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- Ioc Kandla
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Chapter 5

The Load in

Power System

1

Course Outcome

characteristics and distribution

system components in power system

2

CONTENTS

Load Characteristic

Load Forecasting

Load Growth

Customer Billing

Power Factor

LOAD

CHARACTERI

STIC

Load Characteristic

Load Curve

The load on a power station is not constant. It varies

from time to time.

The load curve is obtained by plotting the loads against

the time on a graph paper.

When it plotted from 24 hours of a day it is called daily

load curve and if the time considered is for one year

(8760 hours) then it is called annual load curve.

The yearly load curve is generally used to determine the

load factor.

The areas under the load curve represent the energy

generated in the period considered.

5

Load Characteristic

Load Curve

The area under the curve divided by the total number of

hours gives the average load on the power station.

The peak curve load indicated by the load curve

represents the maximum demand on the power station.

Example of Typical

Commercial Load Curve

6

Load Characteristic

Load Curve

The greatest problem for a power supply company is

varying load. The generation should be matched with the

load consistently.

supplied by power plants

running continuously.

The Intermediated/Average

load prevails for some part

of the day.

The peak load prevails only

a few hours of the day

7

Load Characteristic

a) Demand

The demand of the installation or system is the load

at the receiving terminals averaged over a specified

time.

b) Demand Interval ( t)

The period over which the load is averaged.

Selected t period may be 15 min, 30 min, 1 hr, or

even longer.

8

Load Characteristic

c) Maximum Demand

The maximum demand of an installation or system is

the greatest of all demands which have occurred

during the specified period of time.

The ratio of the maximum demand of a system to a

total connected load of the system.

Maximum Demand

DF

Total Connected Demand

9

Load Characteristic

e) Diversified Demand / Coincident Demand

It is the demand of the composite group ( residential,

commercial, industrial, miscellaneous) , as a whole,

of somewhat unrelated loads ( loss in transmission &

distribution) over a specified period of time.

f) Utilization Factor (Fu)

It is the ratio of the maximum demand of a system to

the rated capacity of the system.

Maximum demand

Fu

Rated system capacity

10

Load Characteristic

g) Load Factor (FLD)

The load factor is defined as the ratio of the average

load to the maximum load during a given period.

The load factor is always less than one, because the

average load is less than maximum load.

The greater the load factor, the less will be the cost

per unit.

Average Load xT Unit Served

FLD

Max/Peak Load x T Max/Peak Load x T

11

Load Characteristic

h) Plant Capacity Factor

It is defined the ratio of the total actual energy produced

or served over a designated period of time to the energy

that would have been produced or served if the plant or

unit had operated continously at maximum rating.

E

Plant capacity factor

where: C xt

E=Energy produced, kWh

C=Plant capacity/rating, kW

t=Total number of hours

12

Load Characteristic

i) Plant Use Factor

It is defined as the ratio of the energy produced in given

time to the maximum possible energy that could have been

produced during the actual numbers of hours that was in

operation

E

Plant use factor

C x t1

where:

E=Energy produced, kWh

C=Plant capacity, kW

t1=The actual number of hours the plant was in

operation

13

Load Characteristic

Terms and Definitions

j) Diversity Factor , FD

It is defined as the ratio of the sum of individual

maximum demands to maximum demand on power

station.

Sum of ind ividual max demand

FD

Coincident max demand

n n

D TCD

D1 D2 ....... Dn i 1i i x DFi

i 1

Dg Dg Dg

Dg = coincident max demand of group of n loads

14

Load Characteristic

k) Loss Factor , FLS

It is defined as the ratio of the average power loss to

the peak load power loss during a specified period of

time. Average power loss

FLS

Power loss at peak load

Coincidence factor, Fc =1/FD

l) Load Diversity, LD

It is the difference between the sum of the peaks of

two or more individual loads and the peak of the

combined load. n

LD

D

i 1

i Dg 15

Load Characteristic

Example 1

A generating station had a maximum load of 20,000 kW

and the units generated being 61,500,000 kWh for the

year. Calculate the load factor.

