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# EET 301/4 Power System Engineering

Chapter 5
Power System

1
Course Outcome

## Ability to explain and calculate load

characteristics and distribution
system components in power system

2
CONTENTS
Customer Billing
Power Factor
CHARACTERI
STIC

The load on a power station is not constant. It varies
from time to time.
the time on a graph paper.
When it plotted from 24 hours of a day it is called daily
load curve and if the time considered is for one year
(8760 hours) then it is called annual load curve.
The yearly load curve is generally used to determine the
The areas under the load curve represent the energy
generated in the period considered.
5

The area under the curve divided by the total number of
hours gives the average load on the power station.
represents the maximum demand on the power station.

Example of Typical

6

The greatest problem for a power supply company is
varying load. The generation should be matched with the

## The base load power is

supplied by power plants
running continuously.
The Intermediated/Average
of the day.
a few hours of the day

7

## Terms and Definitions

a) Demand
The demand of the installation or system is the load
at the receiving terminals averaged over a specified
time.

b) Demand Interval ( t)
The period over which the load is averaged.
Selected t period may be 15 min, 30 min, 1 hr, or
even longer.

8

## Terms and Definitions

c) Maximum Demand
The maximum demand of an installation or system is
the greatest of all demands which have occurred
during the specified period of time.

## d) Demand Factor (DF)

The ratio of the maximum demand of a system to a
total connected load of the system.
Maximum Demand
DF
Total Connected Demand
9

## Terms and Definitions

e) Diversified Demand / Coincident Demand
It is the demand of the composite group ( residential,
commercial, industrial, miscellaneous) , as a whole,
of somewhat unrelated loads ( loss in transmission &
distribution) over a specified period of time.
f) Utilization Factor (Fu)
It is the ratio of the maximum demand of a system to
the rated capacity of the system.
Maximum demand
Fu
Rated system capacity
10

## Terms and Definitions

The load factor is defined as the ratio of the average
The load factor is always less than one, because the
The greater the load factor, the less will be the cost
per unit.
FLD

11

## Terms and Definitions

h) Plant Capacity Factor
It is defined the ratio of the total actual energy produced
or served over a designated period of time to the energy
that would have been produced or served if the plant or
unit had operated continously at maximum rating.
E
Plant capacity factor
where: C xt
E=Energy produced, kWh
C=Plant capacity/rating, kW
t=Total number of hours

12

## Terms and Definitions

i) Plant Use Factor
It is defined as the ratio of the energy produced in given
time to the maximum possible energy that could have been
produced during the actual numbers of hours that was in
operation
E
Plant use factor
C x t1
where:
E=Energy produced, kWh
C=Plant capacity, kW
t1=The actual number of hours the plant was in
operation
13
Terms and Definitions
j) Diversity Factor , FD
It is defined as the ratio of the sum of individual
maximum demands to maximum demand on power
station.
Sum of ind ividual max demand
FD
Coincident max demand
n n

D TCD
D1 D2 ....... Dn i 1i i x DFi
i 1

Dg Dg Dg

## TCD is Total Connected Demand, DF is Demand Factor

Dg = coincident max demand of group of n loads
14

## Terms and Definitions

k) Loss Factor , FLS
It is defined as the ratio of the average power loss to
the peak load power loss during a specified period of
time. Average power loss
FLS
Coincidence factor, Fc =1/FD
It is the difference between the sum of the peaks of
two or more individual loads and the peak of the
LD

D
i 1
i Dg 15

Example 1
and the units generated being 61,500,000 kWh for the

Solution
Unit Served (kWh )
FLD
61,500,000 kWh
100
20000 365 days 24 hours
35% 16

Example 2
A power station has two 60 MW units each running for
7500 hours in a year and one 30 MW unit running for
4500 hours in a year. The energy produced per year is
750 x106 kWh.
Determine:
(b) Plant capacity factor
(c) Plant use factor.
Assume maximum demand to be 80% of the plant
capacity.
17

Solution
Capacity of the power plant 2x60 30 150MW
750 10 6 kWh
8760h
Unit Served 750 10 6 kWh
FLD 0.71
Maximum load T 8760h 150 10 W 0.8
6

