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WHAP Chapter 16

Atlantic Revolutions
How did Enlightenment ideas influence revolutions in
Caribbean and Europe?
How did Enlightenment ideas affect labor systems and
national identity?
Essay prompts
Analyze the continuities and changed in the relationship
of the individual to the political state that come as a
result of the Enlightenment.
Analyze the influence of the continuities and changes in
at least two world regions for the period 1750-1850.
Compare two of the following revolutionary movements:
American Revolution
French Revolution
Haitian Revolution
South American Wars of Independence
Haitian Revolution, 1804
Inspired by American and French Revolutions
Shaped Latin American struggles for independence
Atlantic Revolutions
Distinctive from others because.
Costly European wars were global (not just regional)
Linked to one another
Revolutionaries advised/encouraged each other
Shared set of ideals
Global impact
Extending voting rights
Creation of constitutions
Equality (granting more) for women
Ideas of equality
Comparing Atlantic Revolutions- American (1775-1787)-
conservative political movement
Goal was to preserve liberties (not gain new ones)
Americans used to autonomy, viewed as birthright
Differences between England and North America
Colonial society more egalitarian the European society
The British colonies were already a republic before the revolution
Britain needed $$$ for global war with France
New taxes/tariffs imposed on colonies
No representation in Parliament
Colonists denied identity as true Englishmen
Colonial economic interests challenged
Attack on tradition of local autonomy
Revolutionary society
No significant social transformation after independence
Revolution accelerated existing democratic tendencies
Power remained in hands of existing elites
New World Order
Viewed themselves as the hope and model of the human race
right to revolution inspired others around the world
US Constitution first to put Enlightenment political ideas into practice
Comparing Atlantic Revolutions- French Revolution (1789-1815)
Thousands of French fought with the American revolutionaries
French government was bankrupt
3 estates- called to meet for 1st time in over 170 years to raise taxes
The Estates General called to meet 1789
Demanded to meet as entire group
Declared themselves the National Assembly
Drafted new constitution- Declaration of the Rights of Man and of the Citizen
Launched the revolution
Revolution driven by social conflicts
2nd Estate of titled nobility forbid king to tax them
3rd Estate- middle class hated the privilege allowed the upper class
Urban poor suffered from unemployment, inflation
Peasants oppressed
Enlightenment ideas led to ways to articulate grievances
French Revolution- violent, far reaching, and radical
Ended hereditary privilege
Abolished slavery (temporary)
The Church feel under authority of French government
Monarchs executed
Reign of Terror (1793-4) enemies of revolution executed
Effort to create a new society
Year 1 begins with 1792- no Sundays in new calendar
Universal male suffrage (temporary)
Massive army created to fight neighbors
No change in society for women
Increased nationalism
Influenced spread through conquest
Napoleon seized power 1799-1814
Preserved moderate elements of revolution
Social equality, but loss liberty
Imposed revolutionary practices on conquered nations
Resentment of French domination leads to nationalism throughout Europe
Comparing Atlantic Revolutions-Haitian Revolution (1791-1804)
Saint Domingue
French Revolution sparked violence
Revolution meant different things to different people
Massive slave revolt 1791
Revolution became a war between factions
Power shifted to slaves, led by Toussaint LOuverture
Only successful slave revolt in world history
Name change to Haiti (Taino word for mountainous)
Identify with original native inhabitants
Equality for all races
Large plantations divided among small farmers
Destructiveness led to poverty and political instability
France forced Haiti to pay independence debt
Success generated great hope and great fear
New insolence and inspires other slave rebellions
Horror/fear among whites leads to social conservativism
Increased slavery elsewhere
Napoleons is forced to sell Louisiana Territory
Comparing Atlantic Revolutions-Spanish American Revolutions (1810-1825)
Revolutions inspired by previous movements
Native born elites (creoles) resented control by Spanish monarch
Independence movements limited at first
Lacked tradition of local self government
Society was more authoritarian, with stricter class divisions
Whites were vastly out numbered
Creole elites had revolution thrust upon them by events in Europe
1808-Napoleon takes over Spain/Portugal- put royal authority in disarray
Latin Americans forced to take action
1826-most of Latin America independent
Gaining independence took longer than in North America
Latin American societies divided by class, race, and region
Fear of rebellion of lower classes shaped the movement
Independence leaders appealed to lower classes in terms of nativism: all free people born in the Americas were Americanos
Whites and mestizos considered themselves Spanish
Leaders were liberals, influenced by Enlightenment thinkers and French Revolution
Lower classes, slaves, Native Americans benefited little
Little gains for women
Impossible to unite like North American colonies
Distances greater
Different colonial experiences
Stronger regional identities
Relationship with North America declined after independence
US grew wealthier, more democratic, stable
Latin America became more underdeveloped, impoverished, undemocratic, unstable