Solution

Unit Served (kWh )

FLD

Max load (kW) T (h)

61,500,000 kWh

100

20000 365 days 24 hours

35% 16

Load Characteristic

Example 2

A power station has two 60 MW units each running for

7500 hours in a year and one 30 MW unit running for

4500 hours in a year. The energy produced per year is

750 x106 kWh.

Determine:

(a) Plant load factor

(b) Plant capacity factor

(c) Plant use factor.

Assume maximum demand to be 80% of the plant

capacity.

17

Load Characteristic

Solution

a) Plant load factor

Capacity of the power plant 2x60 30 150MW

750 10 6 kWh

Average load

8760h

Unit Served 750 10 6 kWh

FLD 0.71

Maximum load T 8760h 150 10 W 0.8

6

Energy generated 750 106

Plant capacity factor 0.57

Capacity of plant 8760 150 10 8760

3

18

Load Characteristic

Solution Example 2

c) Plant use factor

Energy that can be generated by two 60MW units and one

30MW unit

=2 units x 60MW x 7500h + 30MW x 4500h

=103.5x104MWh=1035x106kWh

750 10 6 kWh

Plant use factor 0.72

1035 10 kWh

6

19

Load Characteristic

Example 3

Assume the annual peak load of a primary feeder is

2000kW, at which the power loss i.e., total copper, or

I2R, loss is 80kW per three phase. Assuming an annual

loss factor of 0.15.

Determine:

(a) The average annual power loss

(b) The total annual energy loss due to the copper losses

of the feeder circuits.

20

Load Characteristic

Solution Example 3

a) Average annual power loss

Average power loss = Power loss at peak load x FLS

= 80 kW x 0.15

=12 kW

TAELCU = Average power loss x 8760 h

=12 kW x 8760 h

=105,120 kWh

21

Example of Transformer

Sizing

An application has been made to the utility to connect a commercial

complex to the nearest distribution transformer. The distribution

transformer is rated 310 kVA and the current maximum demand on this

transformer is 250 kVA. The transformer is 20 years old and considering

hot summer, it is suggested not to load it beyond 90% capacity. The load

of the commercial complex are:

and a LNG pump. Each pump is rated at 5 hp and has an efficiency of

0.9. A general purpose shop with installed load of 5 kW. A Fish and

Chip shop with a connected load of 4 kW. Six street lights each rated at

100 W. The diversity factor of the pumps is 1.8. The demand factor of

the general purpose shop is estimated to be 0.7. The Fish and Chip shop

has a demand factor of 0.8. The diversity factor for the whole load is

estimated to be 1.2. Calculate the the coincident maximum demand of

the whole complex. Is it possible for this load to be connected to the

existing distribution transformer?

22

23

LOAD

FORECASTI

NG

Load Forecasting

Introduction

Load forecasting plays an important role in power system

planning, operation and control

Forecasting means estimating active load at various load

buses ahead of actual load occurrence.

Planning and operational applications of load forecasting

requires a certain lead time also called forecasting

intervals.

A good forecast reflecting current and future trends,

tempered with good judgment, is the key to all planning,

indeed to financial success.

25

Load Forecasting

26

Load Forecasting

Nature of Forecast

Nature of Forecast Lead time Application

Very Short Term A few seconds to Generation, distribution

several minutes schedules, contingency analysis

for system security

Short Term Half an hour to a Allocation of spinning reserve;

few hours operational planning and unit

commitment; maintenance

scheduling

weeks winter, summer

Long Term A few months to a Planning generation growth

few years

27

Load Forecasting

Forecasting Methodology

Forecasting techniques may be divided into three broad

classes. Techniques may be based on extrapolation or on

correlation or on a combination of both.

Extrapolation

Extrapolation techniques involve fitting trend curves to

basic historical data adjusted to reflect the growth trend

itself.

Correlation

Correlation techniques of forecasting relate system loads to

various demographic and economic factor.

28

LOAD

GROWTH

Load Growth

Introduction

In planning to accommodate future electric energy needs,

it is necessary that an estimate of the rate at which those

needs will grow.

Examples of a typical

energy requirement

projection for a certain

country

30

Load Growth

Growth Rates

Suppose a certain quantity M grows at a rate that is

proportional to the amount of M that is present.