## b) Plant capacity factor

Energy generated 750 106
Plant capacity factor 0.57
Capacity of plant 8760 150 10 8760
3

18

Solution Example 2
c) Plant use factor
Energy that can be generated by two 60MW units and one
30MW unit
=2 units x 60MW x 7500h + 30MW x 4500h
=103.5x104MWh=1035x106kWh

750 10 6 kWh
Plant use factor 0.72
1035 10 kWh
6

19

Example 3
Assume the annual peak load of a primary feeder is
2000kW, at which the power loss i.e., total copper, or
I2R, loss is 80kW per three phase. Assuming an annual
loss factor of 0.15.
Determine:
(a) The average annual power loss
(b) The total annual energy loss due to the copper losses
of the feeder circuits.

20

Solution Example 3
a) Average annual power loss
Average power loss = Power loss at peak load x FLS
= 80 kW x 0.15
=12 kW

## b) Total annual energy loss

TAELCU = Average power loss x 8760 h
=12 kW x 8760 h
=105,120 kWh

21
Example of Transformer
Sizing
An application has been made to the utility to connect a commercial
complex to the nearest distribution transformer. The distribution
transformer is rated 310 kVA and the current maximum demand on this
transformer is 250 kVA. The transformer is 20 years old and considering
hot summer, it is suggested not to load it beyond 90% capacity. The load
of the commercial complex are:

## A gas station consisting of three unleaded petrol pumps, a diesel pump,

and a LNG pump. Each pump is rated at 5 hp and has an efficiency of
0.9. A general purpose shop with installed load of 5 kW. A Fish and
Chip shop with a connected load of 4 kW. Six street lights each rated at
100 W. The diversity factor of the pumps is 1.8. The demand factor of
the general purpose shop is estimated to be 0.7. The Fish and Chip shop
has a demand factor of 0.8. The diversity factor for the whole load is
estimated to be 1.2. Calculate the the coincident maximum demand of
the whole complex. Is it possible for this load to be connected to the
existing distribution transformer?
22
23
FORECASTI
NG

Introduction
Load forecasting plays an important role in power system
planning, operation and control
Planning and operational applications of load forecasting
requires a certain lead time also called forecasting
intervals.
A good forecast reflecting current and future trends,
tempered with good judgment, is the key to all planning,
indeed to financial success.

25

26

Nature of Forecast
Nature of Forecast Lead time Application
Very Short Term A few seconds to Generation, distribution
several minutes schedules, contingency analysis
for system security
Short Term Half an hour to a Allocation of spinning reserve;
few hours operational planning and unit
commitment; maintenance
scheduling

## Medium Term A few days to a few Planning for seasonal peak-

weeks winter, summer
Long Term A few months to a Planning generation growth
few years

27

Forecasting Methodology
Forecasting techniques may be divided into three broad
classes. Techniques may be based on extrapolation or on
correlation or on a combination of both.
Extrapolation
Extrapolation techniques involve fitting trend curves to
basic historical data adjusted to reflect the growth trend
itself.
Correlation
Correlation techniques of forecasting relate system loads to
various demographic and economic factor.

28
GROWTH

Introduction
In planning to accommodate future electric energy needs,
it is necessary that an estimate of the rate at which those
needs will grow.

Examples of a typical
energy requirement
projection for a certain
country

30

Growth Rates
Suppose a certain quantity M grows at a rate that is
proportional to the amount of M that is present.
It gives dM
aM
dt
Where a is the constant of proportionality, known as the
per-unit growth rate. The above equation may be written
as
M M 0e at

## Where M0 is the value of M at t=0.

31

Growth Rates
At any two values of time, t1 and t2, the inverse ratio of
the corresponding quantities M1 and M2 is
M2
e a (t2 t1 )
M1

## Based on above equation, the doubling time td may be

obtain such that M2 = 2M1 and t2 - t1= td
ln 2 0.693
td
a a
32

Growth Rates
Power system planners also need to know how much
power will be demanded.

in this curve
P P0 e bt

## Where P0 is the peak power at

t =0, b is the per unit growth

## Examples of the peak power demand

for a certain country over several years.
33

Growth Rates
The area under this curve over a given period is a
measure of the energy Q consumed during that period.

