Figure 3.9
(c) activity in 1 and 3 add their effects in exciting 4, (d) the effect of 1 in exciting 4
is opposed by activity in the inhibitory neuron 2. = excitation, = inhibition
Frederick Toates, Biological Psychology, 3rd Edition, Pearson Education Limited 2011
Slide 3.10

Inhibition. (As with the others, this figure is a simplification. In reality paths
Figure 3.10
of neurons rather than single neurons would be involved in such processes.)
Frederick Toates, Biological Psychology, 3rd Edition, Pearson Education Limited 2011
Slide 3.11

Two different types of connection between two neurons mediated by a


Figure 3.11
classical neurotransmitter: (a) excitatory connection (a burst of activity in neuron A
triggers B) and (b) inhibitory connection (neuron B is spontaneously active but is
inhibited by activity in A)
Frederick Toates, Biological Psychology, 3rd Edition, Pearson Education Limited 2011
Slide 3.12

Figure 3.12Two synapses, one excitatory (A) and one inhibitory (B), and the effects of
activity in the presynaptic neurons A and B. (a) Synapses and (b) response of
postsynaptic neuron C: (i) background activity; (ii) neuron A active (excitation);
(iii) neuron B active (inhibition) and (iv) both A and B active (cancellation of effects)
Frederick Toates, Biological Psychology, 3rd Edition, Pearson Education Limited 2011
Slide 3.13

Classical neurotransmission and neuromodulation at a presynaptic site.


Figure 3.13
Presynaptic neuron1 is active and neuromodulator (from neuron2) is either
(a) unavailable or (b) available. Note increased release of neurotransmitter and
occupation of receptors in (b), which increases the effect on the postsynaptic neuron.
Note also the diffusion of neuromodulator around the site of release
Frederick Toates, Biological Psychology, 3rd Edition, Pearson Education Limited 2011
Slide 3.14

Changes in efficacy of synaptic transmission: (a) initial situation, showing


Figure 3.14
two synapses, the upper regularly active and the lower permanently inactive; and
(b) later situation: the upper is strengthened but the lower becomes ineffective
Frederick Toates, Biological Psychology, 3rd Edition, Pearson Education Limited 2011
Slide 3.15

Simplified model of learning: (a) food triggers salivation, (b) bell does not
Figure 3.15
trigger salivation, (c) bell and food are paired and (d) bell triggers salivation
Frederick Toates, Biological Psychology, 3rd Edition, Pearson Education Limited 2011
Slide 3.16

Spinal cord: (a) a section of spinal cord and (b) a thin slice of this section
Figure 3.16
showing sensory, motor and interneurons. The bundle of axons corresponds to one
of the nerves shown in blue in Figure 3.1(a)
Source of part (a): after Vander et al. (1994) Human Physiology, Fig. 8.35, p. 215, reproduced with permission of The McGraw Hill Companies, Inc.

Frederick Toates, Biological Psychology, 3rd Edition, Pearson Education Limited 2011
Slide 3.17

Spinal cord: (a) a section of spinal cord and (b) a thin slice of this section
Figure 3.16
showing sensory, motor and interneurons. The bundle of axons corresponds to one
of the nerves shown in blue in Figure 3.1(a) (Continued)
Source of part (a): after Vander et al. (1994) Human Physiology, Fig. 8.35, p. 215, reproduced with permission of The McGraw Hill Companies, Inc.

Frederick Toates, Biological Psychology, 3rd Edition, Pearson Education Limited 2011
Slide 3.18

Hormones: (a) location of some of the glands that secrete them and
Figure 3.21
(b) kidney showing adrenal gland and its divisions
Source: adapted from Toates (1997a, Figure 3.1, p. 142)

Frederick Toates, Biological Psychology, 3rd Edition, Pearson Education Limited 2011
Slide 3.19

The insulinglucose system: (a) control of insulin by blood glucose level and
Figure 3.22
(b) addition of cephalic control. + = raises, = lowers
Frederick Toates, Biological Psychology, 3rd Edition, Pearson Education Limited 2011
Slide 3.20

The control of insulin secretion. Absorption of glucose, insulin concentration


Figure 3.23
in the blood and uptake of glucose by cells: (a) response in the absence of a
cephalic phase and (b) response with cephalic phase functioning
Frederick Toates, Biological Psychology, 3rd Edition, Pearson Education Limited 2011
Slide 3.21

Figure 3.24 The control of AVP at the pituitary gland

Frederick Toates, Biological Psychology, 3rd Edition, Pearson Education Limited 2011
Slide 3.22

Regulation of body water level by control exerted over drinking and urine
Figure 3.25
production
Frederick Toates, Biological Psychology, 3rd Edition, Pearson Education Limited 2011
Slide 3.23

Rat mating: (a) the posture, showing the female lordosis response and
Figure 3.26
(b) female sexual motivation, and therefore behaviour, depend upon both the trigger
of the male and the effects of hormones on her nervous system
Frederick Toates, Biological Psychology, 3rd Edition, Pearson Education Limited 2011
Slide 3.24

Figure 3.27 The pituitary gland. (b) Hormonal sequence

Frederick Toates, Biological Psychology, 3rd Edition, Pearson Education Limited 2011
Slide 3.25

Classification of (classical) neurotransmitters and hormones: (a) a


Figure 3.28
neurotransmitter, released from a neuron and influencing another neuron, (b) a
neurotransmitter, released from one neuron and influencing a muscle and (c) a
hormone
Frederick Toates, Biological Psychology, 3rd Edition, Pearson Education Limited 2011
Slide 3.26

Figure 3.31 Smooth muscle in the wall of a blood vessel: (a) relaxed and (b) contracted

Frederick Toates, Biological Psychology, 3rd Edition, Pearson Education Limited 2011
Slide 3.27

Part of the somatic and autonomic nervous systems compared. In reality,


Figure 3.32
a ganglion contains many such cell bodies
Frederick Toates, Biological Psychology, 3rd Edition, Pearson Education Limited 2011
Slide 3.28

Figure 3.34 The neurotransmitters of the autonomic nervous system

Frederick Toates, Biological Psychology, 3rd Edition, Pearson Education Limited 2011
Slide 3.29

The enteric nervous system. There is an input from neurons of the ANS.
Figure 3.35
N1 = a neuron within ANS but outside ENS. N2 = a neuron within the ENS
Frederick Toates, Biological Psychology, 3rd Edition, Pearson Education Limited 2011
Slide 3.30

Figure 3.36 Some interactions between the nervous and endocrine systems

Frederick Toates, Biological Psychology, 3rd Edition, Pearson Education Limited 2011