It gives dM

aM

dt

Where a is the constant of proportionality, known as the

per-unit growth rate. The above equation may be written

as

M M 0e at

31

Load Growth

Growth Rates

At any two values of time, t1 and t2, the inverse ratio of

the corresponding quantities M1 and M2 is

M2

e a (t2 t1 )

M1

obtain such that M2 = 2M1 and t2 - t1= td

ln 2 0.693

td

a a

32

Load Growth

Growth Rates

Power system planners also need to know how much

power will be demanded.

in this curve

P P0 e bt

t =0, b is the per unit growth

for a certain country over several years.

33

Load Growth

Growth Rates

The area under this curve over a given period is a

measure of the energy Q consumed during that period.

changed, then the energy

consumed in one doubling period

equals the energy consumed for

the entire time prior to that

doubling.

34

Load Growth

Growth Rates

Evaluating the energy Q1 consumed up to t1 and the

energy Q2 consumed during the doubling time td = t2 - t1

t

1

P

Q1 P0 e bt dt 0 e bt

1

b

t2

P0 bt

Q2 P0 e dt ( e 1 )e bt

bt d 1

t1

b

Td = (ln 2/b), therefore Q2 becomes

P0 P0 bt1

Q2 ( 2 1 )e e Q1

bt1

b b

35

Load Growth

Example 1

Suppose that the consumption of the energy in a certain

country has a growth rate of 4 percent per year.

In how many years will the energy consumption be

tripled?

Solution Example 1

Q2

3 then 3 e 0.04 t or ln 3 0.04t

Q1

ln 3

t 27.47 years

0.04

36

Load Growth

Example 2

In certain country the energy consumption is expected to

be double in 10 years.

Calculate the growth rate in percent.

Solution Example 2

ln 2

a

td

0.693

a x100 6.93%

10

37

Load Growth

Example 3

Assume that one of the distribution transformer of the

Riverside substation supplies three primary feeders. The

30-min annual max demands per feeder as listed as

following table, together with the power factor (PF) at the

time of annual peak load. Assume a diversity factor of

1.15 among the three feeder for both real power (P) and

reactive power (Q). Feeder Demand (kW) PF

1 1800 0.95

2 2000 0.85

3 2200 0.90

38

Load Growth

Example 3

a) Calculate the 30-min annual max demand on the substation

transformer in kW and in kVar

b) Find the load diversity in KW

c) Select a suitable substation transformer size if zero load growth is

expected and if the company policy permits as much as 25 % short

time overload on the distribution substation transformer. Use the

suitable standard 3-phase as follow

2500/3125 KVA self-cooled/forced air cooled

3750/4687 KVA self-cooled/forced air cooled

5000/6250 KVA self-cooled/forced air cooled

7500/9375 KVA self-cooled/forced air cooled

39

Load Growth

Example 3

d) Now assume that the substation load will increase at a

constant percentage rate per year and will double in 10

years. If the 7500/9375 KVA rated transformer is

installed, in how many years will be loaded to its fans-on

rating. Assume the load growth equation is

Pn=P0(1+g)n

where: Pn=Load at the end of the nth year

P0=Initial Load

g=Annual growth rate

n=Numbers of years

40

Load Growth

Solution Example 3

a) Given the diversity factor FD = 1.15

Sum of individual max demand

FD

Coincident max demand

D1 D2 ....... Dn 1800kW 2000kW 2200kW

1.15

Dg Dg

kW

Dg ,Therefore, Dg,kW 5217.39kW

Annual maximum demand

1.15 1.15

41

Load Growth

Solution Example 3

a) Dg =5217.39kW ( in KW), in KVA, then find the power

factor angle PF Angle

0.95 18.2

0.85 31.79

0.90 25.84

Q Pi tan i (1800)(tan 18.2) (2000)(tan 31.79)

i 1

2896.79kVar

Dg ,kVar 2518.95kVar

1.15 42

Load Growth

Solution Example 3

a) Therefore Dg

2 2

Dg Dg ,kW Dg ,kVar 5217 2 2518.952 5793.64 kVA

n

LD

D

i 1

i Dg ,kW 6000 kW 5217 kW 783 kW

43

Load Growth

Solution Example 3

c) The transformer size capacity if permits of 25% short

time overload

The maximum demand is 5793.60 KVA

Tx Size 25% overload Remarks

2500/3125 KVA 3125x1.25=3906.25 Under size

3750/4687 KVA 4687x1.25=5858.75 Nearest

5000/6250 KVA 6250x1.25=7812.5 Over size

7500/9375 KVA 9375x1.25=11718.75 Over size

KVA self-cooled/ forced air cooled

44

Load Growth

Solution Example 3

d) The term fans-on means the forced air cooled rating.