## If the per unit growth rate has not

changed, then the energy
consumed in one doubling period
equals the energy consumed for
the entire time prior to that
doubling.

34

Growth Rates
Evaluating the energy Q1 consumed up to t1 and the
energy Q2 consumed during the doubling time td = t2 - t1
t
1
P
Q1 P0 e bt dt 0 e bt
1

b
t2
P0 bt
Q2 P0 e dt ( e 1 )e bt
bt d 1

t1
b
Td = (ln 2/b), therefore Q2 becomes
P0 P0 bt1
Q2 ( 2 1 )e e Q1
bt1

b b
35

Example 1
Suppose that the consumption of the energy in a certain
country has a growth rate of 4 percent per year.
In how many years will the energy consumption be
tripled?
Solution Example 1
Q2
3 then 3 e 0.04 t or ln 3 0.04t
Q1
ln 3
t 27.47 years
0.04

36

Example 2
In certain country the energy consumption is expected to
be double in 10 years.
Calculate the growth rate in percent.
Solution Example 2
ln 2
a
td
0.693
a x100 6.93%
10

37

Example 3
Assume that one of the distribution transformer of the
Riverside substation supplies three primary feeders. The
30-min annual max demands per feeder as listed as
following table, together with the power factor (PF) at the
time of annual peak load. Assume a diversity factor of
1.15 among the three feeder for both real power (P) and
reactive power (Q). Feeder Demand (kW) PF
1 1800 0.95
2 2000 0.85
3 2200 0.90

38

Example 3
a) Calculate the 30-min annual max demand on the substation
transformer in kW and in kVar
b) Find the load diversity in KW
c) Select a suitable substation transformer size if zero load growth is
expected and if the company policy permits as much as 25 % short
time overload on the distribution substation transformer. Use the
suitable standard 3-phase as follow
2500/3125 KVA self-cooled/forced air cooled
3750/4687 KVA self-cooled/forced air cooled
5000/6250 KVA self-cooled/forced air cooled
7500/9375 KVA self-cooled/forced air cooled

39

Example 3
d) Now assume that the substation load will increase at a
constant percentage rate per year and will double in 10
years. If the 7500/9375 KVA rated transformer is
installed, in how many years will be loaded to its fans-on
rating. Assume the load growth equation is
Pn=P0(1+g)n
where: Pn=Load at the end of the nth year
g=Annual growth rate
n=Numbers of years

40

Solution Example 3
a) Given the diversity factor FD = 1.15
Sum of individual max demand
FD
Coincident max demand
D1 D2 ....... Dn 1800kW 2000kW 2200kW
1.15
Dg Dg

## (1800kW 2000kW 2200kW) 6000kW

kW
Dg ,Therefore, Dg,kW 5217.39kW
Annual maximum demand
1.15 1.15

41

Solution Example 3
a) Dg =5217.39kW ( in KW), in KVA, then find the power
factor angle PF Angle
0.95 18.2
0.85 31.79
0.90 25.84

## The total3 Reactive Power (Q)

Q Pi tan i (1800)(tan 18.2) (2000)(tan 31.79)
i 1

## (2200)(tan 25.84) 2896.79kVar

2896.79kVar
Dg ,kVar 2518.95kVar
1.15 42

Solution Example 3
a) Therefore Dg

2 2
Dg Dg ,kW Dg ,kVar 5217 2 2518.952 5793.64 kVA

## b) The load diversity (LD) is

n

LD

D
i 1
i Dg ,kW 6000 kW 5217 kW 783 kW

43

Solution Example 3
c) The transformer size capacity if permits of 25% short
The maximum demand is 5793.60 KVA
2500/3125 KVA 3125x1.25=3906.25 Under size
3750/4687 KVA 4687x1.25=5858.75 Nearest
5000/6250 KVA 6250x1.25=7812.5 Over size
7500/9375 KVA 9375x1.25=11718.75 Over size

