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Basal Ganglia & Internal

Capsule

Dr . Ayman warille
Dr . Abeer Gharaibeh
Basal ganglia

The basal ganglia is a collection of gray matter in


the cerebrum including the corpus striatum,
amygdala and claustrum.

Has important connections with other regions of


the brain, particularly: thalamus, subthalamic
nuclei, red nucleus and substantia nigra.

Important in coordinating movement.


There are three anatomical basal ganglia:
1) Corpus striatum (the main component).
2) Amygdaloid body.
3) Claustrum (a thin sheet of grey matter
situated lateral to the lentiform nucleus).
There are three physiological basal
ganglia:
1) Corpus striatum = (caudate +lentiform)
2) Subthalamic nucleus of subthalamus.
3) Substantia nigra of midbrain , has :
-Pars compacta.
-Pars reticulata
Basal ganglia
BASAL GANGLIA

CORPUS STRIATUM
AMYGDALACLAUSTRUM

NEOSTRIATUM PALEOSTRIATUM

CAUDATE NUCLEUSPUTAMEN
GLOBUS PALLIDUS

LENTIFORM NUCLEUS
The basal ganglia(NUCLEI)
TERMINOLOGIES

Neurological Basal nuclei


structure
Corpus striatum Caudate nucleus + lentiform
nucleus
Amygdala Amygdaloid nucleus
Claustrum Claustrum
Neostriatum Caudate nucleus + putamen
Paleostriatum Globus pallidus
Caudate nucleus Caudate nucleus
Lentiform nucleus Globus pallidus + putamen
Component of basal ganglia
Putamen
Globus pallidus
external segment
internal segment
Subthalamic Nucleus
Substantia nigra
Internal capsule
Basal ganglia Horizontal section

ANT

Caudate nucleus Caudate n


Lateral
ventricle-
Putamen Ant horn

Globus pallidus Putamen

Claustrum
Globus
Amygdala (part of pallidus
limbic system) Third
ventricle

Thalamus Lateral
ventricle
-Post
horn

POST
Caudate nucleus
C-shaped
Head, body,tail
Large head,tapering curved tail
Head-frontal lobe Caudate nucleus
Tail-occipital lobe
End of tail-temporal lobe
-terminates in amygdaloid nucleus
(roof of inf horn of lateral ventricle)

Caudate thalamus

Lentiform

Putamen Globus pallidus Amygdaloid


Lentiform nucleus
Putamen lateral medullary lamina Globus Pallidus
Lat GP medial medullary lamina Med GP

Caudate thalamus

Lentiform

Putamen Globus pallidus Amygdaloid


Horizontal section

Lentiform nucleus ANT

Lateral
Wedge-shaped Caudate n ventricle-
Ant horn
Internal capsule
External capsule Third
Putamen

Extreme capsule ventricle Globus


pallidus
Claustrum Thalamus

Lateral and medial


medullary lamina

Lateral
ventricle
-Post
horn

POST
Amygdaloid nucleus

Caudate thalamus

Lentiform

Putamen Globus pallidus Amygdaloid

Temporal lobe -
Roof of inf horn of lateral ventricle
Substantia nigra
Subthalamic Coronal section

nuclei
Caudate n

Putame
n
Globus
pallidus

Thalamus

Subthalamic nuclei

Substantia
nigra
Connections

Caudate nucleus receive input


Putamen

Globus pallidus output leaves


Function
Cerebral cortex, basal ganglia, cerebellum and
thalamus
motor activity
muscle tone
organization of movement
What type ? -cerebral cortex
How to perform? -basal ganglia+cerebellum
Assist in regulation-thalamus
Function
Part of extra-pyramidal motor system
Facilitate behaviour & movement required and
appropriate
Inhibit unwanted & inappropriate

The balance between the cerebellum and the


basal ganglia allows smooth, coordinated
movement, and a disturbance in either system
will show up as movement disorders.
Disease of basal ganglia