The increase annual growth rate (g) per year,

given Pn=P0(1+g)n

hence (1+g)10=2 , 1+ g =1.07177

g = 0.07177%/year

Therefore, (1.07177)n x 5793.60 KVA = 9375 KVA

Or ln 1.6182

n 6.944 or 7 Years

ln 1.07177

If the 7500/9375 KVA rated transformer is installed, it

will be loaded to its fan-on rating in about 7 years.

45

CUSTOMER

BILLING

Costumer Billing

Introduction

Customer billing is done by taking the difference in

readings of the meter at two successive times, usually at

an interval of 1 month.

The difference in readings indicates the amount of

electricity, in kilowatt hours, consumed by the customer

in that period.

The amount is multiplied by the appropriate rate or the

series of rates and the adjustment factor, and the bill is

sent to the customer.

47

Costumer Billing

1. Tariff

2. Bill & Payment

3. Current Bill

4. Other Charges

5. Bill Amount

6. Meter Reading

7. Billing Date

8. Payment Due Date

48

Costumer Billing

Tariff

Electricity Tariff can be define as a list of fixed rate

electricity prices which has been approved by a government.

In Malaysia the tariff for electricity are divided into 7

categories as follow:

1) Domestic

2) Commercial

3) Industrial

4) Mining

5) Street Lighting

6) Specific Agriculture

7) Top up & Stand By

49

Costumer Billing

Tariff

TARIFF CATEGORY UNIT RATES

1. Tariff A - Domestic Tariff

Forthefirst200kWh(1-200kWh)permonth sen/kWh 21.8

Costumer Billing

TARIFF CATEGORY UNIT RATES

1. Tariff B - Low Voltage Commercial Tariff

For Overall Monthly Consumption Between 0-200 kWh/month

ForallkWh sen/kWh 39.3

The minimum monthly charge is RM7.20

ForallkWh(From1kWhonwards) sen/kWh 43.0

2. Tariff C1 - Medium Voltage General Commercial Tariff

Foreachkilowattofmaximumdemandpermonth RM/kW 25.9

The minimum monthly charge is RM600.00

3. Tariff C2 - Medium Voltage Peak/Off-Peak Commercial Tariff

Foreachkilowattofmaximumdemandpermonthduringthepeakperiod RM/kW 38.60

51

Costumer Billing

TARIFF CATEGORY UNIT RATES

1. Tariff D - Low Voltage Industrial Tariff

For Overall Monthly Consumption Between 0-200 kWh/month

The minimum monthly charge is RM7.20

For Overall Monthly Consumption More Than 200 kWh/month

Tariff Ds Special Industrial Tariff(for consumers who qualify only)

The minimum monthly charge is RM7.20

2. Tariff E1 - Medium Voltage General Industrial Tariff

The minimum monthly charge is RM600.00

Tariff E1s Special Industrial Tariff(for consumers who qualify only)

52

The minimum monthly charge is RM600.00

Costumer Billing

Example 1

A domestic costumer consume 460 kWh for 1 month.

Calculate the monthly bill.

Solution:

1)First200kWh(1-200kWh)permonth:(200x21.8)/100=RM43.6

2)Next100kWh(201-300kWh)permonth:(100x33.4)/100=RM33.4

3)Next100kWh(301-400kWh)permonth:(100x40.0)/100=RM40

4)Next100kWh(401-500kWh)permonth:(60x40.2)/100=RM24.12

MonthlyBill=RM(43.6+33.4+40+24.12)=RM 141.12

53

Costumer Billing

Example 1

Assume a domestic customer use the following domestic

tariff rate schedule.