## The most suitable distribution transformer is 3750/4687

KVA self-cooled/ forced air cooled
44

Solution Example 3
d) The term fans-on means the forced air cooled rating.
The increase annual growth rate (g) per year,
given Pn=P0(1+g)n
hence (1+g)10=2 , 1+ g =1.07177
g = 0.07177%/year
Therefore, (1.07177)n x 5793.60 KVA = 9375 KVA
Or ln 1.6182
n 6.944 or 7 Years
ln 1.07177
If the 7500/9375 KVA rated transformer is installed, it
45
CUSTOMER
BILLING
Costumer Billing

Introduction
Customer billing is done by taking the difference in
readings of the meter at two successive times, usually at
an interval of 1 month.
The difference in readings indicates the amount of
electricity, in kilowatt hours, consumed by the customer
in that period.
The amount is multiplied by the appropriate rate or the
series of rates and the adjustment factor, and the bill is
sent to the customer.

47
Costumer Billing

## Sample of Electricity Bill

1. Tariff
2. Bill & Payment
3. Current Bill
4. Other Charges
5. Bill Amount
7. Billing Date
8. Payment Due Date

48
Costumer Billing

Tariff
Electricity Tariff can be define as a list of fixed rate
electricity prices which has been approved by a government.
In Malaysia the tariff for electricity are divided into 7
categories as follow:
1) Domestic
2) Commercial
3) Industrial
4) Mining
5) Street Lighting
6) Specific Agriculture
7) Top up & Stand By

49
Costumer Billing

Tariff
TARIFF CATEGORY UNIT RATES
1. Tariff A - Domestic Tariff
Forthefirst200kWh(1-200kWh)permonth sen/kWh 21.8

## The minimum monthly charge is RM3.00 50

Costumer Billing
TARIFF CATEGORY UNIT RATES
1. Tariff B - Low Voltage Commercial Tariff
For Overall Monthly Consumption Between 0-200 kWh/month
ForallkWh sen/kWh 39.3
The minimum monthly charge is RM7.20

## For Overall Monthly Consumption More Than 200 kWh/month

ForallkWh(From1kWhonwards) sen/kWh 43.0

## The minimum monthly charge is RM7.20

2. Tariff C1 - Medium Voltage General Commercial Tariff
Foreachkilowattofmaximumdemandpermonth RM/kW 25.9

## ForallkWh sen/kWh 31.2

The minimum monthly charge is RM600.00
3. Tariff C2 - Medium Voltage Peak/Off-Peak Commercial Tariff
Foreachkilowattofmaximumdemandpermonthduringthepeakperiod RM/kW 38.60

## The minimum monthly charge is RM600.00

51
Costumer Billing
TARIFF CATEGORY UNIT RATES
1. Tariff D - Low Voltage Industrial Tariff
For Overall Monthly Consumption Between 0-200 kWh/month

## ForallkWh sen/kWh 34.5

The minimum monthly charge is RM7.20
For Overall Monthly Consumption More Than 200 kWh/month

## The minimum monthly charge is RM7.20

Tariff Ds Special Industrial Tariff(for consumers who qualify only)

## ForallkWh sen/kWh 35.9

The minimum monthly charge is RM7.20
2. Tariff E1 - Medium Voltage General Industrial Tariff

## ForallkWh sen/kWh 28.8

The minimum monthly charge is RM600.00
Tariff E1s Special Industrial Tariff(for consumers who qualify only)

## ForallkWh sen/kWh 28.3

52
The minimum monthly charge is RM600.00
Costumer Billing

Example 1
A domestic costumer consume 460 kWh for 1 month.
Calculate the monthly bill.

Solution:

1)First200kWh(1-200kWh)permonth:(200x21.8)/100=RM43.6
2)Next100kWh(201-300kWh)permonth:(100x33.4)/100=RM33.4
3)Next100kWh(301-400kWh)permonth:(100x40.0)/100=RM40
4)Next100kWh(401-500kWh)permonth:(60x40.2)/100=RM24.12

MonthlyBill=RM(43.6+33.4+40+24.12)=RM 141.12

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Costumer Billing

Example 1
Assume a domestic customer use the following domestic
tariff rate schedule.

