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D ARSONVALGALVANOMETER

CONTENT
DArsonval Galvanometer
Construction
Torque Equation
Dynamic Behavior of Galvanometer
Advantage
Disadvantage
Application
DARSONVAL
GALVANOMETER
A DArsonval galvanometer is an sensitive
instrument used for detecting presence of small
current or voltage in a circuit. The instrument is
very commonly used for in various methods of
resistance measurement and also in dc
potentiometer work. In 1862, Frenchman Marcel
Deprez (1843-1889), an electrical engineer and
Jacques Arsene dArsonval (1851-1940),
physicist and a physician, developed the d
Arsonval galvanometer.
CONSTRUCTION

The different parts are-


1.Moving coil
2.Damping
3. Suspension
4. Indication
5.Zero setting
1. Moving Coil

It is the current carrying element. It is either rectangular or circular in


shape. This coil is suspended so that it is free to turn about its
vertical axis of symmetry. It is arranged in a uniform, radial,
horizontal magnetic field in the air gap between pole pieces of a
permanent magnet and iron core. The iron core is spherical in shape
if the coil is circular but is cylindrical if the coil is rectangular The
cylindrical form of pole faces and core has got two advantages. The
length of the air gap is reduced so that the amount of flux linking the
coil is increased. Thus, increasing the sensitivity of the instrument
and the flux between the pole faces and core is practically radial. In
radial field, the deflection of the coil is directly proportional to the
current in the coil .
2. Damping

There is a damping torque present owing to production of eddy


currents in the metal former on which the coil is mounted. . When
current flow through the coil , a deflecting force proportional to
flux density , coil current and dimension of the coil makes the coil
to rotate on it vertical axis . The deflection force is opposed by
the restraining force of the suspension filament so that coil does
not continue to rotate as in motor but turns until the deflection
force is balanced by the restraining force of the suspension
filament . Since the deflection torque is directly proportional to
the coil current , therefore, the amount of the deflection of the
coil indicates the the magnitude of the current flowing in the coil .
3. Suspension

The upper suspension is made of phospher bronze.


The deflection force is opposed by the restraining
force of the suspension filament so that coil does not
continue to rotate as in motor but turns until the
deflection force is balanced by the restraining force
of the suspension filament . Since the deflection
torque is directly proportional to the coil current ,
therefore, the amount of the deflection of the coil
indicates the the magnitude of the current flowing in
the coil
4.Indication 5. Zero Setting

The suspension carries a small


mirror upon which a beam of
light is cast. The beam of light is
reflected on a scale upon which
the deflection is measured. This
scale is usually about 1 meter
away from the instrument. A torsion head is provided for adjusting the position of the coil and
also for zero setting.
Torque Equation
The various parameters involved in torque are,
l= Length of coil measured along vertical axis in m.
r= Length of coil measured along horizontal axis in m.

N = Number of turns in the coil.


B = Flux density in air gap in Wb/m2or Tesla.
i= Current through coil in A.
k = Spring constant or restoring constant in Nm/rad.
= Angle between plane of coil and direction of
magnetic field.
A = Area of coil inm2=lx r.
f= final steady state deflection of coil in rad.
F = Force on each side of a coil = NB il (sin ) ..(1)


Td= Deflecting torque = F x r = NBilrsin ..(2)

... Td= NB iA sin


As the field is radial in nature, = 90ohence sin= 1.
... Td= NB i A = Gi = G i (3)
(3)


where G = NBA = Galvanometer constant

The controlling torque provided by the spring is directly


proportional to the final steady state deflectionf of the coil.
Dynamic Behavior of Galvanometer

When we pass current through the a galvanometer it does not reach


its steady state deflection immediately but there is a time interval
or period of transition during which the moving system of the
galvanometer deflects from its initial position to the final steady
state position. The dynamic behavior of the galvanometer during
this period is examined by the equation of motion. The equation
help us to solve problem related to speed of response ,overshoot
and damping. The constants of galvanometer are called Intrinsic
Constants. They are-
Equation of Motion

There are four torque acting on the moving system.


Deflection Torque, tries to accelerate the system while the
inertia torque ,damping torque and the control torque tries
to retard the system.
Therefore, for any deflection at any instant time t,
M2
advantages of DarsONval

It is highly sensitive to change in circuit parameters.

It is highly accurate and can measure up to microvolt.

Itwas designed with compact, more reliable casings


than the tangent galvanometer.
DISADVANTAGES of DArsONval

It can not be used in rigged conditions.

The suspension has to be suspended carefully so that it


does not slide against he wall of the magnet which might
lead to its damping.

The robustness and portability of the instrument is


desirable, in most of the sensitive galvanometer it is
hardly possible.
APPLICATIONS
The galvanometer is basically used in a instrument for
detection the presence of small voltages or currents in a
circuits or to indicate zero current in applications like
bridge circuits.
It is used in DC potentiometer.
It is used for resistance measurement.