54

Costumer Billing

Example 1(cont)

a) Assume that an average month is 730h and find the

monthly load factor

b) Find the reasonable size of continuous KVA rating of the

distribution transformer

c) Calculate the monthly bill

d) What size of capacitor (in kVar) would rise the PF of the

customer to 0.9

55

Costumer Billing

Solution Example 1

a) Customer A , FLD

FLD 0.205

Peak load x T 8kW x 730h

P 8 kW

SA A 9.41 kVA

Cos 0.85

is 10 KVA

56

Costumer Billing

Solution Example 1

c) The monthly bill

First 200kWh = 200kWh x 21.8 sen/kWh = RM43.6

Next800kWh = 800 kWh x 28.9 sen/kWh =RM 231.2

Over 1000kWh = 200 kWh x 31.2 sen/kWh = RM 62.4

The total monthly Bill= RM 337.20

d) Size of capacitor

Current PF=0.85, the kVarh value is

1200kWh

xSin( Cos 1 0.85 ) 743.69kVarh

0.85

57

Costumer Billing

Solution Example 1

At PF=0.9, the kVarh value is

1200kWh

sin(cos 1 0.9) 581.19kVAr h

0.9

Therefore, the capacitor size required is

(743.69 581.19)kVa rh

0.22kVAr

730h

58

Power Factor Surcharge

Percent of Condition

surcharge from

the current bill

For every 0.01 less than

1.5% 0.85 power factor

For every 0.01 less than

3% 0.75 power factor

59

60

POWER

FACTOR

Power Factor

Power factor is the ratio between actual (true) load power

(kW) and the apparent load power (kVA)

Actual load power(kW)

p. f .

Apparent load power (kVA)

converted into useful work output and more particularly

is a good indicator of the effect of the load current on

the efficiency of the supply.

62

Power Factor

Triangle

P - kW

Q - kVar

S - kVA

S P2 Q2

kW

Power Factor

kVA

63

Power Factor

Lightly loaded induction motor. Examples of this type of

equipment and their approximate power factor are:

70% power factor or better: Air conditioners, pumps,

center less grinders, cold header, up setter, fans or

blower

60% to 70% power factor: Induction furnaces,

standard stamping machines and weaving machines

60% power factor and below: Single-stroke presses,

automated machine tools, finish grinders, welders

64

Power Factor

Example that a motor is rated at 10,000W at 0.8 power

factor. The resistance is 5ohm. At 415V, the motor will

require the following amount of current:

I=10000/(3x0.8x415)=17.39A

Losses when pf =0.8 : I2R=(17.39)2(5)=1,512W

The same motor rated at 0.65 power factor will require:

I=10000/(3x0.65x415)=21.403A

Losses when pf=0.65 : I2R=(21.403)2(5)=2290.4W

65

Power Factor

Example that 11/0.433 kV, 1000 kVA transformer has

maximum loading of 800 kW and power factor of 0.45

What is the % loading of the transformer?

P

PF 0.45

S

P 800

S (load) 1777 kVA

PF 0.45

S (load) 1777

%TX load 100 100 177%

TX Capacity 1000

66

Power Factor

Example that 11/0.433 kV, 1000 kVA transformer has

maximum loading of 800 kW and power factor of 0.9

What is the % loading of the transformer?

P

PF 0.9

S

P 800

S (load) 888.88 kVA

PF 0.9

S (load) 888.88

%TX load 100 100 88.88%

TX Capacity 1000

67

Power Factor

Condition 1

PF=0.45

TX Size=1000kVA

Load KVA=1777 KVA

%TX Load=177%

Condition 2

PF=0.9

TX Size=1000kVA

Load KVA=888 KVA

%TX Load=88%

68

Power Factor

Customers are advise to maintain power factor at

minimum of 0.85

69

Power Factor

Customers are advised to follow these steps:-

Install capacitors (KVAR Generators)

Capacitor

Corrector

Synchronous generators

Synchronous motors

Minimise operations of idling or lightly loaded motors.

Avoid operating equipment above its rated voltage.

Replace standard motors as they burn out with energy efficient motors.

70

Power Factor

71

Power Factor

Benefit 1: Reducing KW billing demand

Low Power Factor requires high reactive power (KVAR) and apparent

power (KVA), which is the power that electric utilities supplies. Therefore, a

facilitys low power factor forces electric utilities to increase its generation and

transmission capacity in order to handle this extra demand.