54
Costumer Billing

Example 1(cont)
a) Assume that an average month is 730h and find the
b) Find the reasonable size of continuous KVA rating of the
distribution transformer
c) Calculate the monthly bill
d) What size of capacitor (in kVar) would rise the PF of the
customer to 0.9

55
Costumer Billing

Solution Example 1
a) Customer A , FLD

## Unit served 1200kWh

FLD 0.205
Peak load x T 8kW x 730h

P 8 kW
SA A 9.41 kVA
Cos 0.85

## The continuous suitable rating for the distribution transformer

is 10 KVA

56
Costumer Billing

Solution Example 1
c) The monthly bill
First 200kWh = 200kWh x 21.8 sen/kWh = RM43.6
Next800kWh = 800 kWh x 28.9 sen/kWh =RM 231.2
Over 1000kWh = 200 kWh x 31.2 sen/kWh = RM 62.4
The total monthly Bill= RM 337.20

d) Size of capacitor
Current PF=0.85, the kVarh value is
1200kWh
xSin( Cos 1 0.85 ) 743.69kVarh
0.85

57
Costumer Billing

Solution Example 1

## d) Size of capacitor (cont.)

At PF=0.9, the kVarh value is

1200kWh
sin(cos 1 0.9) 581.19kVAr h
0.9
Therefore, the capacitor size required is

(743.69 581.19)kVa rh
0.22kVAr
730h

58
Power Factor Surcharge

Percent of Condition
surcharge from
the current bill
For every 0.01 less than
1.5% 0.85 power factor
For every 0.01 less than
3% 0.75 power factor

59
60
POWER
FACTOR
Power Factor

## Definition of Power Factor

Power factor is the ratio between actual (true) load power
(kW) and the apparent load power (kVA)
p. f .

## It is a measure of how effectively the current is being

converted into useful work output and more particularly
is a good indicator of the effect of the load current on
the efficiency of the supply.

62
Power Factor

Triangle

P - kW
Q - kVar
S - kVA

S P2 Q2
kW
Power Factor
kVA

63
Power Factor

## Equipment Causing Poor Power Factor

Lightly loaded induction motor. Examples of this type of
equipment and their approximate power factor are:
70% power factor or better: Air conditioners, pumps,
center less grinders, cold header, up setter, fans or
blower
60% to 70% power factor: Induction furnaces,
standard stamping machines and weaving machines
60% power factor and below: Single-stroke presses,
automated machine tools, finish grinders, welders

64
Power Factor

## Reactive Power Problem (Motor)

Example that a motor is rated at 10,000W at 0.8 power
factor. The resistance is 5ohm. At 415V, the motor will
require the following amount of current:
I=10000/(3x0.8x415)=17.39A
Losses when pf =0.8 : I2R=(17.39)2(5)=1,512W
The same motor rated at 0.65 power factor will require:
I=10000/(3x0.65x415)=21.403A
Losses when pf=0.65 : I2R=(21.403)2(5)=2290.4W

65
Power Factor

## Reactive Power Problem (Transformer)

Example that 11/0.433 kV, 1000 kVA transformer has
P
PF 0.45
S
P 800
PF 0.45
TX Capacity 1000

66
Power Factor

## Reactive Power Problem (Transformer)

Example that 11/0.433 kV, 1000 kVA transformer has

P
PF 0.9
S
P 800
PF 0.9
TX Capacity 1000

67
Power Factor

Condition 1
PF=0.45
TX Size=1000kVA
Condition 2
PF=0.9
TX Size=1000kVA
68
Power Factor

## Minimum Power Factor

Customers are advise to maintain power factor at
minimum of 0.85

69
Power Factor

## How to Improve Power Factor

Install capacitors (KVAR Generators)
Capacitor
Corrector
Synchronous generators
Synchronous motors
Minimise operations of idling or lightly loaded motors.
Avoid operating equipment above its rated voltage.
Replace standard motors as they burn out with energy efficient motors.