Change in muscle tone


Abnormal involuntary movement
Parkinsonism
Effect on the opposite side
Degeneration of dopamine-producing cells in substantia nigra-
depletion of dopamine in striatum
Resting tremor
Rigidity simultaneous contraction of flexors and extensors
Bradykinesia = Slowness of movement brake cannot be
released
No paralysis, sensory loss, ataxia
Disease of basal ganglia
Huntingtons disease
hereditary disease of unwanted movements. It
results from degeneration of the caudate and
putamen, and produces continuous dance-like
movements of the face and limbs -choreoathetosis
Hemiballism -
flailing movements of one arm and leg (one-sided),
which is caused by damage (i.e., stroke) of the
subthalamic nucleus.
Disease of basal ganglia
HYPOKINESIA
Increase in tone rigidity
ATHETOSIS
Slow and writhing
DYSTONIA
Abnormal posturing of trunk and extremeties
HEMIBALLISMUS
Rapid flinging movements in subthalamic lesions
CHOREA
Brief rapid jerks in disease of striatum
TREMOR
3-4 Hz at rest
INTERNAL CAPSULE

Shape and Position :


* The internal capsule is an important collection of
ascending and descending fibres which lie near the base of
the cerebral hemisphere in relation to the corpus
striatum.
* The fibres of the internal capsule are continuous with the
corona radiata (above), and with the crus cerebri of the
midbrain (below).
*The internal capsule appears as an angular band having
anterior limb , genu and posterior limb, but it has in
addition retrolentiform and sublentiform parts.
It is not a part of basal ganglia .
Anterior limb :
*It lies between the lentiform
nucleus and the
head of caudate nucleus.
Genu :
* It lies at the angular junction
between the anterior and
posterior limbs.
Posterior limb :
* It lies between the thalamus
(medially) and the lentiform
nucleus (laterally).
Retrolentiform part :
* It is the part behind the lentiform nucleus (retro =
behind).
* It contains the following fibres :
Optic radiation : arises from the lateral geniculate
body and ends in the striate cortex of the occipital lobe
(visual area).
Sublentiform part :
* It lies below the lentiform nucleus (sub = below).
* It contains the following fibres :
Acoustic (auditory) radiation : arises from the
medial geniculate body and ends in the auditory
area of the temporal lobe (areas 41 and 42).
Blood Supply :
The internal capsule is supplied by the striate
arteries which arise mainly from the middle
cerebral artery and partly from the anterior
cerebral artery. One of the branches of the
middle cerebral artery is usually the source of
haemorrhage in the internal capsule, and is
called the artery of cerebral haemorrhage
(Charcot's artery).
Applied Anatomy :
A lesion to the fibres of the internal capsule (e.g.
haemorrhage) leads to the following effects :
1) Motor effects : hemiplegia on the opposite
side of the body (including the head), due to
paralysis of the pyramidal fibres (comralateral
hemiplegia).
2) Sensory effects : loss of all somatosensory
sensations (pain. temperature, touch and
proprioception) on the opposite side of the body
(including the face), due to paralysis of the
thalamocortical fibres forming the superior
thalamic radiation.
WHITE MATTER OF CEREBRAL HEMISPHERE

The white matter of the cerebral hemisphere


consists of nerve fibres which are classified into
3 types (association, commissural and
projection), as follows:
1) Association fibres.
2) Commissural fibres .
3) Projection fibres .
Association fibres :
interconnect the cortical areas of the same
cerebral hemisphere. They may be short or long
association fibres
* Uncinate fasciculus.
* Cingulum.
* Superior longitudinal fasciculus
* Fronto-occipital fasciculus.
* Inferior longitudinal fasciculus
COMMISSURAL FIBRES
These fibres connect the corresponding cortical
areas of both cerebral hemispheres together.
They cross the median plane, and are
grouped into the following commissures :
1) Anterior commissure.
2) Posterior commissure.
3) Hippocampal commissure.
4) Habenular commissure.
5) Corpus callosum (the greatest commissure)
Projection fibres : descend from the cerebral
cortex to lower subcortical centres.
(corticofugal fibres) or ascend from lower
centers to the cortex (corticopetal).
Example : corticofugal fibres are represented by
the pyramidal tract, while corticopetal fibres are
represented by the lemnisci.