By increasing power factor, customers use less KVAR. This results in less KW,

which equates to cost savings for electric utilities .

Utility companies all around the world charge customers an additional surcharge

when their power factor is less than 0.95. In fact, some utilities are not obliged to

deliver electricity to their customers at any time the customers power factor falls

below 0.85.

Power Factor

factor.

electrical system

Low power factor causes power system losses in the customers electrical

system. By improving power factor, these losses can be reduced. With the

current rise in the cost of energy, increased facility efficiency is important.

Moreover, with lower system losses, customers are able to add additional

load in their electrical system.

Power Factor

efficient motors

As mentioned before, low power factor causes power system losses in

customers electrical system. As power losses increase, customer may

experience a voltage drop. Excessive voltage drops can cause overheating and

premature failure of motors and other inductive equipment.

Therefore, by raising the power factor, customers can minimize these voltage

drops along feeder cables and avoid related problems. Motors will run more

efficiently, with a slight increase in capacity and starting torque.

Power Factor

75

Power Factor

The amount of reactive compensation supplied by the

capacitor bank is

QCAP Q1 Q2

Apparent power consumed by the load before adding

capacitors PLOAD PLOAD

S1

PF1 Cos 1

Apparent power supplied by the source after adding

capacitors

PLOAD PLOAD

S2

PF2 Cos 2

76

Power Factor

Where PF1, and PF2 are the actual load power factor and

desired system power factors, respectively.

2

PLOAD

Q1 S1 PLOAD

2 2 2

PLOAD

PF1

2

PLOAD

PLOAD 2

2 2

Q2 S 2 PLOAD

PF2

1 1

QCAP PLOAD x

PF 2

1

PF 2

1

1

2

77

Power Factor

Example 1

An industrial plant has an active power demand of

500kW at a power factor of 0.76 lagging. Determine the

reactive power rating of the capacitor bank required to

improve the power factor to the following:

a) 0.8 lagging

b) 0.9 lagging

c) Unity

Assume the capacitor steps are available in 50 kVar

increments

78

Power Factor

Solution Example 1

1 1

QCAP PLOAD x

PF 2

1

PF 2

1

1

2

1 1

a ) QCAP 500kW x 2

1

2

1 52.6kVar 50kVar

0.76

0.80

1 1

b ) QCAP 500kW x 2

1

2

1 185.4kVar 200kVar

0.76

0.90

1 1

c ) QCAP 500kW x 2

1

2 1 427.6kVar 400kVar

0.76

1

79

Power Factor

Example 2

Assume that a 700 kVA load has a 65% power factor. It is

desired to improve the power factor to 92%.Using the

power factor correction table (Table 1).

Determine the following:

a) The correction factor required

b) The capacitor size required

c) What would be the resulting power factor if the next

higher standard capacitor size is used. Assume the

capacitor steps are available in 50 kVar increments

80

Power Factor

Solution Example 2

a) From correction factor table (Table 1), the correction

factor required can be found as 0.743

b) The 700 KVA load at 65% power factor is

PL=SL x cos W

=700k x 0.65 W

=455 kW

The capacitor size necessary to improve the power factor

from 65 to 92% can be found as

Capacitor size = PL x (Correction Factor)

=(455)(0.743)

=338.065 kVar

81

Power Factor

Solution Example 2

c) Assume that the next higher standard capacitor size (or

rating) is selected to be 350 kVar. Therefore the resulting

new correction factor can be found from

Standard Capacitor Rating

New Correction Factor

PL

350kVar

0.769

455kW

From the table by using interpolation method, based on

original power factor (65%) and new correction factor

(0.769), refer to Table 1.

82

Power Factor

Solution Example 2

the close value of desired correction factor 0.769 is 0.774 at

93% power factor and;

The difference between the correction factors at 92% (0.743)

and 93% (0.774) is 0.031.

Thus, the new corrected % PF is obtained by an interpolation

method:

0.774 - 0.769 0.769 - 0.743

92% 93%

0.031 0.031

92.8387%

0.928

83

Table 1: Power Factor Correction Table

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- Ioc KandlaCargado porajmaluet
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