70
Power Factor

71
Power Factor

## Benefits of Improving Power Factor

Benefit 1: Reducing KW billing demand
Low Power Factor requires high reactive power (KVAR) and apparent
power (KVA), which is the power that electric utilities supplies. Therefore, a
facilitys low power factor forces electric utilities to increase its generation and
transmission capacity in order to handle this extra demand.
By increasing power factor, customers use less KVAR. This results in less KW,
which equates to cost savings for electric utilities .

## Benefit 2: Eliminating power factor surcharge

Utility companies all around the world charge customers an additional surcharge
when their power factor is less than 0.95. In fact, some utilities are not obliged to
deliver electricity to their customers at any time the customers power factor falls
below 0.85.
Power Factor

factor.

## Benefit 3: Increased system capacity and reduced system losses in

electrical system
Low power factor causes power system losses in the customers electrical
system. By improving power factor, these losses can be reduced. With the
current rise in the cost of energy, increased facility efficiency is important.
Power Factor

## Benefit 4: Increased voltage level in electrical system, resulting in more

efficient motors
As mentioned before, low power factor causes power system losses in
customers electrical system. As power losses increase, customer may
experience a voltage drop. Excessive voltage drops can cause overheating and
premature failure of motors and other inductive equipment.
Therefore, by raising the power factor, customers can minimize these voltage
drops along feeder cables and avoid related problems. Motors will run more
efficiently, with a slight increase in capacity and starting torque.
Power Factor

75
Power Factor

## Power Factor Improvement

The amount of reactive compensation supplied by the
capacitor bank is
QCAP Q1 Q2
S1
PF1 Cos 1
Apparent power supplied by the source after adding
capacitors
S2
PF2 Cos 2
76
Power Factor

## Power Factor Improvement

Where PF1, and PF2 are the actual load power factor and
desired system power factors, respectively.
2
2 2 2
PF1
2
2 2
PF2

1 1
PF 2
1
PF 2
1
1

2

77
Power Factor

Example 1
An industrial plant has an active power demand of
500kW at a power factor of 0.76 lagging. Determine the
reactive power rating of the capacitor bank required to
improve the power factor to the following:
a) 0.8 lagging
b) 0.9 lagging
c) Unity
Assume the capacitor steps are available in 50 kVar
increments

78
Power Factor

Solution Example 1

1 1
PF 2
1
PF 2
1
1

2

1 1
a ) QCAP 500kW x 2
1
2
1 52.6kVar 50kVar
0.76

0.80

1 1
b ) QCAP 500kW x 2
1
2
1 185.4kVar 200kVar
0.76

0.90

1 1
c ) QCAP 500kW x 2
1
2 1 427.6kVar 400kVar
0.76

1

79
Power Factor

Example 2
Assume that a 700 kVA load has a 65% power factor. It is
desired to improve the power factor to 92%.Using the
power factor correction table (Table 1).
Determine the following:
a) The correction factor required
b) The capacitor size required
c) What would be the resulting power factor if the next
higher standard capacitor size is used. Assume the
capacitor steps are available in 50 kVar increments

80
Power Factor

Solution Example 2
a) From correction factor table (Table 1), the correction
factor required can be found as 0.743
b) The 700 KVA load at 65% power factor is
PL=SL x cos W
=700k x 0.65 W
=455 kW
The capacitor size necessary to improve the power factor
from 65 to 92% can be found as
Capacitor size = PL x (Correction Factor)
=(455)(0.743)
=338.065 kVar

81
Power Factor

Solution Example 2
c) Assume that the next higher standard capacitor size (or
rating) is selected to be 350 kVar. Therefore the resulting
new correction factor can be found from
Standard Capacitor Rating
New Correction Factor
PL
350kVar
0.769
455kW
From the table by using interpolation method, based on
original power factor (65%) and new correction factor
(0.769), refer to Table 1.

82
Power Factor

Solution Example 2
the close value of desired correction factor 0.769 is 0.774 at
93% power factor and;
The difference between the correction factors at 92% (0.743)
and 93% (0.774) is 0.031.
Thus, the new corrected % PF is obtained by an interpolation
method:
0.774 - 0.769 0.769 - 0.743
92% 93%
0.031 0.031
92.8387%
0.928

83
Table 1: Power Factor Correction Table

84